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fT.    E.    PAGE,    C.H.,    LITT.D. 

t  E.  CAPPS,  PH.D.,  LL.D.  t  W.  H.  D.  ROUSE,  litt.d. 

L.  A.  POST,  L.H.D.      E.  H.  WARMINGTON,  m.a.,  f.r.hist.soc. 




J.    D.    DUFF 

M.A.,     HON.D.LITT.     DURHAM 








First  printed  1927 
Reprinted  1949, 1961 

Printed  in  Great  Britain 


A.  E.  H. 


W.  T.  V. 



Preface  .......  vii 

Introduction  : 

I.  Life  of  Silius  Italicus          ,          ,          ,  ix 

11.  The  Poem  of  Silius  Italicus         .          .  xi 

III.   Manuscripts,  Editions,  Translations    .  xvi 

Book           1 2 

Book         II 58 

Book       III 112 

Book        IV 168 

Book         V 232 

Book        VI 282 

Book      VII 336 

Book    VIII 392 


The  introduction  deals  first  with  the  life  of  Silius 
Italicus,  as  it  is  described  by  Pliny  and  Martial,  and 
then  with  his  poem,  the  Punica,  which  deserves,  in  the 
translator's  opinion,  more  respectful  treatment  than 
it  has  generally  received  in  modern  times.  A  short 
account  is  added  of  the  manuscripts,  editions,  and 

The  text  follows,  in  the  main,  that  of  L.  Bauer 
(Teubner,  Leipzig,  1890)  ;  but  many  of  the  emenda- 
tions proposed  by  Bentley,  Bothe,  Heinsius,  and 
others,  which  Bauer  includes  in  his  apparatus,  are  here 
promoted  to  the  text.  The  most  important  of  these 
emendations  are  indicated  in  notes  below  the  text. 

In  the  translation  I  have  tried  to  be  true  to  the 
original  and,  at  the  same  time,  merciful  to  the  English 
reader.  The  poem  is  so  full  of  allusion  that  it  seemed 
necessary  to  add  a  number  of  notes,  elucidating  points 
of  biography,  geography,  history,  and  mythology. 
I  have  done  my  best  to  keep  each  note  within  compass. 
It  should  be  understood  that  these  notes  refer  to  the 
translation  only  and  not  to  the  Latin  text. 

Silius  is  not,  in  general,  an  obscure  writer.  But 
VOL.  I  A  2  vii 


his  poem,  like  all  ancient  poems,  includes  corrupt 
or  difficult  passages,  on  which  I  have  often  applied 
for  aid  to  two  powerful  allies,  Professor  A.  E.  Housman 
and  Mr.  W.  T.  Vesey,  Fellow  of  Gonville  and  Caius 
College  ;  it  is  a  pleasure  to  record  here  my  indebted- 
ness to  both  these  scholars. 

J.  D.  Duff. 
July,  1933. 


Via  I 


I.  Life  of  Silius  Italicus 

SiLius  Italicus  lived  to  the  age  of  seventy-five  and 
died  A.D.  101  ;  he  was  therefore  born  a.d.  26.  At  the 
time  of  his  birth  Tiberius  was  emperor  ;  and  he  lived 
to  see  Trajan  succeed  Nerva.  His  death  did  not 
come  in  the  course  of  nature  :  he  was  afflicted  by  a 
chronic  ailment  and  put  an  end  to  his  sufferings  by 
abstaining  from  food — a  manner  of  death  which  was 
not  regarded  by  the  Romans  of  that  age  as  a  crime 
but  as  a  brave  and  virtuous  action. 

Our  knowledge  of  this  fact  and  of  his  life  in  general 
is  derived  from  a  letter  of  Pliny's  (iii.  7).  Pliny 
regarded  his  friend  as  a  fortunate  man  and  happy 
down  to  the  last  day  of  his  life.  Of  his  two  sons 
Silius  had  lost  one  ;  but  the  survivor  was  the  more 
satisfactory  son  of  the  two  and  had  even  risen, 
in  his  father's  life-time,  to  the  dignity  of  the 

Silius  was  not  merely  a  poet.  His  poem  was  the 
work  of  his  old  age  when  he  had  retired  from  public 
affairs  and  was  living  in  studious  seclusion  near 
Naples.  He  was  consul  himself  a.d.  68 — the  year  of 
Nero's  downfall  and  death  ;  and  he  gained  a  high 
reputation  when  he  governed  the  province  of  Asia 
as  proconsul.     Phny  hints  that  his  poHtical  conduct 



during  Nero's  reign  had  been  open  to  censure, but  says 
that  his  later  hfe  atoned  for  any  early  indiscretions. 
We  learn  also  from  Martial  ^  that  he  was  famous  in 
his  younger  days  as  a  pleader  in  the  law-courts. 

Silius  was  a  rich  man  and  was  able  to  gratify  expen- 
sive tastes.  He  bought  one  fine  country-house  after 
another,  and  filled  them  with  books,  pictures,  and 
statues.  Upon  his  busts  of  Virgil  he  set  special 
value.  He  bought  the  site  of  Virgil's  tomb  at  Naples, 
which  had  fallen  into  neglect,  and  restored  it.  He 
made  pilgrimages  to  the  spot,  and  kept  Virgil's 
birthday,  October  15,  with  more  ceremony  than  his 
own.  Another  of  his  acquisitions  was  a  house  that 
had  belonged  to  Cicero,^  whom  Silius  revered  as  the 
greatest  of  Roman  orators.*' 

His  life  of  retirement  was  not  a  solitary  life  :  he 
received  many  visitors,  with  whom  he  liked  to  con- 
verse on  literary  topics,  generally  lying  on  his  sofa  ; 
and  at  times  he  entertained  his  guests  by  reading 
extracts  from  his  poem,  and  asked  for  their  criticism. 
(Pliny  himself  did  not  think  highly  of  the  poem  :  it  was 
painstaking,  he  thought,  but  lacked  genius.) 

Thus  Silius  lived  on,  respected  and  courted,  until 
he  put  an  end  to  his  life  by  his  own  act.  The  ailment 
from  which  he  suffered  is  described  by  the  word 
clavus  ;  the  name  that  modern  medical  science  would 
give  to  this  affliction  is  uncertain,  but  it  was  incur- 
able ;  and,  like  a  guest  who  had  eaten  his  fill,  he 
withdrew  from  the  scene. 

«  vii.  63. 
*  Mart.  xi.  48.  9. 

"His  reverence  for  both  Virgil  and  Cicero  is  recorded  in 
his  poem  :   see  viii.  593,  594,  and  viii.  408-413. 




II.  The  Poem  of  Silius  Italicus 

Tlie  Punica  of  Silius  Italicus  is  the  longest  Latin 
poem  :  it  contains  upwards  of  12,000  verses.  Its 
subject  is  the  Second  Punic  War,  the  most  critical 
period  in  the  history  of  the  Republic.  Hannibal  is 
the  true  hero  of  the  story,  though  Silius  evidently 
intended  to  cast  Scipio  for  that  part.  The  narrative 
begins  with  Hannibal's  oath  and  ends  with  the  battle 
of  Zama.  There  are  two  long  digressions  :  the  first 
(of  500  lines)  fills  most  of  the  Sixth  Book  and  contains 
the  story  of  Regulus  which  properly  belongs  to  the 
First  Punic  War  ;  and  the  second  digression  (in  the 
Eighth  Book)  devotes  200  lines  to  the  adventures  of 
Anna,  the  sister  of  Dido,  who  has  become  the  Nymph 
of  an  Italian  river,  so  that  her  sympathies  are,  or 
ought  to  be,  divided  between  the  combatants.  Other- 
wise, the  narrative  proceeds  in  orderly  sequence  from 
beginning  to  end."  It  was  certainly  based  upon 
Livy's  Third  Decad.  But  Silius  owes  much  more  to 
Virgil's  Aeneid  than  to  any  other  source.  He  had 
soaked  his  mind  in  Virgil. 

There  are  undoubtedly  long  stretches  in  the  poem 
which  no  modern  reader  can  enjoy.  Silius  gives  ample 
space,  too  ample,  to  the  six  great  battles  of  the  war 
— Ticinus,  Trebia,  Lake  Trasimene,  Cannae,  the 
Metaurus,  and  Zama ;  and  the  details  of  slaughter 
become  in  him,  as  they  become  in  better  poets, 
monotonous    and    repulsive.      Then    there    are   the 

"  There  is  serious  disorder  in  Book  XVII.  about  1.  290. 
But  I  agree  with  tliose  editors  who  assume  a  lacuna  here ; 
and  it  may  well  be  a  very  large  lacuna.  For  the  lacuna  in 
Book  VIII.  see  p.  xvii. 



catalogues.  The  Catalogue  was  an  indispensable 
part  of  an  ancient  Epic,  and  Silius  has  many  of  them 
— a  catalogue  of  the  Carthaginian  forces,  a  catalogue 
of  the  Italian  contingents  who  fought  at  Cannae,  a 
catalogue  of  Sicilian  towns  and  rivers,  and  others  as 
well ;  and  these  long  lists  of  names  and  places,  many 
of  them  quite  obscure,  are  wearisome.  Few  poets 
have  had  the  art  to  make  catalogues  interesting. 
Milton  could  do  it ;  and  a  very  different  poet  from 
Milton  wrote  an  excellent  catalogue — the  first  part 
of  Macaulay's  Horatius.  "  From  lordly  Volaterrae  " 
and  so  on  is  a  catalogue  of  the  Tuscan  cities,  which 
the  reader,  especially  the  youthful  reader,  finds 

But  the  Punica  does  not  consist  entirely  of  carnage 
and  catalogues.  What  of  the  poem  as  a  whole  ? 
Does  it  deserve  its  deplorable  reputation  ? 

Of  some  writers  it  is  the  custom  to  say  that  they 
are  more  praised  than  read  ;  but  no  one  ever  said 
this  of  SiHus.  Of  him  it  would  be  truer  to  say  that 
he  is  more  blamed  than  read.  Even  Madvig,  who 
does  not  blame  him,  admits  that  he  had  only  read 
the  poem  in  parts  and  celerrime.^  There  is  no  doubt 
about  the  verdict  pronounced  by  modern  critics  and 
historians  of  Roman  literature.  They  say  very  little 
about  Silius,''  but  they  are  all  of  one  opinion — that 
he  was  a  dull  man  who  wrote  a  bad  poem.  And  this 
is  the  view  of  the  educated  public.  I  believe  myself 
that  this  judgement  is  much  too  summary,  and  that 

"  Adversaria  Critica,  ii.  p.  161. 

*  This  is  not  true  of  Professor  J.  Wight  Duff,  the  latest 
critic  of  Silius.    His  discussion  of  the  poem  is  full  and  careful 
{JAterary  History  of  Rome  in  the  Silver  Age  (1927),  pp.  452 
foil.) ;   but  he  seems  to  me  somewhat  blind  to  its  merits. 


scholars  would  think  better  of  the  poem  if  they  would 
condescend  to  read  it. 

We  know  that  it  was  the  work  of  an  old  man,  and 
the  fire  and  vigour  of  youth  are  not  to  be  found  in 
it ;  its  merits  are  of  another  sort.  The  versification 
is  in  general  pleasing,  and  much  less  monotonous 
than  that  of  Lucan.  Not  that  Silius  had  a  really 
fine  ear  for  the  beautiful  arrangement  of  vowels  and 
consonants  :  he  is  capable  of  beginning  a  line  with 
certatisfatis,  and  ending  i  mother  with  genitore  PehreJ^ 
Then  too  many  of  his  verses  end  with  a  trochee  ;  and 
the  Latin  hexameter  verse,  unlike  the  Greek  in  this 
respect,  is  shorn  of  its  true  majesty  if  the  trochaic 
ending  is  used  too  often. 

The  chief  fault  of  style  in  the  poem  is  tautology. 
Silius  evidently  thought  that  a  plain  statement  of 
fact  was  improved,  if  he  repeated  it  over  again  in 
different  words.  Examples  may  be  found  on  almost 
every  page. 

Then  there  is  another  peculiarity  of  expression 
which  is  decidedly  disconcerting  to  the  reader.  I 
believe  that  Sihus  did  himself  serious  injury  by  what 
might  seem  a  trifling  matter — his  system  of  nomen- 
clature. The  subject  of  his  poem,  the  struggle 
between  Carthage  and  Rome,  is  stated  in  the  first 
two  lines.  But  the  Romans  are  not  there  called 
Romani :  they  are  called  Aeneadae ;  and  the 
"  supremacy  of  Italy  "  is  expressed  by  Oenotria  iura, 
though  Oenotria  is  not  Italy  but  a  name  given  by 
Greeks  in  early  times  to  a  district  or  kingdom  in  the 
southernmost  part  of  Italy. 

Sihus  evidently  felt  that  Romani  and  Itali  might 

•  ix.  543  :  xvi.  426. 



recur  too  often,  and  that  aliases  must  be  found 
Variety  is  good  ;  but  here  it  was  carried  to  excess. 
The  following  list  of  variants  for  Romani  may  not 
be  exhaustive,  but  is  surely  too  long :  Aeneadae, 
Aurunci,  Ausonidae  and  Ausonii^  Dardanidae,  Dardani 
and  Dardanii,  Dauni  and  Daunii,  Evandrei,  Hectorei, 
Hesperii,  Idaei,  Iliad,  Itali,  Laomedontiadae,  Latii  and 
Latini,  Laurentes,  Martigenae,  Oenotri,  Phryges  and 
Phrygil,  Priamidae,  Rkoetei,  Saturnii,  Sigei,  Teucri, 
Troes,  Troiugenae,  and  Tyrrheni.  The  Carthaginians 
also  are  called  by  nearly  a  dozen  different  names. 
I  have  thought  it  best  not  always  to  follow  Silius  in 
this  particular. 

The  great  Roman  poets,  Lucretius  and  Virgil, 
Catullus  and  Horace,  have  their  place  apart ;  and 
Silius  has  no  claim  to  be  ranked  with  these  or  near 
them.  Yet,  when  defects  are  admitted  and  due 
qualifications  made,  the  reader  of  the  Punica,  once 
he  has  surmounted  the  obstacles,  will  find  much 
pleasant  walking  there.  If  anyone  doubts  whether 
Silius  could  write  poetry,  let  him  read  the  twenty- 
three  lines  in  which  the  aspect  and  habits  of  the  god 
Pan  are  described  (xiii.  326-347).  If  Ovid  had  written 
these  charming  verses,  every  scholar  would  know 
them  and  critics  would  be  eloquent  in  their  praise. 
Silius  is  full  of  incidental  narrative,  and  he  tells 
a  short  story  well,  though  it  must  be  admitted 
that  his  main  narrative  is  too  apt  to  hang  fire. 
And  one  quality  he  has  which  is  a  constant  com- 
fort and  satisfaction  to  some  at  least  of  his 
readers.  Though  inferior  to  Statius  in  brilliance 
and  far  inferior  to  Lucan  in  intellectual  force,  he 
is  almost  entirely  free  from  that  misplaced  ingenuity 
which  pervades  the  whole  of  their  works  and  makes 


the  reader  feel  too  often  as  if  he  were  solving 
puzzles  rather  than  reading  poetry. 

I  shall  end  by  referring  to  four  passages  (none  of 
which  seems  to  have  been  noticed  by  the  contemptu- 
ous critics)  as  proofs  of  Silius's  narrative  power. 

(i.)  V.  344  foil.  Silius  describes  how  Mago,  Hanni- 
bal's brother,  was  wounded  ;  how  Hannibal  flew  to 
the  spot,  conveyed  the  wounded  man  to  the  camp, 
and  summoned  medical  aid  to  dress  the  wound.  For 
Hannibal  had  a  famous  physician,  a  descendant  of 
Jupiter  Ammon,  in  his  train.  (He  had  also  a  prophet, 
whose  name  was  not,  to  our  ears,  a  recommendation  : 
he  was  called  Bogus.) 

(ii.)  vii.  282  foil.  This  is  a  night  scene  and  recalls 
the  beginning  of  Matthew  Arnold's  "  Sohrab  and 
Rustum."^  Hannibal  has  been  caught  in  a  trap 
by  Quintus  Fabius,  the  famous  Cunctator.  Unable  to 
sleep  for  anxiety,  he  rises  and  wakens  his  brother, 
Mago  ;  they  make  a  round  of  the  camp  together,  and 
visit  the  chief  captains,  to  suggest  a  plan  of  escape. 

Both  these  extracts  are  vivid  and  swift  pieces  of 

(iii.)  The  third  passage  (xvi.  229  foil.)  has  even 
higher  merit.  The  scene  is  dramatic  and  picturesque ; 
it  is  even  romantic.  The  place  is  the  palace  of 
Syphax,  king  of  Numidia,  whose  alliance  Scipio  was 
anxious  to  secure  against  Carthage.  Scipio  had 
crossed  over  from  Spain  to  Africa  for  this  purpose.'' 
We  read  how  the  Roman  general,  the  conqueror  of 
Spain,  rose  from  his  bed  before  sunrise  and  went  to 

"  Both  Silius  and  Arnold  doubtless  had    in    mind  the 
beginning  of  the  Tenth  Book  of  the  Iliad, 
*  This  is  a  historical  fact. 


the  palace,  where  he  found  the  king  playing  with  the 
lion-cubs  that  he  kept  as  pets.  Both  were  young 
men,  and  the  younger  of  the  two  had  a  young  man's 
generous  hero-worship  for  his  Roman  visitor,  and  ex- 
presses it  in  the  conversation  that  follows. 

(iv.)  ix.  401  foil.  This  is  a  scene  from  the  battle  of 
Cannae.  It  describes  the  friendship  between  Marius 
and  Caper,  two  natives  of  Praeneste  who  fell  side  by 
side  in  the  battle.  There  is  no  doubt  that  there  were 
really  no  such  persons,  and  that  the  entire  incident, 
like  many  others,  was  invented  by  Silius.  But  the 
man  who  wrote  these  lines  was  certainly  a  poet ;  and 
I  shall  venture  to  say  of  them 

fiiofJirjareTai  ns  fxaXXov  i)  /Ai/xrjcreTat. 

III.  Manuscripts,  Editions,  Translations 

(a)  In  1416  or  1417,  during  the  Council  of  Con- 
stance, Poggio,  the  learned  Florentine  who  unearthed 
so  many  Latin  authors,  found,  probably  at  St.  Gall, 
a  manuscript  of  Silius  ;  a  copy  of  this  was  taken 
by  Poggio  or  one  of  his  companions  ;  and  from  that 
copy  all  the  existing  mss.  are  descended.  Neither 
the  original  ms.  nor  the  original  copy  of  it  is  now 
extant.  Editors  use  the  letter  S  to  denote  this  ms., 
and  C  to  denote  another  ms.  which  was  once  in  the 
Cathedral  library  at  Cologne  ;  this  ms.  also  is  lost, 
and  its  readings  are  known  only  from  notes  made  by 
two  scholars  towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
Of  the  extant  mss.  four,  all  written  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  are  thought  to  be  better  than  the  rest.  Their 
readings  are  cited  in  the  critical  editions  mentioned 


(b)  The  two  earliest  editions  were  printed  at  Rome 
in  1471  ;  many  others  followed,  most  of  them  printed 
in  Italy  and  others  in  France  and  Germany.  The 
Aldine  edition  of  1523  is  important  in  the  history 
of  the  text,  because  it  offers  81  lines  of  the  poem 
(viii.  145-225)  which  are  found  in  no  manuscript  and 
in  none  of  the  previous  editions,  though  some  of  the 
editors  had  pointed  out  that  there  must  be  a  lacuna 
in  the  text.  The  source  from  which  these  verses  are 
derived  is  a  matter  of  dispute  :  some  critics  believe 
them  to  be  the  work  of  a  forger  ;  others  hold  that 
they  were  written  by  Silius  and  that  the  loss  of  them 
was  due  to  some  mutilation  of  S,  the  original  ms. 
at  St.  Gall.  It  is  certain  that  the  verses  fit  in 
perfectly  with  the  context,  and  that  they  are  such  aa 
Sihus  might  have  written.** 

Of  later  editions  the  most  important  are  those 
of  G.  A.  Ruperti  (Gottingen,  1795),  F.  H.  Bothe 
(Stuttgart,  1855),  L.  Bauer  (Leipzig,  1890),  and 
W.  C.  Summers  (London,  1905)  in  Postgate's  Corpus 
Poetarum  Latinorum. 

Ruperti 's  edition  (which  was  reprinted  in  a  more 
convenient  form  by  N.  E.  Lemaire,  Paris,  1823) 
combines  immense  learning  with  a  candour  and 
simplicity  that  are  most  attractive.  But  he  is  not 
an  ideal  editor  :  too  often  he  explains  at  great 
length  what  is  perfectly  clear  already,  and  says 
nothing  where  explanation  is  needed.  But  his  book 
is  indispensable. 

Bothe  did  not  publish  a  text.     He  translated  the 

"  For  a  full  discussion  of  this  lacuna  see  Mr.  Heitland's 
article  in  the  Journal  of  Philolocfy,  vol.  xxiv.  pp.  179-211: 
he  has  no  doubt  that  the  verses  are  genuine ;  and  his  opinion 
carries  weight. 



whole  poem  into  German  hexameters,  archaic  both 
in  vocabulary  and  style,  and  added  below  his  version 
notes  which  deal  both  with  text  and  interpretation. 
He  is  too  ready  to  meddle  with  the  text ;  but  his 
brief  business-like  notes  are  most  valuable.  His 
translation  is  close  and  correct,  and  has  fewer  lines 
than  the  original,  which  is  surely  a  remarkable  feat 
of  compression. 

Bauer's  text  is  the  work  of  a  competent  and 
careful  scholar.  The  revision  by  Professor  W.  C. 
Summers  deserves  the  same  praise  and  contains  some 
important  corrections,  by  himself  and  Postgate,  of 
the  text  of  SiUus ;  and  in  punctuation  it  is  much 
superior  to  any  other  text. 

(c)  Three  translations  of  Silius  are  known  to  me. 
The  earhest  is  by  Thomas  Ross,  "  Keeper  of  His 
Majesties'  Libraries,  and  Groom  of  His  most  Hon- 
ourable Privy-Chamber."  The  king  was  Charles  II. 
The  preface  is  dated  at  Bruges,  November  18,  1657, 
and  the  work  was  pubHshed  in  London  in  1672, 
twelve  years  after  the  Restoration.  The  translator 
added  a  supplement  of  his  own  in  three  books, 
carrying  the  story  down  to  the  death  of  Hannibal. 
The  first  book  is  dedicated  to  the  King,  the  second 
to  the  Duke  of  York,  afterwards  James  II.,  and  the 
third  to  the  memory  of  the  Duke  of  Gloucester, 
the  third  son  of  Charles  I.  Ross  was  a  fairly  good 
scholar,  but  his  versification  is  unpleasing.  The 
rhyming  heroic  verse  which  he  chose  for  his  metre 
was  still  in  its  infancy :  Dryden  had  not  yet 
seriously  taken  it  in  hand.  The  second  translation, 
by  F.  H.  Bothe,  is  spoken  of  above.  The  third, 
printed  below  the  Didot  text,  has  little  merit  and 
many  mistakes, 






The  subject  of  the  poem  is  the  Second  Punic  War  (1-20). 
The  cause  of  the  war  was  Juno's  hatred  of  Rome.  She 
chooses  Hannibal  as  her  instrument  (21-55).  HannibaVs 
character,  and  the  oath  he  swore  in  boyhood  (56-139).  Has- 
drubal  succeeds  Hamilcar  as  commander  in  Spain  :  his 
character,  conquests,  and  death  (140-181).  Hannibal  is 
chosen  to  succeed  Hasdrubal  by  all  the  army  in  Spain,  both 

Ordior  arma,  quibus  caelo  se  gloria  tollit 
Aeneadum  patiturque  ferox  Oenotria  iura 
Carthago,     da,  Musa,  decus  memorare  laborum 
antiquae  Hesperiae,  quantosque  ad  bella  crearit 
et  quot  Roma  viros,  sacri  cum  perfida  pacti  5 

gens  Cadmea  super  regno  certamina  movit, 
quaesitumque  diu,  qua  tandem  poneret  arce 
terrarum  Fortuna  caput,     ter  Marte  sinistro 
iuratumque  lovi  foedus  conventaque  patrum 
Sidonii  fregere  duces,  atque  impius  ensis  10 

ter  placitam  suasit  temerando  rumpere  pacemi. 

*  Oenotria,  the  Greek  name  of  an  ancient  kingdom  in 
S.  Italy,  is  one  of  the  many  synonyms  for  Italy  which  occur 
in  the  poem :  see  p.  xiii. 

"  Sidonians,  Tyrians,  Cadmeans,  and  other  names  are 
used  by  Silius  to  denote  the  Carthaginians. 



ARGUMENT  (continued) 

Carthaginians  and  Spaniards  (182-238).  Character  of 
Hannibal  (239-267).  He  resolves  to  attack  Saguntum :  posi- 
tion and  history  of  the  city  (268-295).  The  siege  of  Saguntum 
(296-ii.  695).  The  Saguntines  send  an  embassy  to  Rome : 
the  speech  of  Sicoris  (564-671).  In  the  Senate  Cn.  Cornelius 
Lentulus  and  Q.  Fabius  Maximus  express  different  views : 
envoys  are  sent  to  Hannibal  (672-694). 

Here  I  begin  the  war  by  which  the  fame  of  the 
Aeneadae  was  raised  to  heaven  and  proud  Carthage 
submitted  to  the  rule  of  Italy."  Grant  me,  O  Muse,  to 
record  the  splendid  achievements  of  Italy  in  ancient 
days,  and  to  tell  of  all  those  heroes  whom  Rome 
brought  forth  for  the  strife,  when  the  people  of 
Cadmus  ^  broke  their  solemn  bond  and  began  the 
contest  for  sovereignty  ;  and  for  long  it  remained 
uncertain,  on  which  of  the  two  citadels  Fortune 
would  establish  the  capital  of  the  world.  Thrice  over 
with  unholy  warfare  did  the  Carthaginian  leaders 
violate  their  compact  with  the  Senate  and  the  treaty 
they  had  sworn  by  Jupiter  to  observe  ;  and  thrice 
over  the  lawless  sword  induced  them  wantonly  to 
break  the  peace  they  had  approved.     But  in  the 



sed  medio  finem  bello  excidiumque  vicissim 
molitae  gentes,  propiusque  fuere  periclo, 
quis  superare  datum  :  reseravit  Dardanus  arces 
ductor  Agenoreas,  obsessa  Palatia  vallo  15 

Poenorum,  ac  muris  defendit  Roma  salutem. 

Tantarum  causas  irarum  odiumque  perenni 
servatum  studio  et  mandata  nepotibus  arma 
fas  aperire  mihi  superasque  recludere  mentes. 
iamque  adeo  magni  repetam  primordia  motus.         20 

Pygmalioneis  quondam  per  caerula  terris 
pollutum  fugiens  fraterno  crimine  regnum 
fatali  Dido  Libyes  appellitur  orae. 
turn  pretio  mercata  locos  nova  moenia  ponit, 
cingere  qua  secto  permissum  litora  tauro.  25 

hie  luno  ante  Argos  (sic  credidit  alta  vetustas) 
ante  Agamemnoniam,  gratissima  tecta,  Mycenen 
optavit  profugis  aeternam  condere  gent  em. 
verum  ubi  magnanimis  Romam  caput  urbibus  alte 
exerere  ac  missas  etiam  trans  aequora  classes  30 

totum  signa  videt  victricia  ferre  per  orbem, 
iam  propius  metuens  bellandi  corda  furore 
Phoenicum  extimulat.     sed  enim  conanime  primae 
contuso  pugnae  fractisque  in  gurgite  coeptis 
Sicanio  Libycis,  iterum  instaurata  capessens  35 

"  There  were  three  Punic  wars  :  the  second  of  these  is 
the  subject  of  the  poem. 

"  Scipio  Africanus,  in  202  b.c.  Silius  often  uses  Dardanus 
as  equivalent  to  Romanus,  because  the  Romans  were 
descendants  of  Aeneas,  an  exile  from  Troy. 

*  Pygmalion,    king    of    Tyre,    treacherously    murdered 
Sychaeus,  his  brother-in-law  and  Dido's  husband,  for  the 
sake  of  his  wealth  ;  but  Dido  managed  to  carry  the  treasure 
off  to  Africa. 

PUNICA,  I.  12-36 

second  war  °  each  nation  strove  to  destroy  and  ex- 
terminate her  rival,  and  those  to  whom  victory  was 
granted  came  nearer  to  destruction  :  in  it  a  Roman 
general  ^  stormed  the  citadel  of  Carthage,  the  Pala- 
tine was  surrounded  and  besieged  by  Hannibal,  and 
Rome  made  good  her  safety  by  her  walls  alone. 

The  causes  of  such  fierce  anger,  the  hatred  main- 
tained with  unabated  fury,  the  war  bequeathed  by 
sire  to  son  and  by  son  to  grandson — these  things  I  am 
permitted  to  reveal,  and  to  disclose  the  purposes  of 
Heaven.  And  now  I  shall  begin  by  tracing  the  origin 
of  this  great  upheaval. 

When  Dido  long  ago  fled  across  the  sea  from  the 
land  of  Pygmalion,'^  leaving  behind  her  the  realm 
polluted  by  her  brother's  guilt,  she  landed  on  the 
destined  shore  of  Libya.  There  she  bought  land  for 
a  price  and  founded  a  new  city,  where  she  was  per- 
mitted to  lay  strips  of  a  bull's  hide  round  the  strand. 
Here — so  remote  antiquity  believed — Juno  elected  to 
found  for  the  exiles  a  nation  to  last  for  ever,  preferring 
it  to  Argos,  and  to  Mycenae,  the  city  of  Agamemnon 
and  her  chosen  dwelling-place.  But  when  she  saw 
Rome  lifting  her  head  high  among  aspiring  cities, 
and  even  sending  fleets  across  the  sea  to  carry  her 
victorious  standards  over  all  the  earth,  then  the 
goddess  felt  the  danger  close  and  stirred  up  in  the 
minds  of  the  Phoenicians  a  frenzy  for  war.  But  the 
effort  of  their  first  campaign  was  crushed,  and  the 
enterprise  of  the  Carthaginians  was  wrecked  on  the 
Sicilian  sea  ^  ;  and  then  Juno  took  up  the  sword  again 

**  The  first  Punic  war  ended  in  a  great  victory  at  sea  for 
the  Romans,  near  the  Aegatian  islands  off  the  promontory 
of  Lilybaeum  (242  b.c). 


arma  remolitur  ;  dux  omnia  sufficit  unus 
turbanti  terra^  pontumque  movere  paranti. 

lamque  deae  cunctas  sibi  belliger  induit  iras 
Hannibal ;  hunc  audet  solum  componere  fatis. 
sanguineo  tum  laeta  viro  atque  in  regna  Latini       40 
turbine  mox  saevo  venientum  haud  inscia  cladum, 
"  intulerit  Latio,  spreta  me,  Troius,"  inquit, 
"  exul  Dardaniam  et  bis  numina  capta  penates 
sceptraque  fundarit  victor  Lavinia  Teucris, 
dum  Romana  tuae,  Ticine,  cadavera  ripae  45 

non  capiant,  famulusque^  mihi  per  Celtica  rura 
sanguine  Pergameo  Trebia  et  stipantibus  armis 
corporibusque  virum  retro  fluat,  ac  sua  largo 
stagna  reformidet  Thrasymennus  turbida  tabo  ; 
dum  Cannas,  tumulum  Hesperiae,  campumque  cruore 
Ausonio  mersum  sublimis  lapyga  cernam  51 

teque  vadi  dubium  coeuntibus,  Aufide,  ripis 
per  clipeos  galeasque  virum  caesosque  per  artus 
vix  iter  Hadriaci  rumpentem  ad  litora  ponti." 
haec  ait  ac  iuvenem  facta  ad  Mavortia  flammat.      55 

Ingenio  motus  avidus  fideique  sinister 
is  fuit,  exsuperans  astu,  sed  devius  aequi. 
armato  nullus  divum  pudor  ;  improba  virtus 
et  pacis  despectus  honos  ;  penitusque  medullis 

^  omnia  .  .  .  terra  Madvig :  agmina  .  .  .  terras  edd. 
2  famulus  Postgate :  similis  edd. 

"  The  legendary  king  of  Laurentum  who  welcomed 
Aeneas  on  his  arrival  in  Italy.  The  "  realm  of  Latinus  " 
stands  for  either  Rome  or  Italy. 

^  Aeneas. 

"  Troy :  and  so  "  Teucrians  "  below  stands  for  "  Romans." 

'^  Troy  was  taken  first  by  Hercules,  when  he  had  been 
deceived  by  Laomedon,  king  of  Troy ;  and  secondly  by 
the  Greeks  under  Agamemnon. 

*  Juno  enumerates   the   four  main  victories  gained  by 


PUNICA,  I.   36-69 

for  a  fresh  conflict.  When  she  upset  all  things  on 
earth  and  was  preparing  to  stir  up  the  sea,  she  found 
a  sufficient  instrument  in  a  single  leader. 

Now  warlike  Hannibal  clothed  himself  with  all  the 
wrath  of  the  goddess  ;  his  single  arm  she  dared  to 
match  against  destiny.  Then,  rejoicing  in  that  man 
of  blood,  and  aware  of  the  fierce  storm  of  disasters  in 
store  for  the  realm  of  Latinus,**  she  spoke  thus  :  "In 
defiance  of  me,  the  exile  from  Troy^  brought 
Dardania  "  to  Latium,  together  with  his  household 
gods — deities  that  were  twice  taken  prisoners  ** ;  and 
he  gained  a  victory  and  founded  a  kingdom  for  the 
Teucrians  at  Lavinium.  That  may  pass — provided 
that  the  banks  of  the  Ticinus  ^  cannot  contain  the 
Roman  dead,  and  that  the  Trebia,  obedient  to  me, 
shall  flow  backwards  through  the  fields  of  Gaul, 
blocked  by  the  blood  of  Romans  and  their  weapons 
and  the  corpses  of  men  ;  provided  that  Lake  Trasi- 
mene  shall  be  terrified  by  its  own  pools  darkened  with 
streams  of  gore,  and  that  I  shall  see  from  heaven 
Cannae,  the  grave  of  Italy,  and  the  lapygian  plain 
inundated  with  Roman  blood,  while  the  Aufidus, 
doubtful  of  its  course  as  its  banks  close  in,  can  hardly 
force  a  passage  to  the  Adriatic  shore  through  shields 
and  helmets  and  severed  limbs  of  men."  With  these 
words  she  fired  the  youthful  warrior  for  deeds  of  battle. 

By  nature  he  was  eager  for  action  and  faithless  to 
his  plighted  word,  a  past  master  in  cunning  but  a 
stray er  from  justice.  Once  armed,  he  had  no  respect 
for  Heaven ;  he  was  brave  for  evil  and  despised  the 
glory  of  peace  ;  and  a  thirst  for  human  blood  burned 

Hannibal  over  the  Romans  in  Italy:  (1)  on  the  Ticinus; 
(2)  on  the  Trebia ;  (3)  at  Lake  Trasimene  ;  (4)  at  Cannae, 
by  the  river  Aufidus. 



sanguinis  humani  flagrat  sitis.     his  super,  aevi         60 
flore  virens,  avet  Aegates  abolere,  parentum 
dedecus,  ac  Siculo  demergere  foedera  ponto. 
dat  mentem  luno  ac  laudum  spe  corda  fatigat. 
iamque  aut  nocturno  penetrat  Capitolia  visu 
aut  rapidis  fertur  per  summas  passibus  Alpes.  65 

saepe  etiam  famuli  turbato  ad  limina  somno 
expavere  trucem  per  vasta  silentia  vocem, 
ac  largo  sudore  virum  invenere  futuras 
miscentem  pugnas  et  inania  bella  gerentem. 

Hanc  rabiem  in  fines  Italum  Saturniaque  arva     70 
addiderat  laudem  puero  patrius  furor  orsus.^ 
Sarrana  prisci  Barcae  de  gente,  vetustos 
a  Belo  numerabat  avos.     namque  orba  marito 
cum  fugeret  Dido  famulam  Tyron,  impia  diri 
Belides  iuvenis  vitaverat  arma  tyranni  75 

et  se  participem  casus  sociarat  in  omnes. 
nobilis  hoc  ortu  et  dextra  spectatus  Hamilcar, 
ut  fari  primamque  datum  distinguere  lingua 
Hannibali  vocem,  sollers  nutrire  furores, 
Romanum  sevit  puerili  in  pectore  bellum.  80 

Urbe  fuit  media  sacrum  genetricis  Elissae 
manibus  et  patria  Tyriis  formidine  cultum, 
quod  taxi  circum  et  piceae  squalentibus  umbris 
abdiderant  caelique  arcebant  lumine,  templum. 
hoc  sese,  ut  perhibent,  curis  mortalibus  olim  85 

'  Thus  emended  by  Housman :   tantam  puero  patris  heu 
furor  altus  Bauer. 

«  See  note  to  1.  35. 

^  The  legendary  ruler  of  Latium,  whose  reign  was  the 
Golden  Age. 

"  Akingof  Tyre,  also  called  Sarra;  perhaps  a  title  borne  by 
all  the  kings  of  Tyre.    The  father  of  Dido  was  called  Belus. 

^  Barcas. 

PUNICA,  I.  60-85 

I...,..,.. „.,.,., 

vigour  longed  to  blot  out  the  Aegates,^  the  shame 
of  the  last  generation,  and  to  drown  the  treaty  of 
peace  in  the  Sicilian  sea.  Juno  inspired  him  and 
tormented  his  spirit  with  ambition.  Already,  in 
visions  of  the  night,  he  either  stormed  the  Capitol 
or  marched  at  speed  over  the  summits  of  the  Alps. 
Often  too  the  servants  who  slept  at  his  door  were 
roused  and  terrified  by  a  fierce  cry  that  broke  the 
desolate  silence,  and  found  their  master  dripping 
with  sweat,  while  he  fought  battles  still  to  come  and 
waged  imaginary  warfare. 

When  he  was  a  mere  child,  his  father's  passion  had 
kindled  in  Hannibal  this  frenzy  against  Italy  and 
the  realm  of  Saturn,''  and  started  him  on  his  glorious 
career.  Hamilcar,  sprung  from  the  Tyrian  house 
of  ancient  Barcas,  reckoned  his  long  descent  from 
Belus.<'  For,  when  Dido  lost  her  husband  and  fled 
from  a  Tyre  reduced  to  slavery,  the  young  scion  of 
Belus<*  had  escaped  the  unrighteous  sword  of  the 
dread  tyrant,*  and  had  joined  his  fortunes  with  hers 
for  weal  or  woe.  Thus  nobly  born  and  a  proved 
warrior,  Hamilcar,  as  soon  as  Hannibal  could  speak 
and  utter  his  first  distinct  words,  sowed  war  with 
Rome  in  the  boy's  heart ;  and  well  he  knew  how  to 
feed  angry  passions. 

In  the  centre  of  Carthage  stood  a  temple,  sacred  to 
the  spirit  of  Elissa,^  the  foundress,  and  regarded  with 
hereditary  awe  by  the  people.  Round  it  stood  yew- 
trees  and  pines  with  their  melancholy  shade,  which 
hid  it  and  kept  away  the  light  of  heaven.  Here,  as  it 
was  reported,  the  queen  had  cast  off  long  ago  the  ills 

*  Pygmalion. 
f  Another  name  for  Dido. 


exuerat  regina  loco,     stant  marmore  maesto 
effigies,  Belusque  parens  omnisque  nepotum 
a  Belo  series  ;  stat  gloria  gentis  Agenor, 
et  qui  longa  dedit  terris  cognomina  Phoenix, 
ipsa  sedet  tandem  aeternum  coniuncta  Sychaeo  ;    90 
ante  pedes  ensis  Phrygius  iacet ;  ordine  centum 
stant  arae  caelique  dels  Erebique  potenti. 
hie,  crine  efFuso,  atque  Hennaeae  numina  divae 
atque  Acheronta  vocat  Stygia  cum  veste  sacerdos. 
immugit  tellus  rumpitque  horrenda  per  umbras       95 
sibila  ;  inaccensi  flagrant  altaribus  ignes. 
turn  magico  volitant  cantu  per  inania  manes 
exciti,  vultusque  in  marmore  sudat  Elissae. 
Hannibal  haec  patrio  iussu  ad  penetralia  fertur  ; 
ingressique  habitus  atque  ora  explorat  Hamilcar.  100 
non  ille  euhantis  Massylae  palluit  iras, 
non  diros  templi  ritus  aspersaque  tabo 
limina  et  audito  surgentes  carmine  flammas. 
oUi  permulcens  genitor  caput  oscula  libat 
attolhtque  animos  hortando  et  talibus  implet :       105 
"  Gens  recidiva  Phrygum  Cadmeae  stirpis  alumnos 
foederibus  non  aequa  premit ;  si  fata  negarint 
dedecus  id  patriae  nostra  depellere  dextra, 

"  Phoenicia.  The  Roman  name  for  the  Carthaginians  was 

^  The  sword  given  her  by  Aeneas,  with  which  she  killed 

"  Erebus  is  one  of  many  names  for  Hades  ;  Acheron 
(1.  94),  properly  a  river  in  Hades,  is  another  such  name. 

<*  Proserpina :  she  was  gathering  flowers  at  Henna  in 
Sicily,  when  Pluto  carried  her  down  to  Hades  to  be  his 

*  i.e.  African.  The  Massyli  were  a  powerful  tribe  who 
occupied  what  is  now  called  Algeria  :  see  note  to  iii.  282. 


PUNICA,   I.   86-108 

that  flesh  is  heir  to.  Statues  of  mournful  marble 
stood  there — Belus,  the  founder  of  the  race,  and 
all  the  line  descended  from  Belus  ;  Agenor  also,  the 
nation's  boast,  and  Phoenix  who  gave  a  lasting  name" 
to  his  country.  There  Dido  herself  was  seated,  at 
last  united  for  ever  to  Sychaeus  ;  and  at  her  feet 
lay  the  Trojan  sword. ^  A  hundred  altars  stood  here 
in  order,  sacred  to  the  gods  of  heaven  and  the  lord  of 
Erebus.  ^  Here  the  priestess  with  streaming  hair  and 
Stygian  garb  calls  up  Acheron  and  the  divinity  of 
Henna's  goddess.^  The  earth  rumbles  in  the  gloom 
and  breaks  forth  into  awesome  hissings  ;  and  fire 
blazes  unkindled  upon  the  altars.  The  dead  also  are 
called  up  by  magic  spells  and  flit  through  empty 
space  ;  and  the  marble  face  of  Elissa  sweats.  To 
this  shrine  Hannibal  was  brought  by  his  father's 
command  ;  and,  when  he  had  entered,  Hamilcar 
examined  the  boy's  face  and  bearing.  No  terrors 
for  him  had  the  Massylian  ^  priestess,  raving  in  her 
frenzy,  or  the  horrid  rites -^  of  the  temple,  the 
blood-bespattered  doors,  and  the  flames  that  mounted 
at  the  sound  of  incantation.  His  father  stroked  the 
boy's  head  and  kissed  him  ;  then  he  raised  his 
courage  by  exhortation  and  thus  inspired  him  : 

"  The  restored  race  of  Phrygians  ^  is  oppressing  with 
unjust  treaties  the  people  of  Cadmean  stock.  If 
fate  does  not  permit  my  right  hand  to  avert  this  dis- 
honour from  our  land,  you,  my  son,  must  choose  this 

'  This  is  probably  an  allusion  to  the  human  sacrifices, 
especially  of  infants,  which  were  common  at  Carthage : 
see  iv.  765  foil. 

'  The  Romans  are  here  called  "  Phrygians,"  "  Lauren- 
tines,"  and  "  Tuscans  " :  see  p.  xiii.  The  Carthaginians  are 
called  "Cadmeans,"  because  Cadmus,  the  founder  of  Thebes, 
came  from  Phoenicia  :  see  1.  6. 



haec  tua  sit  laus,  nate,  velis  ;   age,  concipe  bella 
latura  exitium  Laurentibus  ;  horreat  ortus  110 

iam  pubes  Tyrrhena  tuos,  partusque  recusent, 
te  surgente,  puer,  Latiae  producere  matres." 

His  acuit  stimulis,  subicitque  baud  mollia  dictu  : 
"  Romanos  terra  atque  undis,  ubi  competet  aetas, 
ferro  ignique  sequar  Rhoeteaque  fata  revolvam.     115 
non  superi  mihi,  non  Mart  em  cohibentia  pacta, 
non  celsae  obstiterint  Alpes  Tarpeiaque  saxa. 
banc  mentem  iuro  nostri  per  numina  Martis, 
per  manes,  regina,  tuos."     turn  nigra  triformi 
hostia  mactatur  divae,  raptimque  recludit  120 

spirantes  artus  poscens  responsa  sacerdos 
ac  fugientem  animam  properatis  consulit  extis. 

Ast  ubi  quaesitas  artis  de  more  vetustae 
intravit  mentes  superum,  sic  deinde  profatur  : 
"  Aetolos  late  consterni  milite  campos  125 

Idaeoque  lacus  flagrantes  sanguine  cerno. 
quanta  procul  moles  scopulis  ad  sidera  tendit, 
cuius  in  aerio  pendent  tua  vertice  castra  ! 
iamque  iugis  agmen  rapitur  ;  trepidantia  fumant 
moenia,  et  Hesperio  tellus  porrecta  sub  axe  130 

Sidoniis  lucet  flammis.     fluit  ecce  cruentus 
Eridanus.     iacet  ore  truci  super  arma  virosque, 
tertia  qui  tulerat  sublimis  opima  Tonanti. 

"  The  treaty  of  peace  between  Rome  and  Carthage. 

*  Hecate,  who  was  worshipped  also  as  Diana  and  Luna. 

"  She  foresees  various  episodes  of  the  war :  the  battles 
of  Cannae  and  Lake  Trasimene  ;  the  crossing  of  the  Alps  ; 
the  battles  of  Ticinus  and  Trebia ;  the  death  of  Marcellus ; 
the  storm  which  drove  Hannibal  away  from  Rome  (211  b.c). 
The  "  Aetolian  fields  "  are  Apulia,  so  called  because  Diomede, 
the  Aetolian  king,  settled  there  after  the  Trojan  war. 

^  Marcellus  won  "  choice  spoils  "  by  killing  in  battle  a 
Gallic  chief;  he  fell  in  an  ambush  in  208  b.c.  :  see  xv.  334  foil. 

PUNICA,  I.   109-133 

as  your  field  of  fame.  Be  quick  to  swear  a  war  that 
shall  bring  destruction  to  the  Laurentines  ;  let  the 
Tuscan  people  already  dread  your  birth  ;  and  when 
you,  my  son,  arise,  let  Latian  mothers  refuse  to  rear 
their  offspring." 

With  these  incentives  he  spurred  on  the  boy  and 
then  dictated  a  vow  not  easy  to  utter  :  **  When  I 
come  to  age,  I  shall  pursue  the  Romans  with  fire  and 
sword  and  enact  again  the  doom  of  Troy.  The  gods 
shall  not  stop  my  career,  nor  the  treaty  that  bars 
the  sword ,«  neither  the  lofty  Alps  nor  the  Tarpeian 
rock.  I  swear  to  this  purpose  by  the  divinity  of  our 
native  god  of  war,  and  by  the  shade  of  Elissa."  Then 
a  black  victim  was  sacrificed  to  the  goddess  of  triple 
shape  ^  ;  and  the  priestess,  seeking  an  oracle,  quickly 
opened  the  still  breathing  body  and  questioned  the 
spirit,  as  it  fled  from  the  inward  parts  that  she  had 
laid  bare  in  haste. 

But  when,  following  the  custom  of  her  ancient  art, 
she  had  entered  into  the  mind  of  the  gods  whom 
she  inquired  of,  thus  she  spoke  aloud  ;  "I  see  the 
Aetolian  fields''  covered  far  and  wide  with  soldiers' 
corpses,  and  lakes  red  with  Trojan  blood.  How  huge 
the  rampart  of  cliffs  that  rises  far  towards  heaven  ! 
And  on  its  airy  summit  your  camp  is  perched.  Now 
the  army  rushes  down  from  the  mountains  ;  terrified 
cities  send  up  smoke,  and  the  land  that  lies  beneath 
the  western  heavens  blazes  with  Punic  fires.  See  ! 
the  river  Po  runs  blood.  Fierce  is  that  face  that  lies 
on  a  heap  of  arms  and  men — the  face  of  him  who  was 
the  third  to  carry  in  triumph  choice  spoils  ^  to  the 

These  spoils,  only  thrice  won  in  Roman  history,  were  the 
prize  of  a  commander  who  killed  with  his  own  hand  the 
commander  of  the  hostile  army. 

VOL.  I  B  IS 



heu  quaenam  subitis  horrescit  turbida  nimbis 
tempestas,  ruptoque  polo  micat  igneus  aether  !      136 
magna  parant  superi :  tonat  alti  regia  caeli, 
bellantemque  lovem  cerno."     venientia  fata 
scire  ultra  vetuit  luno,  fibraeque  repente 
conticuere.     latent  casus  longique  labores. 

Sic  clausum  linquens  arcano  pectore  bellum        140 
atque  hominum  finem  Gades  Calpenque  secutus, 
dum  fert  Herculeis  Garamantica  signa  columnis, 
occubuit  saevo  Tyrius  certamine  ductor. 

Interea  rerum  Hasdrubali  traduntur  habenae, 
occidui  qui  solis  opes  et  vulgus  Hiberum  145 

Baeticolasque  viros  furiis  agitabat  iniquis. 
tristia  corda  ducis,  simul  immedicabilis  ira, 
et  fructus  regni  feritas  erat ;  asper  amore 
sanguinis,  et  metui  demens  credebat  honorem  ; 
nee  nota  docilis  poena  satiare  furores.  160 

ore  excellentem  et  spectatum  fortibus  ausis 
antiqua  de  stirpe  Tagum,  superumque  hominumque 
immemor,  erecto  suffixum  robore  maestis 
ostentabat  ovans  populis  sine  funere  regem. 
auriferi  Tagus  ascito  cognomine  fontis  156 

perque  antra  et  ripas  nymphis  ululatus  Hiberis, 
Maeonium  non  ille  vadum,  non  Lydia  mallet 
stagna  sibi,  nee  qui  riguo  perfunditur  auro 
campum  atque  illatis  Hermi  flavescit  harenis. 

<*  Gibraltar  and  Cadiz.     The  Pillars  of  Hercules  are  now 
the  Straits  of  Gibraltar. 

^  The  son-in-law  of  Hamilcar. 

"  The  Guadalquivir. 

<*  The  Pactolus.     This  and  the  Hermus  were  rivers  of 
Lydia  (also  called  here  Maeonia),  both  rich  in  gold.     In 
Europe  the  Tagus  was  famous  for  the  gold  contained  in 
its  waters  ;  and  this  chief  had  taken  his  name  from  it. 

PUNICA,  I.  134-159 

Thunder-god.  Ah  !  what  wild  storm  is  this  that 
rages  with  sudden  downpour,  while  the  sky  is 
rent  asunder  and  the  fiery  ether  flashes  !  The 
gods  are  preparing  mighty  things,  the  throne  of 
high  heaven  thunders,  and  I  see  Jupiter  in  arms." 
Then  Juno  forbade  her  to  learn  more  of  coming 
events,  and  the  victims  suddenly  became  dumb. 
The  dangers  and  the  endless  hardships  were  con- 

So  Hamilcar  left  his  design  of  war  concealed  in 
his  secret  heart,  and  made  for  Calpe  and  Gades,"  the 
limit  of  the  world ;  but,  while  carrying  the  standards 
of  Africa  to  the  Pillars  of  Hercules,  he  fell  in  a  hard- 
fought  battle. 

Meanwhile  the  direction  of  affairs  was  handed  over 
to  Hasdrubal  ^  ;  and  he  harried  with  savage  cruelty 
the  wealth  of  the  western  world,  the  people  of  Spain, 
and  the  dwellers  beside  the  Baetis."  Hard  was 
the  general's  heart,  and  nothing  could  mitigate  his 
ferocious  temper ;  power  he  valued  because  it  gave 
him  the  opportunity  to  be  cruel.  Thirst  for  blood 
hardened  his  heart ;  and  he  had  the  folly  to  believe 
that  to  be  feared  is  glory.  Nor  was  he  willing  to  sate 
his  rage  with  ordinary  punishments.  Tagus,  a  man 
of  ancient  race,  remarkable  for  beauty  and  of  proved 
valour,  Hasdrubal,  defying  gods  and  men,  fastened 
high  on  a  wooden  cross,  and  displayed  in  triumph  to 
the  sorrowing  natives  the  unburied  body  of  their  king. 
Tagus,  who  had  taken  his  name  from  the  gold-bearing 
river,  was  mourned  by  the  Nymphs  of  Spain  through  all 
their  caves  and  banks  ;  nor  would  he  have  preferred 
the  river  of  Maeonia**  and  the  pools  of  Lydia,  nor 
the  plain  watered  by  flowing  gold  and  turned  yellow 
by  the  sands  of  Hermus  pouring  over  it.     Ever  first 



primus  inire  manus,  postremus  ponere  Martem  ;   160 
cum  rapidum  efFusis  ageret  sublimis  habenis 
quadrupedem,  non  ense  virum,  non  eminus  hasta 
sistere  erat ;  volitabat  ovans  aciesque  per  ambas 
iam  Tagus  auratis  agnoscebatur  in  armis. 
quern  postquam  diro  suspensum  robore  vidit  165 

deformem  leti  famulus,  clam  corripit  ensem 
dilectum  domino  pernixque  irrumpit  in  aulam 
atque  immite  ferit  geminato  vulnere  pectus, 
at  Poeni,  succensa  ira  turbataque  luctu 
et  saevis  gens  laeta,  ruunt  tormentaque  portant.   170 
non  ignes  candensque  chalybs,  non  verbera  passim 
ictibus  innumeris  lacerum  scindentia  corpus, 
carnificaeve  manus  penitusve  infusa  medullis 
pestis  et  in  medio  lucentes  vulnere  flammae 
cessavere  ;  ferum  visu  dictuque,  per  artem  175 

saevitiae  extenti,  quantum  tormenta  iubebant, 
creverunt  artus,  atque,  omni  sanguine  rupto, 
ossa  liquefactis  fumarunt  fervida  membris. 
mens  intact  a  manet  ;  superat  ridetque  dolores, 
spectanti  similis,  fessosque  labore  minis tros  180 

increpitat  dominique  crucem  clamore  reposcit. 

Haec  inter  spretae  miseranda  piacula  poenae 
erepto  trepidus  ductore  exercitus  una 
Hannibalem  voce  atque  alacri  certamine  poscit. 
hinc  studia  accendit  patriae  virtutis  imago,  185 

hinc  fama  in  populos  iurati  didita  belli. 

"  Carthaginian  and  Spanish. 
*  i.e,  Hasdrubars.  "  Hamilcar. 


PUNICA,  I.  160-186 

to  enter  the  battle  and  last  to  lay  down  the  sword, 
when  he  sat  high  on  his  steed  and  urged  it  on  with 
loosened  reins,  no  sword  could  stop  him  nor  spear 
hurled  from  far  ;  on  he  flew  in  triumph,  and  the 
golden  armour  of  Tagus  was  well  known  throughout 
both  armies."  Then  a  servant,  when  he  saw  that 
hideous  death  and  the  body  of  Tagus  hanging  on  the 
fatal  tree,  stole  his  master's  favourite  sword  and 
rushed  into  the  palace,  where  he  smote  that  savage 
breast  ^  once  and  again.  Carthaginians  are  cruel ;  and 
now,  in  their  anger  and  grief,  they  made  haste  to 
bring  the  tortures.  Every  device  was  used — fire  and 
white-hot  steel,  scourges  that  cut  the  body  to  ribbons 
with  a  rain  of  blows  past  counting,  the  hands  of  the 
torturers,  the  agony  driven  home  into  the  marrow, 
the  flame  burning  in  the  heart  of  the  wound.  Dread- 
ful to  see  and  even  to  relate,  the  limbs  were  expanded 
by  the  torturers'  ingenuity  and  grew  as  much  as 
the  torment  required ;  and,  when  all  the  blood  had 
gushed  forth,  the  bones  still  smoked  and  burned  on, 
after  the  limbs  were  consumed.  But  the  man's  spirit 
remained  unbroken  ;  he  was  the  master  still  and 
despised  the  suffering  ;  like  a  mere  looker-on  he 
blamed  the  myrmidons  of  the  torturer  for  flagging 
in  their  task  and  loudly  demanded  to  be  crucified  like 
his  master. 

While  this  piteous  punishment  was  inflicted  on  a 
victim  who  made  light  of  it,  the  soldiers,  disturbed  by 
the  loss  of  their  general,  with  one  voice  and  with 
eager  enthusiasm  demanded  Hannibal  for  their  leader. 
Their  favour  was  due  to  many  causes — the  reflection 
in  him  of  his  father's "  valour  ;  the  report,  broadcast 
among  the  nations,  that  he  was  the  sworn  enemy  of 
Rome  ;  his  youth  eager  for  action  and  the  fiery  spirit 



hinc  virides  ausis  anni  fervorque  decorus 
atque  armata  dolis  mens  et  vis  insita  fandi. 
Primi  ductorem  Libyes  clamore  salutant, 
mox  et  Pyrenes  populi  et  bellator  Hiberus.  190 

continuoque  ferox  oritur  fiducia  menti, 
cessisse  imperio  tantum  terraeque  marisque. 
Aeoliis  candens  austris  et  lampade  Phoebi 
aestifero  Libye  torretur  subdita  Cancro, 
aut  ingens  Asiae  latus,  aut  pars  tertia  terris.  195 

terminus  huie  roseos  amnis  Lageus  ad  ortus 
septeno  impellens  tumefactum  gurgite  pontum  ; 
at  qua  diversas  clementior  aspicit  Arctos, 
Herculeo  dirimente  freto,  diducta  propinquis 
Europes  videt  arva  iugis  ;  ultra  obsidet  aequor,     200 
nee  patitur  nomen  proferri  longius  Atlas, 
Atlas  subducto  tracturus  vertice  caelum, 
sidera  nubiferum  fulcit  caput,  aetheriasque 
erigit  aeternum  compages  ardua  cervix, 
canet  barba  gelu,  frontemque  immanibus  umbris  205 
pinea  silva  premit ;  vastant  cava  tempora  vent), 
nimbosoque  ruunt  spumantia  flumina  rictu. 
tum  geminas  laterum  cautes  maria  alta  fatigant, 
atque  ubi  fessus  equos  Titan  immersit  anhelos, 
flammiferum  condunt  fumanti  gurgite  currum.       210 
sed  qua  se  campis  squalentibus  Africa  tendit, 
serpentum  largo  coquitur  fecunda  veneno  ; 
felix  qua  pingues  mitis  plaga  temperat  agros, 
nee  Cerere  Hennaea  Phario  nee  victa  colono. 

"  African  peoples  subject  to  Carthage. 

*  Aeolus  was  the  ruler  of  all  winds  and  kept  them  in  prison. 

'  The  Nile,  which  flows  into  the  sea  by  seven  mouths. 
Lagus,  a  Macedonian  general,  founded  the  dynasty  of  the 

**  The  Bears  are  the  two  northern  constellations  so  named. 

«  Atlas,  the  mountain  range  which  bou'ids  N.W.  Africa, 

PUNICA,  I.    187-214 

that  well  became  him  ;  his  heart  equipped  with  guile, 
and  his  native  eloquence. 

The  Libyans  "  were  first  to  hail  him  with  applause 
as  their  leader,  and  the  Pyrenean  tribes  and  warlike 
Spaniards  followed  them.  At  once  his  heart  swelled 
with  pride  and  satisfaction  that  so  much  of  land  and 
sea  had  come  under  his  sway.  Libya  lies  under  the 
burning  sign  of  Cancer,  and  is  parched  by  the  south 
winds  of  Aeolus  ^  and  the  sun's  disk.  It  is  either  a 
huge  offshoot  of  Asia,  or  a  third  continent  of  the  world. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  rosy  east  by  the  river  of  Lagus,*' 
which  strikes  the  swollen  sea  with  seven  streams. 
But,  where  the  land  in  milder  mood  faces  the  opposing 
Bears ,'^  it  is  cut  off  by  the  straits  of  Hercules,  and, 
though  parted  from  them,  looks  on  the  lands  of 
Europe  from  its  adjacent  heights  ;  the  ocean  blocks 
its  further  extension,  and  Atlas  *  forbids  its  name  to 
be  carried  further — Atlas,  who  would  bring  down  the 
sky,  if  he  withdrew  his  shoulders.  His  cloud-capt 
head  supports  the  stars,  and  his  soaring  neck  for  ever 
holds  aloft  the  firmament  of  heaven.  His  beard  is 
white  with  frost,  and  pine-forests  crown  his  brow  with 
their  vast  shade  ;  winds  ravage  his  hollow  temples, 
and  foaming  rivers  rush  down  from  his  streaming  open 
jaws.  Moreover,  the  deep  seas  assail  th"'e  cliffs  on 
both  his  flanks,  and,  when  the  weary  Titan  ^  has 
bathed  his  panting  steeds,  hide  his  flaming  car  in  the 
steaming  ocean.  But,  where  Africa  spreads  her  un- 
tilled  plains,  the  burnt-up  land  bears  nothing  but 
the  poison  of  snakes  in  plenty ;  though,  where  a 
temperate  strip  blesses  the  fields,  her  fertility  is  not 
surpassed  by  the  crops  of  Henna ^  nor  by  the  Egyptian 

was  personified  by  the  Greeks  as  a  giant  who  supports  heaven 
on  his  shoulders.  *  The  sun.  "  Sicily. 



hie  passim  exultant  Numidae,  gens  inscia  freni,     215 
quis  inter  geminas  per  ludum  mobilis  aures 
quadrupedem  flectit  non  cedens  virga  lupatis. 
altrix  bellorum  bellatorumque  virorum 
tellus,  nee  fidens  nudo  sine  fraudibus  ensi. 

Altera  complebant  Hispanae  castra  cohortes,      220 
auxilia  Europae  genitoris  parta  tropaeis. 
Martius  hinc  campos  sonipes  hinnitibus  implet, 
hinc  iuga  cornipedes  erecti  bellica  raptant ; 
non  Eleus  eat  campo  ferventior  axis, 
prodiga  gens  animae  et  properare  facillima  mortem, 
namque  ubi  transeendit  florentes  viribus  annos,     226 
impatiens  aevi  spernit  novisse  senectam, 
et  fati  modus  in  dextra  est.     his  omne  metallum  : 
electri  gemino  pallent  de  semine  venae, 
atque  atros  chalybis  fetus  humus  horrida  nutrit.    230 
sed  scelerum  causas  operit  deus  :  Astur  avarus 
visceribus  lacerae  telluris  mergitur  imis 
et  redit  infelix  efFosso  concolor  auro. 
hinc  certant,  Pactole,  tibi  Duriusque  Tagusque, 
quique  super  Gravios  lucent es  volvit  harenas,        235 
infernae  populis  referens  oblivia  Lethes. 
nee  Cereri  terra  indocilis  nee  inhospita  Baccho, 
nullaque  Palladia  sese  magis  arbore  tollit. 

"  This  fact  is  asserted  by  Virgil  and  Lucan,  and  repeatedly 
by  Silius :  see  ii.  64,  iii.  293,  xvi.  200. 

''  They  poison  their  weapons. 

•^  At  the  Olympic  games. 

**  He  puts  an  end  to  his  own  life. 

*  Electrum  was  a  natural  metal,  called  by  the  Greeks 
**  white  gold  "  :   it  was  partly  gold  and  partly  silver. 

^  There  was  in  Spain,  in  the  land  of  the  Gravii,  a  river 
called  Oblivio  and  therefore  said  to  recall  Lethe,  the  river 


PUNICA,  I.  215-238 

husbandman.  Here  the  Numidians  rove  at  large,  a 
nation  that  knows  not  the  bridle  ;  for  the  light  switch 
they  ply  between  its  ears  turns  the  horse  about  in 
their  sport,  no  less  effectively  than  the  bit."  This 
land  breeds  wars  and  warriors  ;  nor  do  they  trust 
to  the  naked  sword  but  use  guile  ^  also. 

A  second  camp  was  filled  with  Spanish  troops, 
European  allies  whom  the  victories  of  Hamilcar  had 
gained.  Here  the  war-horse  filled  the  plains  with 
his  neighings,  and  here  high-mettled  steeds  drew 
along  chariots  of  war  ;  not  even  the  drivers  at 
Olympia  "  could  dash  over  the  course  with  more  fiery 
haste.  That  people  recks  little  of  life,  and  they  are 
most  ready  to  anticipate  death.  For,  when  a  man  has 
passed  the  years  of  youthful  strength,  he  cannot  bear 
to  live  on  and  disdains  acquaintance  with  old  age ; 
and  his  span  of  life  depends  on  his  own  right  arm.** 
All  metals  are  found  here  :  there  are  veins  of  elec- 
trum,®  whose  yellow  hue  shows  their  double  origin, 
and  the  rugged  soil  feeds  the  black  crop  of  iron. 
Heaven  covered  up  the  incentives  to  crime  ;  but  the 
covetous  Asturian  plunges  deep  into  the  bowels  of 
the  mangled  earth,  and  the  wretch  returns  with  a 
face  as  yellow  as  the  gold  he  has  dug  out.  The 
Durius  and  the  Tagus  of  this  land  challenge  the 
Pactolus  ;  and  so  does  the  river  which  rolls  its  glitter- 
ing sands  over  the  land  of  the  Gravii  and  reproduces 
for  the  inhabitants  the  forgetfulness  of  Lethe  in  the 
nether  world.^  Spain  is  not  unfit  for  corn-crops  nor 
unfriendly  to  the  vine  ;  and  there  is  no  land  in  which 
the  tree  of  Pallas  ^  rises  higher. 

in  Hades  whose  water  takes  away  the  memory  of  past  events. 
The  Durius  (now  Duero)  is  a  river  in  Portugal. 
'  The  oUve. 
^  OL.  I  B  2  21 


Hae  postquam  Tyrio  gentes  cessere  tyranno, 
utque  dati  rerum  freni,  tunc  arte  paterna  240 

conciliare  viros  ;  armis  consulta  senatus 
vertere,  nunc  donis.     primus  sumpsisse  laborem, 
primus  iter  carpsisse  pedes  partemque  subire, 
si  valli  festinet  opus,     nee  cetera  segnis, 
quaecumque    ad    laudem    stimulant ;     somnumque 
negabat  246 

naturae  noctemque  vigil  ducebat  in  armis, 
interdum  proiectus  humi  turbaeque  Libyssae 
insignis  sagulo  duris  certare  maniplis  ; 
celsus  et  in  magno  praecedens  agmine  ductor 
imperium  praeferre  suum  ;  tum  vertice  nudo         250 
excipere  insanos  imbres  caelique  ruinam. 
spectarunt  Poeni  tremuitque  exterritus  Astur, 
torquentem  cum  tela  lovem  permixtaque  nimbis 
fulmina  et  excussos  ventorum  flatibus  ignes 
turbato  transiret  equo  ;  nee  pulvere  fessum  256 

agminis  ardenti  labefecit  Sirius  astro, 
flammiferis  tellus  radiis  cum  exusta  dehiscit, 
candentique  globo  medius  coquit  aethera  fervor, 
femineum  putat  humenti  iacuisse  sub  umbra 
exercetque  sitim  et  spectato  fonte  recedit.  260 

idem  correptis  sternacem  ad  proelia  frenis 
frangere  equimi  et  famam  letalis  amare  lacerti 
ignotique  amnis  tranare  sonantia  saxa 
atque  e  diversa  socios  accersere  ripa. 
idem  expugnati  primus  stetit  agger e  muri,  265 

et  quotiens  campo  rapidus  fera  proelia  miscet. 

*»  Spaniards.  Asturia  was  a  province  of  Spain,  famous  for 
its  breed  of  horses  and  its  gold-mines :  see  1.  231. 

*  The  ancients  supposed  that  Ughtning  was  caused  by  the 
action  of  wind  upon  the  clouds. 


PUNICA,  I.   239-266 

When  these  peoples  had  yielded  to  the  Tyrian  ruler 
and  he  had  received  the  reins  of  government,  then 
with  his  father's  craft  he  gained  men's  friendship  ; 
by  arms  or  by  bribes  he  caused  them  to  reverse  the 
Senate's  decrees.  He  was  ever  first  to  undertake 
hardship,  first  to  march  on  foot,  and  first  to  bear  a 
hand  when  the  rampart  was  reared  in  haste.  In  all 
other  things  that  spur  a  man  on  to  glory  he  was 
untiring  :  denying  sleep  to  nature,  he  would  pass  the 
whole  night  armed  and  awake,  lying  sometimes  upon 
the  ground  ;  distinguished  by  the  general's  cloak,  he 
vied  with  the  hardy  soldiers  of  the  Libyan  army  ;  or 
mounted  high  he  rode  as  leader  of  the  long  line ;  again 
he  endured  bare-headed  the  fury  of  the  rains  and  the 
crashing  of  the  sky.  The  Carthaginians  looked  on 
and  the  Asturians  °  trembled  for  fear,  when  he  rode  his 
startled  horse  through  the  bolts  hurled  by  Jupiter, 
the  lightnings  flashing  amid  the  rain,  and  the  fires 
driven  forth  by  the  blasts  of  the  winds  ^  ;  he  was 
never  wearied  by  the  dusty  march  nor  weakened  by 
the  fiery  star  of  Sirius.^'  When  the  earth  was  burnt 
and  cracked  by  fiery  rays,  and  when  the  heat  of  noon 
parched  the  sky  with  its  blazing  orb,  he  thought  it 
womanish  to  lie  down  in  the  shade  where  the  ground 
was  moist ;  he  practised  thirst  and  looked  on  a  spring 
only  to  leave  it.  He  would  grasp  the  reins  also  and 
break  in  for  battle  the  steed  that  tried  to  throw 
him  ;  he  sought  the  glory  of  a  death-dealing  arm  ; 
he  would  swim  through  the  rattling  boulders  of  an 
unknown  river  and  then  summon  his  comrades  from 
the  opposite  bank.  He  was  first  also  to  stand  on  the 
rampart  of  a  city  stormed  ;  and,  whenever  he  dashed 
over  the  plain  where  fierce  battle  was  joined,  a  broad 
*  Sirius,  the  Dog-star,  stands  for  the  heat  of  summer. 



qua  sparsit  ferrum,  latus  rubet  aequore  limes, 
ergo  instat  fatis,  et  rumpere  foedera  certus, 
quo  datur,  interea  Romam  comprendere  bello 
gaudet  et  extremis  pulsat  Capitolia  terris.  270 

Prima  Saguntinas  turbarunt  classica  portas, 
bellaque  sumpta  viro  belli  maioris  amore. 
baud  procul  Herculei  tollunt  se  litore  muri, 
clementer  crescente  iugo,  quis  nobile  nomen 
conditus  excelso  sacravit  colle  Zacynthos.  275 

hie  comes  Alcidae  remeabat  in  agmine  Thebas 
Geryone  extincto  caeloque  ea  facta  ferebat. 
tres  animas  namque  id  monstrum,tres  corpore  dextras 
armarat  ternaque  caput  cervice  gerebat. 
baud  alium  vidit  tellus,  cui  ponere  finem  280 

non  posset  mors  una  viro,  duraeque  sorores 
tertia  bis  rupto  torquerent  stamina  filo. 
hinc  spolia  ostentabat  ovans  captivaque  victor 
armenta  ad  fontes  medio  fervore  vocabat, 
cum  tumidas  fauces  accensis  sole  venenis  285 

calcatus  rupit  letali  vulnere  serpens 
Inachiumque  virum  terris  prostravit  Hiberis. 
mox  profugi  ducente  Noto  advertere  coloni, 
insula  quos  genuit  Graio  circumflua  ponto 
atque  auxit  quondam  Laertia  regna  Zacynthos.     290 
firmavit  tenues  ortus  mox  Daunia  pubes, 
sedis  inops,  misit  largo  quam  dives  alumno, 

"  To  the  ancients  Spain  was  the  western  limit  of  the  world. 

''  Saguntum  in  Spain,  like  Massilia  in  Gaul,  claimed  to 
be  a  Greek  city.  The  name  was  identified  with  Zacynthus, 
a  companion  of  Hercules,  whose  tomb  was  shown  there. 
The  seizure  of  Geryon's  cattle  was  one  of  the  Labours  of 
Hercules.  Further,  settlers  were  said  to  have  come  there 
from  the  Greek  island  of  Zacynthus  (now  Zante). 

"  The  three  Fates  or  Parcae. 



PUNICA,   I.   267-292 

red  lane  was  left  on  the  field,  wherever  he  hurled  his 
spear.  Therefore  he  pressed  hard  upon  the  heels  of 
Fortune  ;  and,  resolved  as  he  was  to  break  the 
treaty,  he  rejoiced  meantime  to  involve  Rome,  as 
far  as  he  could,  in  war  ;  and  from  the  end  of  the 
world  "  he  struck  at  the  Capitol. 

His  war-trumpets  sounded  first  before  the  gates  of 
dismayed  Saguntum,^  and  he  chose  this  war  in  his 
eagerness  for  a  greater  war  to  come.  The  city, 
founded  by  Hercules,  rises  on  a  gentle  slope  not  far 
from  the  coast,  and  owes  its  sacred  and  famous  name 
to  Zacynthus,  who  is  buried  there  on  the  lofty  hill. 
For  he  was  on  the  march  back  to  Thebes  in  company 
with  Hercules,  after  the  slaying  of  Geryon,  and  was 
praising  the  exploit  up  to  the  skies.  That  monster 
was  furnished  with  three  lives  and  three  right  arms 
in  a  single  body,  and  carried  a  head  on  each  of  three 
necks.  Never  did  earth  see  another  man  whom  a 
single  death  could  not  destroy — for  whom  the  stern 
Sisters  "  span  a  third  lease  of  life  when  the  thread 
had  twice  been  snapped.  Zacynthus  displayed  in 
triumph  the  prize  taken  from  Geryon,  and  was  calling 
the  cattle  to  the  water  in  the  heat  of  noon,  when  a 
serpent  that  he  trod  on  discharged  from  its  swollen 
throat  poison  envenomed  by  the  sun.  The  wound 
was  fatal,  and  the  Greek  hero  lay  dead  on  Spanish 
soil.  At  a  later  time  exiled  colonists  sailed  hither 
before  the  wind — sons  of  Zacynthus,  the  island  sur- 
rounded by  the  Ionian  sea  that  once  formed  part  of 
the  kingdom  of  Laertes. '^  These  small  beginnings 
were  afterwards  strengthened  by  men  of  Daunia  in 
search  of  a  habitation  ;    they  were  sent  forth  by 

•*  In  Homer  Zacynthus  forms  part  of  the  dominions  of 
Ulysses,  son  of  Laertes. 



magnanimis  regnata  viris,  clarum  Ardea  nomen. 

libertas  populis  pacto  servata  decusque 

maiorum,  et  Poenis  urbi  imperitare  negatum.         295 

Admovet  abrupto  flagrantia  foedere  ductor 
Sidonius  castra  et  latos  quatit  agmine  campos. 
ipse  caput  quassans  circumlustravit  anhelo 
muros  saevus  equo,  mensusque  paventia  tecta, 
pandere  iamdudum  portas  et  cedere  vallo  300 

imperat,  et  longe  clausis  sua  foedera,  longe 
Ausoniam  fore,  nee  veniae  spem  Marte  subactis  ; 
scita  patrum  et  leges  et  iura  fidemque  deosque 
in  dextra  nunc  esse  sua.     verba  ocius  acer 
intorto  sancit  iaculo  figitque  per  arma  305 

stantem  pro  muro  et  minitantem  vana  Caicum. 
concidit  exacti  medius  per  viscera  teli, 
efFusisque  simul  praerupto  ex  aggere  membris, 
victori  moriens  tepefactam  rettulit  hastam. 
at  multo  ducis  exemplum  clamore  secuti  310 

involvunt  atra  telorum  moenia  nube. 
clara  nee  in  numero  virtus  latet ;  obvia  quisque 
ora  duci  portans,  ceu  solus  bella  capessit. 
hie  crebram  fundit  Baliari  verbere  glandem 
terque  levi  ducta  circum  caput  altus  habena  315 

permissum  ventis  abscondit  in  aere  telum, 
hie  valido  librat  stridentia  saxa  lacerto, 

"  Daunia,  properly  a  part  of  Apulia,  is  used  here  and  else- 
where by  Silius  as  another  name  for  Italy.  Ardea  was  a 
city  in  Latium,  the  capital  of  the  Rutulians,  and  an  important 
place  about  the  beginning  of  authentic  history.  Hence  the 
Saguntines  are  often  called  "  Rutulians  "  by  Silius. 

"  Here  and  often  the  "  treaty  "  means  the  conditions  of 
peace  dictated  by  Rome  after  the  First  Punic  War. 


PUNICA,   I.   293-317 

Ardea<»  of  famous  name — a  city  ruled  by  heroic  kings, 
and  rich  in  the  number  of  her  sons.  The  freedom  of 
the  inhabitants  and  their  ancestral  glory  were  pre- 
served by  treaty  ;  and  by  it  the  Carthaginians  were 
forbidden  to  rule  the  city. 

The  Carthaginian  leader  broke  the  treaty  *  and 
brought  his  camp-fires  close  and  shook  the  wide 
plains  with  his  marching  host.  He  himself,  shaking 
his  head  in  fury,  rode  round  the  walls  on  his  panting 
steed,  taking  the  measure  of  the  terrified  buildings. 
He  bade  them  open  their  gates  at  once  and  desert 
their  rampart ;  he  told  them  that,  now  they  were 
besieged,  their  treaties  and  Italy  would  be  far  away, 
and  that  they  could  not  hope  for  quarter,  if  defeated  : 
"  Decrees  of  the  Senate,"  he  cried,  "  law  and  justice, 
honour  and  Providence,  are  all  in  my  hand  now."  In 
eager  haste  he  confirmed  his  taunts  by  hurling  his 
javelin  and  struck  Caicus  through  his  armour,  as  he 
stood  on  the  wall  and  uttered  idle  threats.  Pierced 
right  through  the  middle,  down  he  fell ;  his  body  at 
once  slipped  down  from  the  steep  rampart ;  and  in 
death  he  restored  to  his  conqueror  the  spear  warmed 
with  his  blood.  Then  with  loud  shouting  the  soldiers 
followed  the  example  of  their  leader,  and  wrapped  the 
walls  round  with  a  black  cloud  of  missiles.  Their 
prowess  was  seen  and  not  hidden  by  their  numbers  ; 
turning  his  face  to  the  general,  each  man  fought  as 
if  he  were  the  only  combatant.  One  hurled  volleys 
of  bullets  with  Balearic  sling  '^ :  standing  erect,  he 
brandished  the  light  thong  thrice  round  his  head,  and 
launched  his  missile  in  the  air,  for  the  winds  to  carry  ; 
another  poised  whizzing  stones  with  strong  arm  ;   a 

*  The  best  slingers  of  that  age  came  from  the  Balearic 



huic  impulsa  levi  torquetur  lancea  nodo. 
ante  omnes  ductor,  patriis  insignis  in  armis, 
nunc  picea  iactat  fumantem  lampada  flamma,        320 
nunc  sude,  nunc  iaculo,  nunc  saxis  impiger  instat 
aut  hydro  imbutas,  bis  noxia  tela,  sagittas 
contendit  nervo  atque  insultat  fraude  pharetrae  : 
Dacus  ut  armiferis  Geticae  telluris  in  oris, 
spicula  qui  patrio  gaudens  acuisse  veneno  325 

fundit  apud  ripas  inopina  binominis  Histri. 
Cura  subit,  collem  turrita  cingere  fronte 
castelloque  urbem  circumvallare  frequenti. 
heu  priscis  numen  populis,  at  nomine  solo 
in  terris  iam  nota  Fides  !    stat  dura  inventus  330 

ereptamque  fugam  et  claudi  videt  aggere  muros, 
sed  dignam  Ausonia  mortem  putat  esse  Sagunto, 
servata  cecidisse  fide,     iamque  acrius  omnes 
intendunt  vires  ;   adductis  stridula  nervis 
Phocais  effundit  vastos  balista  molares  ;  335 

atque  eadem,  ingentis  mutato  pondere  teli, 
ferratam  excutiens  ornum  media  agmina  rumpit. 
alternus  resonat  clangor,     certamine  tanto 
conseruere  acies,  veluti  circumdata  vallo 
Roma  foret ;  clamatque  super  :  "  tot  milia,  gentes 
inter  tela  satae,  iam  capto  stamus  in  hoste  ?  341 

anne  pudet  coepti  ?   pudet  ominis  ?   en  bona  virtus 

"  A  thong  or  strap  was  often  attached  to  the  middle  of  the 
spear-shaft  to  increase  its  speed  and  force. 

''  The  Getae  were  Scythians  :  the  Dacians  lived  in  what 
is  now  Hungary  and  Wallachia. 

"  The  Danube  had  two  names  in  antiquity — Danubius  and 


PUNICA,  I.  318-342 

third  threw  a  lance  speeded  by  a  light  strap."  In 
front  of  them  all  their  leader,  conspicuous  in  his 
father's  armour,  now  hurls  a  brand  smoking  with 
pitchy  flame,  now  presses  on  unwearied  with  stake 
or  javelin  or  stone,  or  shoots  arrows  from  the  string — 
missiles  dipped  in  serpent's  poison  and  doubly  fatal — - 
and  exults  in  the  guile  of  his  quiver.  So  the  Dacian, 
in  the  warlike  region  of  the  Getic  ^  country,  delighting 
to  sharpen  his  arrows  with  the  poison  of  his  native 
land,  pours  them  forth  in  sudden  showers  on  the 
banks  of  the  Hister,  the  river  of  two  names.  ^ 

The  next  task  was  to  surround  the  hill  with  a  front 
of  towers  and  blockade  the  city  with  a  ring  of  forts. 
Alas  for  Loyalty,  worshipped  by  former  ages  but  now 
known  on  earth  by  name  only  !  The  hardy  citizens 
stand  there,  seeing  escape  cut  off  and  their  walls 
enclosed  by  a  mound ;  but  they  think  it  a  death 
worthy  of  Italy,  for  Saguntum  to  fall  with  her  loyalty 
preserved.  Now  they  exert  all  their  strength  with 
increased  ardour :  the  catapult  of  Marseilles  <* 
launches  with  a  roar  huge  boulders  from  its  tightened 
cords,  and  also,  when  the  burden  of  the  mighty  engine 
is  changed,  discharges  tree-trunks  tipped  with  iron, 
and  breaks  a  way  through  the  ranks.  Loud  rose 
the  noise  on  each  side.  They  joined  battle  with  as 
much  fierceness  as  if  Rome  were  besieged.  Hannibal 
also  shouted  :  "  So  many  thousand  men,  people  born 
in  the  midst  of  arms — why  do  we  stand  still  before 
an  enemy  we  have  already  conquered  ?  Are  we 
ashamed  of  our  enterprise,  or  ashamed  of  our  begin- 
ning ?     So   much  for  splendid  valour  and  the  first 

•*  The  catapult  was  probably  made  at  Marseilles :  it  is 
called  Phocaean,  because  Marseilles  was  a  colony  from 
Phocaea  in  Asia  Minor. 



primitiaeque  ducis  !   taline  implere  paramus 
Italiam  fama  ?  tales  praemittere  pugnas  ?  " 

Accensae  exultant  mentes,  haustusque  medullis 
Hannibal  exagitat,  stimulantque  sequentia  bella.  346 
invadunt  manibus  vallum  caesasque  relinquunt 
deiecti  muris  dextras.     subit  arduus  agger 
imponitque  globos  pugnantum  desuper  urbi. 
armavit  clauses  ac  portis  arcuit  hostem  350 

librari  multa  consueta  falarica  dextra, 
horrendum  visu  robur  celsisque  nivosae 
Pyrenes  trabs  lecta  iugis,  cui  plurima  cuspis 
vix  muris  toleranda  lues  ;  sed  cetera  pingui 
uncta  pice  atque  atro  circumlita  sulphure  fumant.  355 
fulminis  haec  ritu  summis  e  moenibus  arcis 
incita,  sulcatum  tremula  secat  aera  flamma, 
qualis  sanguineo  praestringit  lumina  crine 
ad  terram  caelo  decurrens  ignea  lampas. 
haec  ictu  rapido  pugnantum  saepe  per  auras,         360 
attonito  ductore,  tulit  fumantia  membra  ; 
haec  vastae  lateri  turris  cum  turbine  fixa, 
dum  penitus  pluteis  Vulcanum  exercet  adesis, 
arma  virosque  simul  pressit  flagrante  ruina. 
tandem  condensis  artae  testudinis  armis  366 

subducti  Poeni  vallo  caecaque  latebra 
pandunt  prolapsam  suffossis  moenibus  urbem. 

<•  The  war  in  Italy. 

^  The  falarica  was  a  missile  of  the  largest  dimensions, 
hurled  by  machinery  from  towers  called  falae.  It  had  an 
iron  head  and  wooden  shaft ;  and  the  iron  just  under  the 
head  was  enveloped  in  tow  steeped  in  pitch,  which  was 
ignited  before  the  weapon  was  discharged. 

«  This  name  was  given  to  a  formation  often  adopted  by 
soldiers  when  besieging  a  town.     The  shields  were  carried 
above  the  men's  heads  and  overlapped  so  as  to  form  a  pro- 
tection like  the  shell  of  a  tortoise. 

PUNICA,  I.   343-367 

exploit  of  your  general !  Is  this  the  glorious  news 
with  which  we  intend  to  fill  Italy  ?  Are  these  the 
battles  whose  rumour  we  send  before  us  ?  " 

Fired  by  his  words  their  courage  rose  high ;  the 
spirit  of  Hannibal  sank  deep  into  their  hearts  and 
inspired  them ;  and  the  thought  of  wars  to  come « 
spurred  them  on.  They  attack  the  rampart  with 
bare  hands  and,  when  thrust  down  from  the  walls, 
leave  there  their  severed  limbs.  A  high  mound  was 
erected  and  placed  parties  of  combatants  above  the 
city.  But  the  besieged  were  protected  and  the  enemy 
kept  away  from  the  gates  by  thefalarica,^  which  many 
arms  at  once  were  wont  to  poise.  This  was  a  missile 
of  wood,  terrible  to  behold,  a  beam  chosen  from 
the  high  mountains  of  the  snow-covered  Pyrenees, 
a  weapon  whose  long  iron  point  even  walls  could 
scarce  withstand.  Then  the  shaft,  smeared  with 
oily  pitch  and  rubbed  all  round  with  black  sulphur, 
sent  forth  smoke.  When  hurled  like  a  thunder- 
bolt from  the  topmost  walls  of  the  citadel,  it  clove 
the  furrowed  air  with  a  flickering  flame,  even  as 
a  fiery  meteor,  speeding  from  heaven  to  earth, 
dazzles  men's  eyes  with  its  blood-red  tail.  This 
weapon  often  confounded  Hannibal  when  it  carried 
aloft  the  smoking  limbs  of  his  men  by  its  swift 
stroke  ;  and,  when  in  its  flight  it  struck  the  side  of  a 
huge  tower,  it  kindled  a  fire  which  burnt  till  all  the 
woodwork  of  the  tower  was  utterly  consumed,  and 
buried  men  and  arms  together  under  the  blazing 
ruins.  But  at  last  the  Carthaginians  retreated  from 
the  rampart,  sheltered  by  the  close-packed  shields  of 
the  serried  "  tortoise,"*'  and  sapped  the  wall  unseen 
till  it  collapsed,  and  made  a  breach  into  the  town. 



terribilem  in  sonitum  procumbens  aggere  victo 
Herculeus  labor  atque  immania  saxa  resolvens 
mugitum  ingentem  caeli  dedit.     Alpibus  altis        370 
aeriae  rupes,  scopulorum  mole  revulsa, 
baud  aliter  scindunt  resonant!  fragmine  montem. 
surgebat  fcumulo  certantumf*  prorutus  agger, 
obstabatque  iacens  vallum,  ni  protinus  instent 
hinc  atque  hinc  acies  media  pugnare  ruina.  375 

Emieat  ante  omnes  primaevo  flore  iuventae 
insignis  Rutulo  Murrus  de  sanguine  ;  at  idem 
matre  Saguntina  Grains  geminoque  parente 
Dulichios  Italis  miscebat  prole  nepotes. 
hie  magno  socios  Aradum  clamore  vocantem,         380 
qua  corpus  loricam  inter  galeamque  patescit, 
conantis  motus  speculatus,  euspide  sistit ; 
prostratumque  premens  telo,  voce  insuper  urget: 
"  fallax  Poene,  iaces  ;  certe  Capitolia  primus 
scandebas  victor  :  quae  tanta  licentia  voti  ?  385 

nunc  Stygio  fer  bella  lovi !  "     tum  fervidus  hastam 
adversi  torquens  defigit  in  inguine  Hiberi ; 
oraque  dum  calcat  iam  singultantia  leto, 
"  hac  iter  est,"  inquit,  *'  vobis  ad  moenia  Romae, 
o  metuenda  manus :  sic,  quo  properatis,  eundum."  390 
mox  instaurantis  pugnam  circumsilit  arma 
et  rapto  nudum  clipeo  latus  haurit  Hiberi. 

^  The  words  obelized  seem  to  he  corrupt. 

"  Ulysses  ruled  over  the  islands  of  Ithaca,  Dulichium,  and 
Zacynthos :  hence  Silius  perversely  uses  "  Dulichian  "  for 
"  Saguntine,"  because  men  of  Zacynthos  had  taken  part  in 
founding  Saguntum. 

"  Aradus,  who  hoped  to  attack  Jupiter  on  the  Capitol 
at  Rome,   is   told   to   fight  Pluto   instead,  the  Jupiter  of 
Hades.    The  Styx  is  one  of  the  infernal  rivers  :   see  note  to 
ii.  610. 

PUNICA,  I.  368-392 

The  rampart  gave  way,  the  walls  built  by  Hercules 
sank  down  with  a  fearful  crash,  and  the  huge  stones 
fell  apart,  and  a  mighty  rumbling  of  the  sky 
followed  their  fall.  So  the  towering  peaks  of  the 
high  Alps,  when  a  mass  of  rock  is  torn  away  from 
them,  furrow  the  mountain-side  with  the  roar  of  an 
avalanche.  With  haste  the  ruined  rampart  was  raised 
again  ;  and  nought  but  the  prostrate  wall  prevented 
both  armies  from  fighting  on  in  the  wreckage  that 
divided  them. 

First  of  all  Murrus  sprang  forward,  conspicuous  for 
his  youthful  beauty.  He  was  of  Rutulian  blood,  born 
of  a  Saguntine  mother  ;  but  he  had  Greek  blood  too, 
and  by  his  two  parents  he  combined  the  seed  of  Italy 
with  that  of  Dulichium."  When  Aradus  summoned 
his  comrades  with  a  mighty  shout,  Murrus  watched 
his  forward  movement  and  stopped  him  ;  and  the 
spear-point  pierced  the  gap  that  came  between  the 
breastplate  and  the  helmet.  Then  pinning  him  to 
the  ground  with  his  spear  he  taunted  him  as  well  : 
"  False  Carthaginian,  you  lie  low  ;  you  were  to  be 
foremost,  forsooth,  in  mounting  the  Capitol  as  a 
conqueror ;  was  ever  ambition  so  presumptuous  ? 
Go  now,  and  fight  the  deity  of  the  Styx  instead!"^ 
Next,  brandishing  his  fiery  spear,  he  buried  it  in 
the  groin  cf  Hiberus  who  stood  before  him  ;  and, 
treading  on  the  features  already  convulsed  in  death, 
he  cried  :  "  Terrible  as  is  your  host,  by  this  path 
must  ye  march  to  the  walls  of  Rome  ;  thus  must  ye  go 
to  the  place  whither  ye  are  hastening."  Then,  when 
Hiberus  ^  tried  to  renew  the  combat,  Murrus  evaded 
the  weapon  and  snatched  the  shield  of  his  foe,  and 

"  There  is  some  error  here :  Hiberus  was  a  dying  man  in 
1.  388 ;  in  1.  387  Hiberi  has  ousted  some  other  name. 



dives  agri,  dives  pecoris  famaeque  negatus 

bella  ferisi  arcu  iaculoque  agitabat  Hiberus, 

felix  heu  nemorum  et  vitae  laudandus  opacae,        395 

si  sua  per  patrios  tenuisset  spicula  saltus. 

hunc  miseratus  adest  infesto  vulnere  Ladmus. 

cui  saevum  arridens  :  "  narrabis  Hamilcaris  umbris 

banc,"  inquit,  **  dextram,  quae  iam  post  funera  vulgi 

Hannibalem  vobis  dederit  comitem  " — et  ferit  alte 

insurgens  gladio  cristatae  cassidis  aera  401 

perque  ipsum  tegimen  crepitantia  dissipat  ossa. 

turn  frontem  Chremes  intonsam  umbrante  capillo 

saeptus  et  horrentes  effingens  crine  galeros  ; 

turn  Masulis  crudaque  virens  ad  bella  senecta        405 

Kartalo,  non  pavidus  fetas  mulcere  leaenas, 

flumineaque  urna  caelatus  Bagrada  parmam 

et  vastae  Nasamon  Syrtis  populator  Hiempsal, 

audax  in  fluctu  laceras  cap  tare  carinas — 

una  omnes  dextraque  cadunt  iraque  perempti ;      410 

nee  non  serpentem  diro  exarmare  veneno 

doctus  Athyr  tactuque  graves  sopire  chelydros 

ac  dubiam  admoto  subolem  explorare  ceraste. 

tu  quoque  fatidicis  Garamanticus  accola  lucis, 

insignis  flexo  galeam  per  tempora  cornu,  415 

heu  frustra  reditum  sortes  tibi  saepe  locutas 

mentitumque  lovem  increpitans,  occumbis,  Hiarba. 

^  feris  Summers :  ferens  Bauer. 

"  She  was  supposed  to  be  especially  fierce  then. 

''  Bagrada  is  a  river  in  N.  Africa,  after  which  this  man  was 
named.  The  "  urn  "  of  the  river  is  its  source.  The  Syrtes, 
as  formidable  to  Roman  mariners  as  the  Goodwin  Sands 
once  were  to  us,  are  two  rocky  gulfs  on  the  N.  coast  of 
Africa,  between  Cyrene  and  Carthage. 

"  If  he  was  a  true-born  child,  the  snake  would  not  frighten 

<*  The  horn  showed  his  connexion  with  the  oracle  of 

PUNICA,  I.  393-417 

pierced  his  unprotected  side.  Rich  in  land  and  rich 
in  flocks  but  unknown  to  fame,  Hiberus  used  to  wage 
war  against  wild  beasts  with  bow  and  javelin,  happy, 
alas,  in  his  forests  and  worthy  of  praise  in  his  life  of 
retirement,  if  he  had  never  carried  his  arrows  outside 
his  ancestral  woodlands.  In  pity  for  him  Ladmus 
came  up,  intent  to  strike.  But  Murrus  cried  with  a 
savage  laugh  :  "  Tell  Hamilcar's  ghost  of  my  right 
arm,  which,  when  the  rabble  are  slain,  shall  send 
Hannibal  to  keep  company  with  you  all."  Then, 
rising  erect,  he  smote  with  his  sword  the  crested 
brazen  helmet  and  scattered  the  rattling  bones  of  the 
skull  right  through  their  covering.  Next,  Chremes, 
whose  unshorn  brow  was  surrounded  and  shaded  by 
his  hair,  and  who  made  a  shaggy  cap  of  his  locks  ; 
then  Masulis,  and  Kartalo,  vigorous  for  war  in  green 
old  age,  who  feared  not  to  stroke  the  lioness  with 
cubs  •  ;  and  Bagrada,  whose  shield  was  blazoned  with 
the  river's  urn  ^  ;  and  Hiempsal,  one  of  the  Nasa- 
monians  who  plunder  the  devouring  Syrtis  and  make 
bold  to  pillage  shipwrecks  ;  — all  these  were  slain 
alike  by  that  wrathful  right  hand  ;  and  so  was  Athyr, 
skilled  to  disarm  serpents  of  their  fell  poison,  to  send 
fierce  water-snakes  to  sleep  by  his  touch,  and  to  test 
a  child  of  doubtful  birth  by  placing  a  horned  snake 
beside  it.*'  Slain  too  was  Hiarbas,  who  dwelt  near 
the  prophetic  groves  of  the  Garamantes,  and  whose 
helmet  was  conspicuous  for  the  horn  that  curved 
over  his  temples  ^  ;  in  vain,  alas,  he  blamed  the  oracle 
that  had  so  often  promised  a  safe  return,  and  Jupiter  * 
for  his  breach  of  faith.     By  this  time  the  rampart  had 

Ammon,  the  supreme  deity  of  Libya,  who  was  commonly 
represented  as  wearing  a  ram's  head. 

•  Ammon  was  often  called  Jupiter  Ammon. 



et  iam  corporibus  cumulatus  creverat  agger, 
perfusaeque  atra  fumabant  caede  ruinae. 
turn  ductorem  avido  clamore  in  proelia  poscit.        420 
At  parte  ex  alia,  qua  se  insperata  iuventus         426 
extulerat  portis,  ceu  spicula  nulla  manusque 
vim  ferre  exitiumve  queant,  permixtus  utrisque 
Hannibal  agminibus  passim  furit  et  quatit  ensem, 
cantato  nuper  senior  quem  fecerat  igni  430 

litore  ab  Hesperidum  Temisus,  qui  carmine  pollens 
fidebat  magica  ferrum  crudescere  lingua, 
quantus  Bistoniis  late  Gradivus  in  oris 
belligero  rapitur  curru  telumque  coruscans, 
Titanum  quo  pulsa  cohors,  flagrantia  bella  435 

cornipedum  afflatu  domat  et  stridoribus  axis, 
iamque  Hostum  Rutulumque  Pholum  ingentemque 

iam  Lygdum  Duriumque  simul  flavumque  Galaesum 
et  geminos,  Chromin  atque  Gyan,  demiserat  umbris. 
Daunum  etiam,  grata  quo  non  spectatior  alter       440 
voce  movere  fora  atque  orando  fingere  mentes 
nee  legum  custos  soUertior,  aspera  telis 
dicta  admiscentem  :  "  quaenam  te,  Poene,  paternae 
hue  adigunt  Furiae  ?  non  haec  Sidonia  tecta 
feminea  fabricata  manu  pretiove  parata,  445 

exulibusve  datum  dimensis  litus  harenis. 
fundamenta  deum  Romanaque  foedera  cernis." 
ast  ilium,  toto  iactantem  talia  campo, 
ingenti  raptum  nisu  medioque  virorum 

"  A  Thracian  people. 

*  The  Giants,  sons  of  Earth  who  fought  against  the  gods 
at   Phlegra   and   were   imprisoned   under  volcanoes   when 

PUNICA,  I.  418-449 

grown  higher  with  heaps  of  corpses,  and  the  ruins 
smoked  with  horrid  slaughter.  Then  with  eager 
shout  Murrus  challenged  Hannibal  to  combat. 

But  Hannibal  was  far  away,  where  a  band  of  de- 
fenders had  issued  unexpected  from  the  gates.  As  if 
no  missiles  or  swords  could  bring  him  injury  or  death, 
he  mingled  with  both  armies  and  raged  far  and 
wide,  brandishing  the  sword  which  old  Temisus  from 
the  shore  of  the  Hesperides  had  lately  forged  with 
magic  spells — Temisus  the  powerful  enchanter  who 
believed  that  iron  was  hardened  by  incantations. 
Mighty  was  Hannibal  as  Mars  when  he  careers  far 
and  wide  in  his  war-chariot  through  the  land  of  the 
Bistones,"  brandishing  the  weapon  that  defeated  the 
band  of  Titans,^  and  ruling  the  flame  of  battle  by  the 
snorting  of  his  steeds  and  the  noise  of  his  chariot. 
Already  Hannibal  had  sent  down  to  Hades  Hostus 
and  Pholus  the  Rutulian  and  huge  Metiscus,  and, 
with  them,  Lygdus  and  Durius  and  fair-haired 
Galaesus,  and  a  pair  of  twins,  Chromis  and  Gyas. 
Next  came  Daunus,  than  whom  no  man  was  more 
skilled  to  move  assemblies  by  the  charm  of  eloquence 
and  to  mould  men's  minds  by  speech  ;  nor  was  any 
man  a  more  sagacious  guardian  of  the  laws.  He 
mingled  taunts  with  his  blows  :  "  What  madness, 
inherited  from  your  father,  brings  you  hither,  man  of 
Carthage  ?  This  is  no  Tyrian  city  built  by  a  woman's 
hands  or  bought  for  money  ;  this  is  not  a  shore  with 
a  measured  space  of  sand  conceded  to  exiles " :  you 
see  here  walls  raised  by  gods,  and  allies  of  Rome." 
But  even  as  he  shouted  such  boasts  over  all  the  plain, 
Hannibal  seized  him  with  a  mighty  effort,  and  bore 

*  This  is  an  allusion  to  the  circumstances  in  which  Dido 
built  Carthage:  see  i.  24,  '25. 



avulsum  inter  tela  globo  et  post  terga  revinctum    450 
Hannibal  ad  poenam  lentae  mandaverat  irae  ; 
increpitansque  suos  inferri  signa  iubebat 
perque  ipsos  caedis  cumulos  stragemque  iacentum 
monstrabat  furibundus  iter  cunctosque  ciebat         454 
nomine  et  in  praedas  stantem  dabat  improbus  urbem. 

Sed  postquam  a  trepidis  allatum  fervere  partem 
diversam  Marte  infausto,  Murroque  secundos 
hune  superos  tribuisse  diem,  ruit  ocius  amens 
lymphato  cursu  atque  ingentes  deserit  actus, 
letiferum  nutant  fulgentes  vertiee  cristae,  460 

crine  ut  flammifero  terret  fera  regna  comet es, 
sanguineum  spargens  ignem  :  vomit  atra  rubentes 
fax  caelo  radios,  ac  saeva  luce  coruscum 
scintillat  sidus  terrisque  extrema  minatur. 
praecipiti  dant  tela  viam,  dant  signa  virique,  465 

atque  ambae  trepidant  acies  ;  iacit  igneus  hastae 
dirum  lumen  apex,  ac  late  fulgurat  umbo, 
talis  ubi  Aegaeo  surgente  ad  sidera  ponto 
per  longum  vasto  Cauri  cum  murmure  fluctus 
suspensum  in  terras  port  at  mare,  frigida  nautis      470 
corda  tremunt ;  sonat  ille  procul  flatuque  tumescens 
curvatis  pavidas  tramittit  Cycladas  undis. 
non  cuncta  e  muris  unum  incessentia  tela 
fumantesque  ante  ora  faces,  non  saxa  per  artem 
tormentis  excussa  tenent.     ut  tegmina  primum     475 
fulgentis  galeae  conspexit  et  arma  cruento 
inter  solem  auro  rutilantia,  turbidus  infit : 

*•  Comets  were  supposed  to  portend  a  change  of  dynasty 
and  to  menace  kings  more  than  private  men. 

PUNICA,  I.  45r-477 

him  from  the  centre  of  the  fighting  men,  and  bound 
his  hands  behind  him,  and  reserved  him  to  suffer  the 
punishment  of  wrath  deferred.  Then,  reproaching 
his  men,  he  ordered  the  standards  to  be  advanced, 
and  right  through  the  piled  corpses  and  heaps  of  dead 
he  pointed  out  the  way  in  his  frenzy,  caUing  to  each 
man  by  name,  and  boldly  promising  them  as  booty 
the  still  untaken  city. 

But  when  frightened  messengers  brought  news  that 
in  a  different  quarter  the  fighting  was  fierce  and  they 
were  losing  the  day,  and  that  propitious  gods  had 
granted  this  day  to  Murrus,  then  Hannibal,  abandon- 
ing his  mighty  exploits,  flew  off  with  frantic  haste  and 
the  speed  of  a  madman.  The  plume  that  nodded  on 
his  head  showed  a  deadly  brightness,  even  as  a  comet 
terrifies  fierce  kings  "  with  its  flaming  tail  and  showers 
blood-red  fire  :  the  boding  meteor  spouts  forth  ruddy 
rays  from  heaven,  and  the  star  flashes  with  a  dreadful 
menacing  light,  threatening  earth  with  destruction. 
Weapons,  standards,  and  men  gave  way  before  his 
headlong  career,  and  both  armies  were  terrified  ;  the 
fiery  point  of  his  spear  shed  a  dreadful  light,  and  his 
shield  flashed  far  and  wide.  So,  when  the  Aegean 
sea  rises  to  the  stars,  and  all  along  the  coast,  with  a 
mighty  roaring  of  the  North-west  wind,  the  waves 
carry  ashore  the  piled-up  sea,  the  hearts  of  seamen 
turn  cold  and  tremble  ;  the  wind  roars  far  away,  and 
with  swelling  blast  and  arching  waves  crosses  the 
frightened  Cyclades.  Neither  missiles  from  the  walls, 
all  aimed  at  him  alone,  nor  smoking  brands  before  his 
face,  nor  boulders  hurled  cunningly  from  engines,  can 
arrest  his  course.  As  soon  as  he  saw  the  glittering 
helmet  on  the  head  of  Murrus,  and  his  arms  shining 
in  the  sunlight  with  blood-bedabbled  gold,  he  began 


*'  en,  qui  res  Libycas  inceptaque  tanta  retardet, 
Romani  Murrus  belli  mora  !     foedera,  faxo 
iam  noscas,  quid  vana  queant  et  vester  Hiberus.    480 
fer  tecum  castamque  fidem  servataque  iura, 
deceptos  mihi  linque  deos."     cui  talia  Murrus  : 
"  exoptatus  ades  :  mens  olim  proelia  poscit 
speque  tui  flagrat  capitis  ;  fer  debita  fraudum 
praemia  et  Italiam  tellure  inquire  sub  ima.  485 

longum  in  Dardanios  fines  iter  atque  nivalem 
Pyrenen  Alpesque  tibi  mea  dextera  donat." 

Haec  inter  cernens  subeuntem  comminus  hostem 
praeruptumque  loci  fidum  sibi,  corripit  ingens 
aggere  convulso  saxum  et  nitentis  in  ora  490 

devolvit,  pronoque  silex  ruit  incitus  ictu. 
subsedit  duro  concussus  fragmine  muri. 
turn  pudor  accendit  mentem,  nee  conscia  fallit 
virtus  pressa  loco  ;  frendens  luctatur  et  aegro 
scandit  in  adversum  per  saxa  vetantia  nisu.  495 

sed  postquam  propior  vicino  lumine  fulsit 
et  tota  se  mole  tulit,  velut  incita  clausum 
agmina  Poenorum  cingant  et  cuncta  paventem 
castra  premant,  lato  Murrus  caligat  in  hoste. 
mille  simul  dextrae  densusque  micare  videtur        500 
ensis,  et  innumerae  nutare  in  casside  cristae. 
conclamant  utrimque  acies,  ceu  tota  Saguntos 
igne  micet ;  trahit  instanti  languentia  leto 

<*  In  the  treaty  between  Rome  and  Carthage,  the  river 
Ebro  (Hebrtis)  was  the  limit  beyond  which  Carthage  was 
forbidden  to  advance;  and  the  freedom  of  Saguntum  was 
guaranteed  :  see  11.  294,  295. 

^  The  ground  was  littered  with  the  stones  that  had  formed 
the  wall.  Hannibal  stood  on  an  eminence  formed  by  these, 
and  Murrus  had  to  climb  over  them. 


PUNICA,  I.  478-503 

in  his  rage  :  **  Behold  Murrus  !  Murrus  is  the  man 
to  impede  the  prowess  of  Libya  and  our  might} 
enterprise,  the  man  to  hinder  the  war  against  Rome  ! 
Soon  will  I  make  you  learn  the  power  of  your  useless 
treaty  and  your  river  Ebro."  Take  with  you  loyalty 
unstained  and  observance  of  law;  leave  to  me  the 
gods  whom  I  have  deceived  ! "  And  Murrus  addressed 
him  thus  :  "  I  have  longed  for  your  coming  ;  my 
heart  has  long  been  eager  for  battle  and  aflame  with 
hope  to  take  your  life  ;  take  the  deserved  reward 
of  your  guile,  and  seek  for  Italy  in  the  bowels  of 
the  earth.  My  right  hand  spares  you  the  long  march 
to  Roman  territory  and  the  ascent  of  the  snowy 
Pyrenees  and  the  Alps." 

Meanwhile,  seeing  his  foe  come  close,  and  that 
he  could  trust  the  overhanging  ground  where  he 
stood,  Hannibal  rent  the  rampart  and  seized  a  huge 
rock  and  hurled  it  down  upon  the  head  of  the  climber  ; 
and  the  stone  fell  swiftly  with  downward  force. 
Smitten  by  the  tough  fragment  of  the  wall,  Murrus 
crouched  down.  But  soon  shame  fired  his  heart ;  and 
conscious  courage,  though  taken  at  a  disadvantage, 
did  not  fail  him.  Grinding  his  teeth,  he  struggled  on, 
and  with  difficult  effort  climbed  up  over  the  stones  * 
that  barred  his  way.  But  when  Hannibal  shone 
closer  with  nearer  light,  and  moved  on  in  all  his 
bulk,  then  the  eyes  of  Murrus  grew  dark  before  his 
mighty  foe ;  it  seemed  as  if  the  whole  Carthaginian 
army  were  moving  to  close  round  him,  and  as  if  all 
the  host  were  attacking  him.  He  seemed  to  see  a 
thousand  arms  and  countless  flashing  swords,  and  a 
forest  of  plumes  waving  on  his  foe's  helmet.  Both 
armies  shouted,  as  if  all  Saguntum  were  on  fire  ; 
Murrus  in  fear  dragged  along  his  limbs  faint  with  the 



membra  pavens  Murrus  supremaque  vota  capessit : 
"  conditor  Alcide,  cuius  vestigia  sacra  605 

incolimus  terra,  minitantem  averte  procellam, 
si  tua  non  segni  defense  moenia  dextra." 

Dumque  orat  caeloque  attoUit  lumina  supplex, 
"  cerne,"  ait,  "  an  nostris  longe  Tirynthius  ausis 
iustius  afFuerit.     ni  displicet  aemula  virtus,  510 

haud  me  dissimilem,  Alcide,  primoribus  annis 
agnosces,  invicte,  tuis  ;  fer  numen  amicum 
et,  Troiae  quondam  primis  memorate  ruinis, 
dexter  ades  Phrygiae  delenti  stirpis  alumnos." 
sic  Poenus  pressumque  ira  simul  exigit  ensem,      515 
qua  capuli  statuere  morae,  teloque  relate 
horrida  labentis  perfunditur  arma  cruore. 
ilicet  ingenti  casu  turbata  iuventus 
procurrit ;  nota  arma  viri  corpusque  superbo 
victori  spoliare  negant :  coit  aucta  vicissim  520 

hortando  manus,  et  glomerata  mole  feruntur. 
hinc  saxis  galea,  hinc  clipeus  sonat  aereus  hastis  ; 
incessunt  sudibus  librataque  pondera  plumbi 
certatim  iaciunt.     decisae  vertice  cristae 
direptumque  decus  nutantum  in  caede  iubarum.    525 
iamque  agitur  largus  per  membra  fluentia  sudor, 
et  stant  loricae  squamis  horrentia  tela. 
nee  requies  tegimenve  datur  mutare  sub  ictu. 
genua  labant,  fessique  humeri  gestamina  laxant. 
tum  creber  penitusque  trahens  suspiria  sicco  530 

*•  Another  name  for  Hercules. 

*  Hercules  :  he  lived  for  many  years  at  Tiryns,  an  ancient 
city  near  Argos. 

"  See  note  to  1.  43. 

PUNICA,  I.  604-530 

approach  of  death,  and  uttered  his  latest  prayer : 
"  Alcides,**  our  founder,  whose  footprints  we  inhabit 
on  hallowed  ground,  turn  aside  the  storm  that 
threatens  us,  if  I  defend  thy  walls  with  no  sluggish 

And,  while  he  prayed  and  raised  his  eyes  to  heaven 
in  supplication,  the  other  spoke  thus  :  "  Consider 
whether  the  hero  of  Tiryns  ^  will  not  far  more 
justly  assist  us  in  our  enterprise.  If  thou  frownest 
not  on  rival  valour,  invincible  Alcides,  thou  wilt  recog- 
nize that  I  come  not  short  of  thy  young  years  ;  bring 
thy  power  to  help  me ;  and,  as  thou  art  renowned 
for  the  destruction  of  Troy  long  ago,"  so  support  me 
when  I  destroy  the  scions  of  the  Phrygian  race." 
Thus  Hannibal  spoke  ;  and  at  the  same  time,  clutch- 
ing his  sword  in  fury,  he  drove  it  home  till  the  hilt 
stopped  it ;  then  he  drew  back  the  weapon,  and  his 
dread  armour  was  drenched  with  the  blood  of  the 
dying  man.  At  once  the  fighters  rush  forward, 
troubled  by  the  great  man's  fall,  and  defy  the  proud 
conqueror  to  take  the  famous  armour  and  body  of 
Murrus.  Their  numbers  grow  by  mutual  encourage- 
ment ;  they  unite  and  charge  in  a  serried  mass. 
Now  stones  rattle  on  Hannibal's  helmet,  and  now 
spears  on  his  brazen  shield  ;  they  attack  with  stakes, 
and  vie  with  one  another  in  swinging  and  hurling 
weights  of  lead.  The  plume  was  shorn  from  his 
head,  and  the  glorious  horsehair  crest  that  nodded 
over  the  slain  was  torn  in  pieces.  And  now  streams 
of  sweat  started  out  and  bathed  his  limbs,  and  pointed 
missiles  stuck  fast  in  the  scales  of  his  breastplate. 
No  respite  was  possible  and  no  change  of  armour, 
beneath  the  rain  of  blows.  His  knees  shake,  and 
his  weary  arms  lose  hold  of  his  shield.     Now  too  a 



fumat  ab  ore  vapor,  nisuque  elisus  anhelo 
auditur  gemitus  fractumque  in  casside  murmur.    532 
fulmineus  ceu  Spartanis  latratibus  actus,  421 

cum  silvam  occursu  venantum  perdidit,  hirto 
horrescit  saetis  dorso  et  postrema  capessit 
proelia,  canentem  mandens  aper  ore  crurorem, 
iamque  gemens  geminat  contra  venabula  dentem.  425 
mente  adversa  domat  gaudetque  nitescere  duris    533 
virtutem  et  decoris  pretio  discrimina  pensat. 

Hie  subitus  scisso  densa  inter  nubila  caelo  536 

erupit  quatiens  terram  fragor,  et  super  ipsas 
bis  pater  intonuit  geminato  fulmine  pugnas. 
inde  inter  nubes  ventorum  turbine  caeco 
ultrix  iniusti  vibravit  lancea  belli 
ac  femine  adverso  librata  cuspide  sedit.  540 

Tarpeiae  rupes  superisque  habitabile  saxum 
et  vos,  virginea  lucentes  semper  in  ara 
Laomedonteae,  Troiana  altaria,  flammae, 
heu  quantum  vobis  fallacis  imagine  tell 
promisere  dei !     propius  si  pressa  furenti  545 

hasta  foret,  clausae  starent  mortalibus  Alpes, 
nee,  Thrasymenne,  tuis  nunc  Allia  cederet  undis. 

Sed  luno,  aspectans  Pyrenes  vertice  celsae 
nava  rudimenta  et  primos  in  Marte  calores, 
ut  videt  impressum  coniecta  cuspide  vulnus,  550 

«  It  is  a  historical  fact  that  Hannibal  was  wounded  before 
Saguntum.  Silius  seems  to  imply  that  Jupiter  hurled  the 

^  The  ever-burning  fire  in  the  temple  of  Vesta  is  meant. 
The  fire  was  brought  from  Troy,  where  Laomedon  once  was 
king,  by  Aeneas,  and  was  kept  alight  at  Rome. 

«  The  AlHa  is  a  tributary  of  the  Tiber  where  the  Romans 
were  defeated  with  great  slaughter  by  the  Gauls  (390  b.c). 


PUNICA,  I.   531-550 

constant  steam  comes  smoking  from  his  parched  lips, 
with  deep-drawn  breaths,  and  men  heard  a  groaning 
forced  out  with  panting  effort,  and  an  inarticulate 
cry  that  broke  against  the  helmet.  So  the  furious 
wild  boar,  when  pursued  by  baying  hounds  of  Sparta, 
and  when  debarred  from  the  forest  by  the  hunters 
in  his  way,  erects  the  bristles  on  his  shaggy  back 
and  fights  his  last  battle,  champing  his  own  foaming 
blood  ;  and  now  with  a  yell  he  dashes  his  twin  tusks 
against  the  spears.  By  courage  Hannibal  overcomes 
disaster ;  he  is  glad  that  valour  is  made  brighter  by 
hardship  ;  and  he  finds  an  equivalent  for  danger  in 
the  reward  of  glory. 

Now  the  sky  was  cloven,  and  a  sudden  earth-shak- 
ing crash  burst  forth  among  the  thick  clouds,  and 
right  above  the  battle  the  Father  of  heaven  thundered 
twice  with  repeated  bolt.  Then,  mid  the  blind  hurri- 
cane of  the  winds,  there  sped  between  the  clouds  a 
spear  to  punish  unrighteous  warfare,  and  the  well- 
aimed  point  lodged  in  the  front  of  Hannibal's  thigh. <* 
Ye  Tarpeian  rocks,  where  the  gods  have  their  dwell- 
ing, and  ye  fires  of  Laomedon,  altars  of  Troy,^  that 
burn  for  ever  with  a  flame  tended  by  Vestals,  how 
much,  alas.  Heaven  promised  to  you  by  the  appear- 
ance of  that  deceptive  weapon  !  If  the  spear  had 
pierced  deeper  into  the  fierce  warrior,  the  Alps  had 
been  for  ever  closed  to  mortal  men,  and  Allia  ^  would 
not  now  rank  after  the  waters  of  Lake  Trasimene.^ 

But  Juno,  surveying  from  the  summit  of  the  lofty 
Pyrenees  his  youthful  prowess  and  martial  ardour, 
when  she  saw  the  wound  inflicted  by  the  point  of 

But,  says  Silius,  the  slaughter  at  Lake  Trasimene  was  even 

^  The  third  of  the  great  battles  won  by  Hannibal  in  Italy. 
VOL.  I  c  45 


advolat,  obscura  circumdata  nube,  per  auras 

et  validam  duris  evellit  ab  ossibus  hastam. 

ille  tegit  clipeo  fusum  per  membra  cruorem, 

tardaque  paulatim  et  dubio  vestigia  nisu 

alternata  trahens,  aversus  ab  aggere  cedit.  555 

Nox  tandem  optatis  terras  pontumque  tenebris 
condidit  et  pugnas  erepta  luce  diremit. 
at  durae  invigilant  mentes,  molemque  reponunt, 
noctis  opus,     clauses  acuunt  extrema  pericli 
et  fractis  rebus  violentior  ultima  virtus.  560 

hinc  puer  invalidique  senes,  hinc  femina  ferre 
certat  opem  in  dubiis  miserando  nava  labori, 
saxaque  mananti  subvectat  vulnere  miles, 
iam  patribus  clarisque  senum  sua  munia  curae. 
concurrunt  lectosque  viros  hortantur  et  orant,        565 
defessis  subeant  rebus  revocentque  salutem 
et  Latia  extremis  implorent  casibus  arma. 
"  ite  citi,  remis  velisque  impellite  puppim, 
saucia  dum  castris  clausa  est  fera  ;  tempore  Martis 
utendum  est  rupto  et  grassandum  ad  clara  periclis.  570 
ite  citi,  deflete  fidem  murosque  ruentes 
antiquaque  domo  meliora  accersite  fata, 
mandati  summa  est :   dum  stat,  remeate,  Saguntos. 
ast  illi  celerant,  qua  proxima  litora,  gressum 
et  fugiunt  tumido  per  spumea  caerula  velo.  575 

Pellebat  somnos  Tithoni  roscida  coniux, 
ac  rutilus  primis  sonipes  hinnitibus  altos 
afflarat  montes  roseasque  movebat  habenas. 
iam  celsa  e  muris  exstructa  mole  inventus 

«  i.e.  Hannibal.  "  Ardea,  which  is  near  Rome. 

•  Aurora,  Dawn. 

PUNICA,   I.   551-570 

the  flying  spear,  hastened  thither  through  the  sky, 
veiled  by  a  dark  cloud,  and  plucked  forth  the  stout 
spear  from  the  tough  bone.  He  covered  with  his 
shield  the  blood  that  poured  over  his  limbs,  and  went 
back  from  the  rampart,  dragging  his  feet  one  after 
the  other  slowly  and  gradually  with  uncertain  effort. 

Night  at  last  buried  land  and  sea  in  welcome 
darkness,  and  separated  the  combatants  by  robbing 
them  of  light.  But  resolute  hearts  kept  watch, 
and  they  rebuilt  the  wall — their  task  for  the  night. 
The  besieged  were  spurred  on  by  the  extremity  of 
their  danger,  and  their  last  stand  was  more  furious 
in  their  desperate  plight.  Here  boys  and  feeble  old 
men,  and  there  women,  strove  valiantly  to  carry  on 
the  piteous  task  in  the  hour  of  peril,  and  soldiers  with 
streaming  wounds  carried  stones  to  the  wall.  And 
now  the  senators  and  noble  elders  were  heedful  of 
their  special  duty.  Meeting  in  haste,  they  chose 
envoys,  and  urged  them  with  entreaties  to  be  active 
in  this  grievous  plight  and  bring  safety  back,  and 
to  entreat  the  aid  of  Roman  armies  in  their  ex- 
tremity. **  Go  with  speed ;  urge  on  your  ship  with 
oar  and  sail,  while  the  wounded  wild  beast  °  is  shut 
up  in  his  camp  ;  we  must  take  advantage  of  the  inter- 
ruption of  war,  and  rise  to  fame  by  danger.  Go  with 
speed  ;  lament  our  loyalty  and  our  crumbling  walls, 
and  bring  us  better  fortune  from  our  ancient  home.'' 
This  is  our  final  charge — return  before  Saguntum 
falls."  Then  the  men  hasten  to  the  nearest  coast, 
and  fly  with  swollen  sail  over  the  foaming  sea. 

The  dewy  spouse  ^  of  Tithonus  was  banishing  sleep, 
and  her  ruddy  steeds  had  breathed  on  the  mountain- 
tops  with  their  first  neighings,  and  tugged  at  their 
roseate  reins.    Now  high  on  the  walls  the  inhabitants, 



clausam  nocturnis  ostentat  turribus  urbem.  580 

rerum  omnes  pendent  actus,  et  milite  maesto 
laxata  obsidio,  ac  pugnandi  substitit  ardor, 
inque  ducem  versae  tanto  discrimine  curae. 

Interea  Rutulis  longinqua  per  aequora  vectis 
Herculei  ponto  coepere  exsistere  colles,  585 

et  nebulosa  iugis  attollere  saxa  Monoeci. 
Thracius  hos  Boreas  scopulos  immitia  regna 
solus  habet  semperque  rigens  nunc  litora  pulsat, 
nunc  ipsas  alls  plangit  stridentibus  Alpes  ; 
atque  ubi  se  terris  glaciali  fundit  ab  Arcto,  590 

baud  ulli  contra  fiducia  surgere  vento. 
verticibus  torquet  rapidis  mare,  fractaque  anhelant 
aequora,  et  iniecto  conduntur  gurgite  montes  ; 
iamque  volans  Rhenum  Rhodanumque  in  nubila  tollit. 
hunc  postquam  Boreae  dirum  evasere  furorem,      595 
alternos  maesti  casus  bellique  marisque 
et  dubium  rerum  eventum  sermone  volutant. 
"  o  patria,  o  Fidei  domus  inclita,  quo  tua  nunc  sunt 
fata  loco  ?  sacraene  manent  in  collibus  arces  ? 
an  cinis,  heu  superi !  tanto  de  nomine  restat  ?       600 
ferte  leves  auras  flatusque  ciete  secundos, 
si  nondum  insultat  templorum  Poenicus  ignis 
culminibus,  Latiaeque  valent  succurrere  classes." 

Talibus  illacrimant  noctemque  diemque  querellis, 

«  Saguntines  :   see  note  to  1.  377. 

''Now  Monaco,  named   after   Hercules  Monoecus  as  a 
protector  of  seamen  :   he  had  a  temple  on  the  promontory. 


PUNICA,  I.   580-604 

oft  on  their  finished  work,  point  from  the  walls 
to  their  city,  fenced  in  by  towers  that  grew  in 
the  night.  All  activity  was  suspended ;  for  the 
sorrowing  Carthaginians  relaxed  the  vigour  of  the 
blockade,  and  their  martial  ardour  paused  ;  it  was 
to  their  leader  in  his  great  danger  that  their  thoughts 
were  turned. 

Meantime  the  Rutulians"  had  travelled  far  over 
the  waters,  and  the  hills  of  Hercules  began  to  emerge 
from  the  sea,  and  to  lift  up  from  the  range  the  cloud- 
capt  cliffs  of  Monoecus.''  Thracian  Boreas  is  the  sole 
lord  of  these  rocks,  a  savage  domain  ;  ever  freezing, 
he  now  lashes  the  shore,  and  now  beats  the  Alps 
themselves  with  his  hissing  wings  ;  and,  when  he 
spreads  over  the  land  from  the  frozen  Bear,''  no  wind 
dares  to  rise  against  him.  He  churns  the  sea  in 
rushing  eddies,  while  the  broken  billows  roar  and  the 
mountains  are  buried  beneath  water  piled  above 
them  ;  and  now  in  his  career  he  raises  the  Rhine  and 
the  Rhone  up  to  the  clouds.  Having  escaped  this 
awful  fury  of  Boreas,  the  envoys  spoke  sadly  one  to 
another  of  the  hazards  of  war  succeeded  by  the 
hazards  of  the  sea,  and  about  the  doubtful  issue  of 
events.  "  Alas  for  our  country,  the  famous  home  of 
Loyalty  !  how  do  thy  fortunes  now  stand  ?  is  thy 
sacred  citadel  still  erect  upon  the  hills  ?  Or — alas, 
ye  gods  ! — are  ashes  all  that  remain  of  so  mighty  a 
name  ?  Grant  us  light  airs,  and  send  forth  favouring 
breezes,  if  the  Carthaginian  fire  is  not  yet  triumphant 
over  the  tops  of  our  temples,  and  if  the  Roman  fleets 
have  power  to  help  us." 

Thus  night  and  day  they  mourned  and  wept,  until 

*  The  Bear  denotes  the  North. 



donee  Laurentes  puppis  defertur  ad  oras,  605 

qua  pater,  acceptis  Anienis  ditior  undis, 
in  pontum  flavo  descendit  gurgite  Thybris. 
hinc  consanguineae  subeunt  iam  moenia  Romae. 

Concilium  vocat  augustum  castaque  beatos 
paupertate  patres  ac  nomina  parta  triumphis         610 
consul  et  aequantem  superos  virtute  senatum. 
facta  animosa  viros  et  recti  sacra  cupido 
attollunt ;  hirtaeque  togae  neglectaque  mensa 
dexteraque  a  curvis  capulo  non  segnis  aratris  ; 
exiguo  faciles  et  opum  non  indiga  corda,  615 

ad  parvos  curru  remeabant  saepe  penates. 

In  foribus  sacris  primoque  in  limine  templi 
captivi  currus,  belli  decus,  armaque  rapta 
pugnantum  ducibus  saevaeque  in  Marte  secures, 
perfossi  clipei  et  servantia  tela  cruorem  620 

claustraque  portarum  pendent ;  hie  Punica  bella, 
Aegates  cernas  fusaque  per  aequora  classe 
exactam  ponto  Libyen  testantia  rostra  ; 
hie  galeae  Senonum  pensatique  improbus  auri 
arbiter  ensis  inest,  Gallisque  ex  arce  fugatis  625 

arma  revertentis  pompa  gestata  Camilli ; 
hie  spolia  Aeacidae,  hie  Epirotica  signa 

«  Laurentum  was  a  town  and  district  of  Latium,  about 
sixteen  miles  from  Rome.  In  the  legendary  history  it  is  the 
capital  of  Latium,  and  was  the  residence  of  King  Latinus 
at  the  time  when  Aeneas  landed  in  Italy.  Laurentes  is  in 
Silius  an  equivalent  of  Bomani. 

^  An  anachronism :  Scipio  was  the  first  Roman  general  to 
take  a  name  from  a  conquered  country ;  see  note  to  xvii.  626. 

"  This  is  a  reference  to  Cincinnatus,  who  was  summoned 
from  his  plough  to  be  consul  in  438  b.c. 

^  The  Senate-house.  The  Senate  often  met  in  one  of  the 
temples  at  Rome. 

*  See  note  to  1.  35. 


PUNICA,  I.   605-627 

their  ship  put  in  at  the  shore  of  Laurentum,"  where 
father  Tiber,  richer  by  the  tribute  of  the  Anio's 
waters,  runs  down  with  yellow  stream  into  the  sea. 
From  here  they  soon  reached  the  city  of  their  Roman 

The  consul  summoned  the  worshipful  assembly — 
the  Fathers  rich  in  unstained  poverty,  with  names 
acquired  by  conquests  ^ — a  senate  rivalling  the  gods  in 
virtue.  Brave  deeds  and  a  sacred  passion  for  justice 
exalted  these  men  ;  their  dress  was  rough  and  their 
meals  simple,  and  the  hands  they  brought  from  the 
crooked  plough  were  ready  with  the  sword-hilt  ^  ; 
content  with  little,  uncovetous  of  riches,  they  often 
went  back  to  humble  homes  from  the  triumphal  car. 

At  the  sacred  doors  and  on  the  threshold  of  the 
temple  ^  captured  chariots  were  hung,  glorious  spoils 
of  war,  and  armour  taken  from  hostile  generals,  and 
axes  ruthless  in  battle,  and  perforated  shields,  and 
weapons  to  which  the  blood  still  clung,  and  the  bolts 
of  city-gates.  Here  one  might  see  the  wars  with 
Carthage,  the  Aegatian  *  islands,  and  the  ships'  prows 
which  testified  that  Carthage  had  been  driven  from 
the  sea  when  her  fleet  was  defeated  on  the  water. 
Here  were  the  helmets  of  the  Senones  and  the  in- 
solent sword  that  decreed  the  weight  of  gold  paid 
down,^  and  the  armour  that  was  borne  in  the  proces- 
sion of  Camillus  on  his  return,  when  the  Gauls  had 
been  repulsed  from  the  citadel  ;  here  were  the  spoils 
of  the  scion  of  Aeacus,  and  here  the  standards  of  the 

'  In  390  B.C.  the  Senones,  a  Gallic  tribe,  took  Rome  and 
burnt  it.  The  Romans  paid  gold  for  a  ransom  ;  and  when 
the  gold  was  being  weighed,  Brennus,  the  leader  of  the  Gauls, 
threw  his  sword  into  the  scale,  as  a  gesture  of  contempt. 
Brennus  was  afterwards  defeated  by  Gamillus. 



et  Ligurum  horrentes  coni  parmaeque  relatae 
Hispana  de  gente  rudes  Alpinaque  gaesa. 

Sed  postquam  clades  patefecit  et  horrida  bella   630 
orantum  squalor,  praesens  astare  Sagunti 
ante  oculos  visa  est  extrema  precantis  imago, 
turn  senior  maesto  Sicoris  sic  incipit  ore  : 
"  sacrata  gens  clara  fide,  quam  rite  fatentur 
Marte  satam  populi  ferro  parere  subacti,  635 

ne  crede  emensos  levia  ob  discrimina  pontum. 
vidimus  obsessam  patriam  murosque  trementes  ; 
et,  quern  insana  freta  aut  coetus  genuere  ferarum, 
vidimus  Hannibalem.     procul  his  a  moenibus,  oro, 
arcete,  o  superi,  nostroque  in  Marte  tenete  640 

fatiferae  iuvenem  dextrae  !     qua  mole  sonant es 
exigit  ille  trabes  !  et  quantus  crescit  in  armis  ! 
trans  iuga  Pyrenes,  medium  indignatus  Hiberum, 
excivit  Calpen  et  mersos  Syrtis  harenis 
molitur  populos  maioraque  moenia  quaerit.  645 

spumeus  hie,  medio  qui  surgit  ab  aequore,  fluctus, 
si  prohibere  piget,  vestras  se  effringet  in  urbes. 
an  tanti  pretium  motus  ruptique  per  enses 
foederis  hoc  iuveni  iurata  in  bella  ruenti 
creditis,  ut  statuat  superatae  iura  Sagunto  ?  650 

ocius  ite,  viri,  et  nascentem  extinguite  flammam, 
ne  serae  redeant  post  aucta  pericula  curae. 
quamquam  o,  si  nullus  terror,  non  obruta  iam  nunc 
semina  fumarent  belli,  vestraene  Sagunto 

«  Pyrrhus,  king  of  Epirus,  who  made  war  against  Rome 
282-  275  B.C.  He  claimed  descent  from  Achilles,  the  grandson 
of  Aeacus. 

"  See  note  to  1.  141.  "  See  note  to  1.  408. 


PUNICA,   I.   628-654 

Epirote,"  the  bristling  plumed  helmets  of  the  Ligures, 
the  rude  targets  brought  back  from  Spanish  natives, 
and  Alpine  javelins. 

But  when  the  mourning  garb  of  the  suppliants  made 
plain  their  calamities  and  sufferings  in  war,  the  Senate 
seemed  to  see  before  them  the  figure  of  Saguntum 
appealing  for  help  in  her  last  hour.  Then  aged 
Sicoris  thus  began  his  sorrowful  tale  :  "  O  people 
famous  for  keeping  of  your  oaths,  people  whom  the 
nations  defeated  by  your  arms  admit  with  reason  to 
be  the  seed  of  Mars,  think  not  that  we  have  crossed 
the  sea  because  of  trifling  dangers.  We  have  seen 
our  native  city  besieged  and  its  walls  rocking  ;  we 
have  looked  on  Hannibal,  a  man  to  whom  raging  seas 
or  some  union  of  wild  beasts  gave  birth.  I  pray  that 
Heaven  may  keep  the  deadly  arm  of  that  stripling 
far  from  these  walls,  and  confine  him  to  war  against 
us.  With  what  might  he  hurls  the  crashing  beam  ! 
How  his  stature  increases  in  battle  !  Scorning  the 
limit  of  the  Ebro,  and  crossing  the  range  of  the 
Pyrenees,  he  has  roused  up  Calpe  ^  and  stirs  up  the 
peoples  hidden  in  the  sands  of  the  Syrtis,"  and  has 
greater  cities  in  his  eye.  This  foaming  billow,  rising" 
in  mid-ocean,  will  dash  itself  against  the  cities  of 
Italy,  if  you  refuse  to  stop  it.  Do  you  believe  that 
Hannibal,  frantic  for  the  war  he  has  sworn  to  wage, 
will  be  content  with  this  reward  of  his  great  enter- 
prise and  his  breach  of  treaty  by  force  of  arms — the 
conquest  and  submission  of  Saguntum  ?  Hasten,  ye 
men  of  Rome,  to  put  out  the  flame  in  its  beginning, 
or  the  trouble  may  recur  too  late  when  the  danger 
has  grown  greater.  And  yet — ah  me  ! — if  no  danger 
threatened  you,  if  the  hidden  sparks  of  war  were  not 
at  this  moment  smoking,  would  it  be  beneath  you  to 

VOL.  I  c  2  53 


spernendum  consanguineam  protendere  dextram  ? 

omnis  Hiber,  omnis  rapidis  fera  Gallia  turmis,        656 

omnis  ab  aestifero  sitiens  Libys  imminet  axe. 

per  vos  culta  diu  Rutulae  primordia  gentis 

Laurentemque  larem  et  genetricis  pignora  Troiae, 

conservate  pios,  qui  permutare  coacti  660 

Acrisioneis  Tirynthia  culmina  muris. 

vos  etiam  Zanclen  Siculi  contra  arma  tyranni 

iuvisse  egregium  ;  vos  et  Campana  tueri 

moenia,  depulso  Samnitum  robore,  dignum 

Sigeis  duxistis  avis,     vetus  incola  Daunus,  665 

testor  vos,  fontes  et  stagna  arcana  Numici, 

cum  felix  nimium  dimitteret  Ardea  pubem, 

sacra  domumque  ferens  et  avi  penetralia  Turni, 

ultra  Pyrenen  Laurentia  nomina  duxi. 

cur  ut  decisa  atque  avulsa  a  corpore  membra         670 

despiciar,  nosterque  luat  cur  foedera  sanguis  ?  " 

Tandem,  ut  finitae  voces,  (miserabile  visu) 
summissi  palmas,  lacerato  tegmine  vestis, 
affigunt  proni  squalentia  corpora  terrae. 
inde  agitant  consulta  patres  curasque  fatigant.      675 
Lentulus,  ut  cernens  accensae  tecta  Sagunti, 
poscendum  poenae  iuvenem  celerique  negantis 
exuri  bello  Carthaginis  arva  iubebat. 

"  A  reference  to  the  Palladium,  a  statue  of  Pallas,  which 
was  brought  from  Troy  to  Rome  and  assured  the  safety  of 
the  city  which  contained  it. 

"  That  is,  to  migrate  from  Ardea  to  Saguntum  :  Danae, 
daughter  of  Acrisius,  was  said  to  have  founded  Ardea. 

"  Zancle,  afterwards  called  Messana,  when  occupied  by 
the  Mamertines,  was  defended  by  Rome  against  Hiero,  king 
of  Syracuse. 

**  In  343  B.C.  the  Romans  rescued  Capua,  the  capital  of 
Campania,  from  the  Samnites. 

'   A  name  for  Italy. 


PUNICA,  I.   655-678 

hold  out  to  your  city  of  Saguntum  a  kindred  hand  ? 
All  Spain  threatens  us,  all  Gaul  with  her  swift  horse- 
men, and  all  thirsty  Libya  from  the  torrid  zone.  By 
the  long-cherished  origins  of  the  Rutulian  race,  by  the 
household  gods  of  Laurentum,  and  by  the  pledges  " 
of  our  mother  Troy,  preserve  those  righteous  men 
who  were  forced  to  leave  the  walls  of  Acrisius  for 
the  towers  of  Hercules.^  It  M^as  your  glory  to  help 
Zancle  against  the  armies  of  the  Sicilian  despot ''; 
you  deemed  it  worthy  of  your  Trojan  ancestors  to 
defend  the  walls  of  Capua  and  drive  away  the  strength 
of  the  Samnites.**  I  was  once  a  dweller  in  Daunia  * — 
bear  witness,  ye  springs  and  secret  pools  of  the  river 
Numicius  ^  ! — and  when  Ardea  sent  forth  the  sons  in 
which  she  was  too  rich,  I  bore  forth  ^  the  sacred  things 
and  the  inner  shrine  from  the  house  of  Turnus,  my 
ancestor,  and  carried  the  name  of  Laurentum  beyond 
the  Pyrenees.  Why  should  I  be  scorned,  like  a  limb 
cut  off  and  torn  from  the  body  }  and  why  should  our 
blood  expiate  the  breach  of  the  treaty  ?  " 

At  last,  when  they  ceased  to  speak,  it  was  pitiful 
to  see  them  dash  their  unkempt  bodies  down  upon 
the  floor,  with  their  open  hands  held  up  and  their 
garments  torn.  Next  the  Fathers  held  counsel  and 
carried  on  anxious  debate.  Lentulus,  as  if  he  actually 
saw  the  houses  of  Saguntum  burning,  moved  that 
they  should  demand  the  surrender  of  Hannibal  for 
punishment,  and  that,  if  Carthage  refused  to  give 
him  up,  her  territory  should  be  ravaged  with  instant 

'  A  small  river  of  Latium  runnina:  into  the  sea  between 
Ardea  and  Laurentum  :  it  was  believed  that  Aeneas  was 
buried  beside  the  river. 

»  The  speaker  identifies  himself  with  the  original  settlers 
at  Saguntum. 


at  Fabius,  cauta  speculator  mente  futuri 
nee  laetus  dubiis  parcusque  lacessere  Martem        680 
et  melior  clause  bellum  producere  ferro  : 
prima  super  tantis  rebus  pensanda,  ducisne 
ceperit  arma  furor,  patres  an  signa  moveri 
censuerint ;  mittique  viros,  qui  exacta  reportent. 
providus  haec,  ritu  vatis,  fundebat  ab  alto  685 

pectore  praemeditans  Fabius  surgentia  bella. 
|ut  saepe  e  celsa  grandaevus  puppe  magister, 
prospiciens  signis  venturum  in  carbasa  Caurum, 
summo  iam  dudum  substringit  lintea  malo. 
sed  lacrimae  atque  ira  mixtus  dolor  impulit  omnes 
praecipitare  latens  fatum  ;  lectique  senatu,  691 

qui  ductorem  adeant  ;  si  perstet  surdus  in  armis 
pactorum,  vertant  inde  ad  Carthaginis  arces 
nee  divum  oblitis  indicere  bella  morentur. 

"  See  note  to  ii.  6. 

**  The  Carthap:inians  were  unmindful  of  the  gods,  when 
they  violated  a  treaty  which  they  had  sworn  by  the  gods  to 


PUNICA,   I.   679-694 

war.  But  Fabius,**  peering  warily  into  the  future,  no 
lover  of  doubtful  courses,  slow  to  provoke  war,  and 
skilful  to  prolong  a  campaign  without  unsheathing 
the  sword,  was  next  to  speak.  He  said  that  in  so 
grave  a  matter  they  must  first  find  out  whether  the 
madness  of  Hannibal  began  the  war,  or  the  senate  of 
Carthage  ordered  the  army  to  advance  ;  they  must 
send  envoys  to  examine  and  report.  Mindful  of  the 
future  and  musing  on  the  war  to  come,  Fabius, 
prophet-like,  uttered  this  advice  from  his  lofty  soul. 
Thus  many  a  veteran  pilot,  when  from  his  high 
poop  he  sees  by  tokens  that  the  gale  will  soon  fall 
upon  his  canvas,  reefs  his  sails  in  haste  upon  the  top- 
mast. But  tears,  and  grief  mixed  with  resentment, 
made  them  all  eager  to  hasten  the  unknown  future. 
Senators  were  chosen  to  approach  Hannibal ;  if  he 
turned  a  deaf  ear  to  his  engagements  and  fought  on, 
they  must  then  turn  their  steps  to  the  city  of  Carthafre 
and  declare  war  without  delay  against  men  unmindful 
of  the  gods.^ 




The  Roman  envoys,  dismissed  by  Hannibal,  proceed  to 
Carthage  (1-24).  Hannibal  addresses  his  tnen  and  goes  on 
with  the  siege  (25-269).  The  Roman  envoys  are  received  in 
the  Carthaginian  senate :  speeches  of  Hanno  and  Gestar : 
Fabius  declares  war  (270-390).  Hannibal  deals  with  some 
rebellious  tribes  and  returns  to  the  siege  :  he  receives  a 
gift  of  armour  from  the  Spanish  peoples  (391-456).     The 

Caeruleis  provecta  vadis  iam  Dardana  puppis 
tristia  magnanimi  portabat  iussa  senatus 
primoresque  patrum.     Fabius,  Tirynthia  proles, 
ter  centum  memorabat  avos,  quos  turbine  Martis 
abstulit  una  dies,  cum  Fors  non  aequa  labori  5 

patricio  Cremerae  maculavit  sanguine  ripas. 
huic  comes  aequato  sociavit  munere  curas 
Publicola,  ingentis  Volesi  Spartana  propago. 
is,  cultam  referens  insigni  nomine  plebem, 
Ausonios  atavo  ducebat  consule  fastos.  10 

Hos  ut  depositis  portum  contingere  velis 

"  Q.  Fabius  Maximus,  the  famous  Dictator  often  men- 
tioned later  in  the  poem,  was  one  of  the  envoys.  The  Fabii 
claimed  Hercules  as  their  ancestor.  In  480  b.c,  three  hun- 
dred Fabii  with  4000  clients  went  out  to  fight  against  the 
people  of  Veil,  and  all  but  one  of  them  fell  by  the  river 
Cremera  in  Etruria. 



ARGUMENT  (continued) 

sufferings  of  Saguntum  (457-474).  The  goddess  Loyalty  is 
sent  to  the  city  by  Hercules,  its  founder,  and  encourages  them 
to  resist  (475-525).  But  Juno  sends  a  Fury  from  Hell  who 
drives  the  people  mad  (526-649).  TJiey  build  a  great  pyre 
and  light  it.  Hannibal  takes  the  city  (650-695).  Epilogue 
by  the  poet  (696-707). 

And  now  the  Roman  vessel,  sailing  forth  over  the 
blue  water,  carried  leading  senators  with  the  stern 
behests  of  the  high-souled  Senate.  Fabius,  descended 
from  Hercules,  could  tell  of  ancestors  thre^  hundred 
in  number,  who  were  swept  away  in  a  single  day  by 
the  hurricane  of  war,  when  Fortune  frowned  on  the 
enterprise  of  the  patricians  and  stained  the  banks  of 
the  Cremera  with  their  blood.**  With  Fabius  went 
Publicola,  the  Spartan  descendant  of  mighty  Volesus, 
and  shared  the  duty  in  common  with  his  colleague. 
Publicola  showed  by  his  name  his  friendship  for  the 
people,  and  the  name  stood  first  on  the  roll  of  Roman 
consuls,  when  his  ancestor  held  office.^ 

When  word  was  brought  to    Hannibal   that  the 

*  Volesus,  the  founder  of  the  famous  Valerian  family,  was 
a  Sabine,  who  settled  at  Rome.  The  Sabines  claimed  a 
Spartan  origin.  One  of  his  descendants  gained  the  name 
of  Publicola(b^riend  of  the  People), and  was  elected  consul  in 
the  first  year  of  the  Republic,  509  b.c. 



allatum  Hannibali  consultaque  ferre  senatus 
iam  medio  seram  bello  poscentia  pacem 
ductorisque  simul  conceptas  foedere  poenas, 
ocius  armatas  passim  per  litora  turmas  15 

ostentare  iubet  minitantia  signa  recensque 
perfusos  clipeos  et  tela  rubentia  caede. 
baud  dictis  nunc  esse  locum  ;  strepere  omnia  clamat 
Tyrrhenae  clangore  tubae  gemituque  cadentum. 
dum  detur,  relegant  pontum  neu  se  addere  clausis    20 
festinent ;  notum,  quid  caede  calentibus  armis, 
quantum  irae  liceat,  motusve  quid  audeat  ensis. 
sic  ducis  afFatu  per  inhospita  litora  pulsi, 
converso  Tyrios  petierunt  remige  patres. 

Hie  alto  Poenus  fundentem  vela  carinam  25 

incessens  dextra  :   "  Nostrum,  pro  lupiter  !  '*  inquit, 
"  nostrum  ferre  caput  parat  ilia  per  aequora  puppis. 
heu  caecae  mentes  tumefactaque  corda  secundis  ! 
armatum  Hannibalem  poenae  petit  impia  tellus  ! 
ne  deposce,  adero  ;  dabitur  tibi  copia  nostri  30 

ante  expectatum,  portisque  focisque  timebis, 
quae  nunc  externos  defendis,  Roma,  penates. 
Tarpeios  iterum  scopulos  praeruptaque  saxa 
scandatis  licet  et  celsam  migretis  in  arcem, 
nullo  iam  capti  vitam  pensabitis  auro."  35 

Incensi  dictis  animi,  et  furor  additus  armis. 
conditur  extemplo  telorum  nubibus  aether, 

"  The  war-trumpet  was  an  Etruscan  Invention. 

^  Italy. 

"  The  first  time  was  during  the  Gallic  invasion  in  390  b.c. 

<*  See  note  to  i.  624. 


PUNICA,  IT.   12-37 

envoys  had  lowered  sail  and  were  gaining  the  har- 
bour, and  that  they  brought  a  decree  of  the  Senate 
demanding  peace — a  belated  peace  when  war  was 
already  raging — and  also  the  punishment  of  the 
general  as  laid  down  in  the  treaty,  he  quickly  ordered 
squadrons  in  arms  to  display  all  along  the  shore 
menacing  standards,  shields  newly  dyed  with  blood, 
and  weapons  red  with  slaughter.  ' '  This  is  no  time  for 
words,"  he  cried  ;  "  all  the  land  is  loud  with  the  blare 
of  the  Tyrrhene  « trumpet  and  the  groans  of  the  dying. 
Let  them,  while  they  may,  put  to  sea  again,  and  not 
make  haste  to  join  the  besieged  Saguntines  ;  we  know 
the  licence  of  passion  and  of  weapons  reeking  with 
slaughter,  and  the  boldness  of  the  sword,  when  once 
unsheathed."  Thus  accosted  by  Hannibal,  the  envoys, 
driven  away  along  the  unfriendly  shore,  turned  their 
course  about  and  made  for  the  Carthaginian  senate. 

Then  Hannibal  shook  his  fist  at  the  vessel  as  she 
spread  her  sails  :  "Ye  gods,"  he  cried,  "it  is  my 
head,  even  mine,  which  yonder  ship  seeks  to  carry 
across  the  sea  !  Woe  be  to  minds  that  cannot  see, 
and  to  hearts  puffed  up  with  prosperity  !  The  un- 
righteous land  ^  demands  Hannibal,  sword  in  hand, 
for  punishment.  Without  your  asking,  I  shall  come  ; 
you  shall  see  enough  of  me  before  you  expect  me  ; 
and  Rome,  which  is  now  protecting  foreign  house- 
holds, shall  tremble  for  her  own  gates  and  her  own 
hearths.  Though  ye  clamber  a  second  time  ^  up  the 
steep  cliffs  of  the  Tarpeian  rock  and  take  refuge  in 
your  lofty  citadel,  ye  shall  not  again,  when  made 
prisoners,  ransom  your  lives  for  any  weight  of  gold."  ^ 

These  words  fired  the  courage  of  his  troops,  and 
they  fought  with  fresh  fury.  Instantly  the  sky  was 
hidden  with  clouds  of  missiles,  and  the  towers  of 



et  densa  resonant  saxorum  grandine  turres. 

ardor  agit,  provecta  queat  dum  cernere  muros, 

inque  oculis  profugae  Martem  exercere  carinae.      40 

ipse  autem  incensas  promissa  piacula  turmas 

flagitat,  insignis  nudato  vulnere,  ductor 

ac  repetens  questus  furibundo  personat  ore  : 

"  poscimur,  o  socii,  Fabiusque  e  puppe  catenas 

ostentat,  dominique  vocat  nos  ira  senatus.  45 

si  taedet  coepti,  culpandave  movimus  arma, 

Ausoniam  ponto  propere  revocate  carinam. 

nil  moror,  evincta  lacerandum  tradite  dextra. 

nam  cur,  Eoi  deductus  origine  Beli, 

tot  Libyae  populis,  tot  circumfusus  Hiberis,  60 

servitium  perferre  negem  ?     Rhoeteius  immo 

aeternum  imperet  et  populis  saeclisque  propaget 

regna  ferox  ;  nos  iussa  virum  nutusque  tremamus." 

efFundunt  gemitus  atque  omina  tristia  vertunt 

in  stirpem  Aeneadum  ac  stimulant  clamoribus  iras.  55 

Discinctos  inter  Libyas  populosque  bilingues 
Marmaricis  audax  in  bella  Oenotria  signis 
venerat  Asbyte,  proles  Garamantis  Hiarbae. 
Hammone  hie  genitus,  Phorcynidos  antra  Medusae 
Cinyphiumque  Macen  et  iniquo  a  sole  calentes        60 
Battiadas  late  imperio  sceptrisque  regebat ; 
cui  patrius  Nasamon  aeternumque  arida  Barce, 

«  Hannibal  himself.  *  See  note  to  i.  73. 

"  Silius  here  uses  "  Rhoetean "  as  an  equivalent  of 
"  Roman."  Rhoeteum  was  a  promontory  in  the  Trojan 
country.  This  is  more  surprising  than  the  names  of  Trojans, 
Phrygians,  Dardanids,  Priamids,  Teucri,  etc.,  which  he  con- 
stantly applies  to  the  Romans :  see  p.  xiii. 

•*  i.e.  the  doom  foreseen  by  Hannibal  for  Carthage. 

•  Speaking  Libyan  and  Egyptian. 

^  Asbyte  is  clearly  modelled  upon  Camilla  in  the  A  eneid  ( vii. 
803  foil.).  The  chief  nations  of  Libya  are  enumerated  below. 

PUNICA,   II.   38-62 

Sagimtum  rattled  under  a  thick  hail  of  stones.  Men 
were  spurred  on  by  their  eagerness  to  wage  war 
under  the  eyes  of  the  retreating  vessel,  while  she 
could  still  see  the  walls  in  her  course.  But  their  leader, 
conspicuous  with  his  wound  exposed  to  view,  himself 
demanded  of  his  excited  soldiers  the  promised 
scapegoat,**  and  shouted  his  repeated  complaint 
with  frenzied  utterance  :  "  Comrades,  the  Romans 
demand  my  surrender ;  and  Fabius  on  the  deck 
displays  the  fetters  for  me,  and  the  wrath  of  the 
imperious  Senate  summons  me.  If  you  are  weary  of 
our  enterprise,  if  the  war  we  have  begun  is  blame- 
worthy, then  make  haste  to  recall  the  Roman  ship 
from  the  sea.  I  am  ready  :  hand  me  over  to  the 
torturers  with  fettered  wrists.  For  why  should  I, 
though  I  trace  my  pedigree  to  Belus  ^  of  the  East, 
and  am  girt  about  by  so  many  nations  of  Africa  and 
Spain — why  should  I  refuse  to  endure  slavery  ? 
Nay,  let  the  Roman "  rule  for  ever,  and  proudly 
spread  his  tyranny  over  the  world  for  all  generations  : 
let  us  tremble  at  their  nod  and  obey  their  bidding." 
His  men  groan  aloud,  and  turn  the  evil  omen  ^  upon 
the  race  of  the  Aeneadae,  and  increase  their  ardour 
by  shouting. 

Among  the  loosely-girt  Libyans  and  the  peoples 
of  two  tongues,^  Asbyte^  had  come  boldly  to  fight 
against  Rome  with  troops  from  Marmarica.  She  was 
the  child  of  Hiarbas  the  Garamantian  ;  and  he  was 
the  son  of  Ammon  and  ruled  with  extended  sway 
the  caves  of  Medusa,  daughter  of  Phorcys,  and  the 
Macae  who  dwell  by  the  river  Cinyps,  and  the 
Cyrenians  whom  the  cruel  sun  scorches  ;  he  was 
obeyed  by  the  Nasamones,  hereditary  subjects,  by 
ever-parched  Barce,  by  the  forests  of  the  Autololes, 



cui  nemora  Autololum  atque  infidae  litora  Syrtis 

parebant  nullaque  levis  Gaetulus  habena. 

atque  is  fundarat  thalamos  Tritonide  nympha,         65 

unde  genus  proavumque  lovem  regina  ferebat 

et  sua  fatidico  repetebat  nomina  luco. 

haec,  ignara  viri  vacuoque  assueta  cubili, 

venatu  et  silvis  primos  dependerat  annos  ; 

non  calathis  mollita  manus  operatave  fuso,  70 

Dietynnam  et  saltus  et  anhelum  impellere  planta 

cornipedem  ac  stravisse  feras  immitis  amabat. 

quales  Threiciae  Rhodopen  Pangaeaque  lustrant 

saxosis  nemora  alta  iugis  cursuque  fatigant 

Hebrum  innupta  manus  :  spreti  Ciconesque  Getaeque 

et  Rhesi  domus  et  lunatis  Bistones  armis.  76 

Ergo  habitu  insignis  patrio,  religata  fluentem 
Hesperidum  crinem  dono  dextrumque  feroci 
nuda  latus  Marti  ac  fulgentem  tegmine  laevam 
Thermodontiaca  munita  in  proelia  pelta,  80 

fumantem  rapidis  quatiebat  cursibus  axem. 
pars  comitum  biiugo  curru,  pars  cetera  dorso 
fertur  equi ;  nee  non  Veneris  iam  foedera  passae 
reginam  cingunt,  sed  virgine  densior  ala  est. 
ipsa  autem  gregibus  per  longa  mapalia  lectos  85 

ante  aciem  ostentabat  equos  ;  tumuloque  propinqua 
dum  sequitur  gyris  campum,  vibrata  per  auras 
spicula  contorquens  summa  ponebat  in  arce. 

"  The  oracular  shrine  of  Jupiter  Ammon :  see  note  to  i.  415. 

*  A  name  of  Diana,  the  Huntress. 

"  A  warlike  race  of  women,  who  play  a  great  part  in 
Greek  mythology  and  art.  They  were  supposed  to  live 
among  the  Thracian  mountains,  Rhodope  and  Pangaeus, 
and  by  the  river  Hebrus. 

^  A  golden  clasp  is  meant :  the  Hesperides  were  nymphs 
who  guarded  the  golden  apples  near  Mount  Atlas. 

PUNICA,   II.   63-88 

by  the  shore  of  treacherous  Syrtis,  and  by  the  Gae- 
tulians  who  ride  without  reins.  And  he  had  built 
a  marriage-bed  for  the  nymph  Tritonis,  from  whom 
the  princess  was  born ;  she  claimed  Jupiter  as  her 
forefather  and  derived  her  name  from  the  prophetic 
grove."  She  was  a  maiden  and  ever  lay  alone,  and  had 
spent  her  early  years  in  the  forest-chase ;  never  did  the 
wool-basket  soften  her  hands  nor  the  spindle  give  her 
occupation  ;  but  she  loved  Dictynna  ^  and  the  wood- 
lands, and  to  urge  on  with  her  heel  the  panting  steed 
and  lay  low  wild  beasts  without  mercy.  Even  so 
the  band  of  Amazons  '^  in  Thrace  traverse  Rhodope 
and  the  high  forests  on  the  stony  ridges  of  Mount 
Pangaeus,  and  tire  out  the  Hebrus  by  their  speed ; 
they  spurn  all  suitors — the  Cicones  and  Getae,  the 
royal  house  of  Rhesus,  and  the  Bistones  with  their 
crescent-shaped  shields. 

And  thus  conspicuous  in  her  native  dress — with 
her  long  hair  bound  by  a  gift  from  the  Hesperides,*^ 
with  her  right  breast  bared  for  battle,  while  the 
shield  glittered  on  her  left  arm  and  the  target  of 
the  Amazons  protected  her  in  battle — she  urged  on 
her  smoking  chariot  with  furious  speed.  Some  of  her 
companions  drove  two-horse  chariots,  while  others 
rode  on  horseback  ;  and  some  of  the  princess's  escort 
had  already  submitted  to  the  bond  of  wedlock,  but 
the  maidens  of  the  troop  outnumbered  these.  She 
herself  proudly  displayed  before  the  line  the  steeds 
which  she  had  chosen  from  the  droves  among  distant 
native  huts  ;  keeping  near  the  mound,  she  drove 
round  the  plain  in  circles  ;  and,  hurling  her  whizzing 
missiles  through  the  air,  she  planted  them  in  the 
summit  of  the  citadel. 



Haiic  hasta  totiens  intrantem  moenia  Mopsus 
non  tulit  et  celsis  senior  Gortynia  muris  90 

tela  sonante  fugat  nervo  liquidasque  per  auras 
dirigit  aligero  letalia  vulnera  ferro. 
Cres  erat,  aerisonis  Curetum  advectus  ab  antris, 
Dictaeos  agitare  puer  levioribus  annis 
pennata  saltus  assuetus  harundine  Mopsus.  95 

ille  vagam  caelo  demisit  saepe  volucrem  ; 
ille  procul  campo  linquentem  retia  cervum 
vulnere  sistebat ;  rueretque  inopina  sub  ictu 
ante  fera  ineauto,  quam  sibila  poneret  arcus. 
nee  se  turn  pharetra  iactavit  iustius  ulla,  100 

Eois  quamquam  certet  Gortyna  sagittis. 
verum  ut,  opum  levior,  venatu  extendere  vitam 
abnuit,  atque  artae  res  exegere  per  aequor, 
coniuge  cum  Meroe  natisque  inglorius  hospes 
intrarat  miseram,  fato  ducente,  Saguntum.  105 

coryti  fratrum  ex  humeris  calami  que  paterni 
pendebant  volucerque  chalybs,  Minoia  tela, 
hie,  medius  iuvenum,  Massylae  gentis  in  agmen 
crebra  Cydoneo  fundebat  spicula  cornu. 
iam     Garamum    audacemque    Thyrum    pariterque 
ruentes  110 

Gisgonem  saevumque  Bagam  indignumque  sagittae, 
impubem  malas,  tarn  certae  occurrere  Lixum 
fuderat  et  plena  tractabat  bella  pharetra. 
turn,  vultum  intendens  telumque  in  virginis  ora, 
desertum  non  grata  lovem  per  vota  vocabat.  115 

**  Arrows  in  Latin  poetry  are  generally  "  Dictaean  "  or 
*  Gortynian "  or  "  Cretan."  Crete  was  famous  for  its 
archers  ;  and  Dicte  and  Gortyn  are  Cretan  cities. 

"  The  Curetes   were  the  guardians   of  the  infant   Zeus 
(Jupiter)  in  Crete  and  drowned  his  cries  by  clashing  their 
shields  and  cymbals.        *  The  Parthian  archers  are  meant. 

PUNICA,   II.   89-116 

Again  and  again  she  hurled  her  weapons  within  the 
walls  ;  but  old  Mopsus  resented  it,  and  sped  from  the 
high  walls  Cretan  °  arrows  from  his  twanging  bow, 
and  launched  through  the  clear  sky  deadly  wounds 
with  the  winged  steel.  He  was  a  Cretan,  who  had 
voyaged  from  the  caverns  of  the  Curetes  ^  that  ring 
with  brass.  When  young  and  nimble,  he  was  wont 
to  beat  the  coverts  of  Dicte  with  feathered  shafts : 
oft  did  he  bring  down  from  the  sky  the  wandering 
bird  ;  from  a  distance  he  would  strike  and  stay  the 
stag  that  was  escaping  from  the  nets  along  the  plain ; 
and  the  beast  would  collapse,  surprised  by  a  blow 
unforeseen,  before  the  bow  had  ceased  to  twang. 
Gortyna,  though  she  rivals  the  arrows  of  the  East," 
had  more  reason  then  to  boast  of  Mopsus  than  of  any 
other  archer.  But  when,  grown  poor,  he  was  un- 
willing to  pass  his  whole  life  in  hunting,  and  when  his 
poverty  drove  him  across  the  sea,  he  had  come,  a 
humble  guest,  with  his  wife  Meroe  and  his  sons  ;  and 
destiny  had  led  him  to  ill-fated  Saguntum.  From 
the  young  men's  shoulders  there  hung  quivers  and 
their  father's  arrows  and  the  winged  steel  that  is 
Crete's  weapon.  Mopsus,  between  his  sons,  was 
raining  arrows  from  his  Cydonian  <*  bow  of  horn  upon 
the  Massy lian  warriors.  Already  he  had  laid  low 
Garamus  and  bold  Thyrus,  and  Gisgo  rushing  on 
together  with  fierce  Bagas,  and  Lixus,  yet  beardless, 
who  did  not  deserve  to  meet  an  arrow  so  unerring  ; 
and  he  fought  on  with  his  quiver  filled.  Now  he 
turned  his  eyes  and  his  weapon  against  the  face  of 
Asbyte,  and  prayed  to  Jupiter  ;  but  his  prayer  found 
no  favour  with  the  god  whom  he  had  deserted.*     For 

**  Cydon  is  another  city  of  Crete. 
•  By  leaving  Crete,  the  birthplace  of  Jupiter. 



namque  ut  fatiferos  convert!  prospicit  arcus, 
opposite  procul  insidiis  Nasamonias  Harpe 
corpore  praeripuit  letum  calamumque  volantem, 
dum  clamat,  patulo  excipiens  tramisit  hiatu, 
et  primae  ferrum  a  tergo  videre  sorores.  120 

at  comitis  frendens  casu  labentia  virgo 
membra  levat  parvaque  oculos  iam  luce  natantes 
irrorat  lacrimis  totisque  annisa  doloris 
viribus  intorquet  letalem  in  moenia  cornum. 
ilia  volans  humerum  rapido  transverberat  ictu        125 
conantis  Dorylae,  iunctis  iam  cornibus  arcus, 
educti  spatium  nervi  complente  sagitta, 
excutere  in  ventos  resoluto  pollice  ferrum. 
tum  subitum  in  vulnus  praeceps  devolvitur  altis 
aggeribus  muri,  iuxtaque  cadentia  membra  130 

effusi  versa  calami  fluxere  pharetra. 
exclamat  paribus  frater  vicinus  in  armis 
Icarus  ulciscique  parat  lacrimabile  fatum. 
atque  ilium  raptim  promentem  in  proelia  telum 
Hannibal  excussi  praevertit  turbine  saxi.  135 

labuntur  gelido  torpentia  frigore  membra, 
deficiensque  manus  pharetrae  sua  tela  remisit. 
At  pater  in  gemino  natorum  funere  Mopsus 
correptos  arcus  ter  maesta  movit  ab  ira, 
ter  cecidit  dextra,  et  notas  dolor  abstulit  artes.        140 
paenitet  heu  sero  dulces  liquisse  penates, 
arreptoque  avide.  quo  concidis,  Icare,  saxo, 
postquam  aevum  senior  percussaque  pectora  frustra 
sentit  et,  ut  tantos  compescat  morte  dolores, 
nil  opis  in  dextra,  vastae  se  culmine  turris  145 

*•  The  Nasamones  were  an  African  tribe  who  lived  near 
the  Syrtes  and  had  an  evil  reputation  as  wreckers  :  see  i.  409. 

^  This  phrase  is  found  elsewhere  in  Latin  poetry  :    we 
should  say  "  fell  forward." 

PUNICA,   II.   116-145 

Harpe,  a  Nasamonian  «  maid,  when  she  saw  the  fatal 
bow  turned  about,  placed  herself  in  the  way  of  the 
distant  danger,  and  anticipated  the  mortal  blow  ; 
and  even  as  she  shouted,  the  flying  arrow  struck  her 
open  mouth  and  passed  through  ;  and  her  sisters  first 
saw  the  point  standing  out  behind  her.  But  Asbyte, 
furious  at  the  fall  of  her  comrade,  raised  the  prostrate 
body  and  wetted  with  her  tears  the  swimming  eyes 
with  their  failing  light ;  and  then,  putting  forth  all 
the  strength  of  sorrow,  she  hurled  her  deadly  spear 
against  the  city  walls.  On  it  flew  and  pierced  with 
sudden  blow  the  shoulder  of  Dorylas,  as  he  strove  to 
launch  the  steel  into  the  air  with  loosened  thumb — 
the  ends  of  the  bow  already  met,  and  the  arrow  filled 
the  space  left  by  the  expanded  string.  Then  he  fell 
down  headlong  towards  his  sudden  wound  ^  from  the 
high  bastions  of  the  wall,  and  beside  his  falling  body 
the  arrows  poured  forth  from  his  upset  quiver.  His 
brother,  Icarus,  armed  alike  and  standing  near  him, 
cried  aloud  and  sought  to  avenge  that  pitiable  death. 
But,  as  he  put  forth  his  weapon  in  haste  for  battle, 
Hannibal  hurled  a  great  stone  and  stopped  him  with 
its  whirling  mass.  His  limbs  collapsed,  stiff  with  icy 
cold,  and  his  failing  hand  returned  to  the  quiver  the 
arrow  that  belonged  to  it. 

But  Mopsus,  when  both  his  sons  were  slain, 
caught  up  his  bow  in  his  grief  and  rage,  and  bent  it 
thrice  ;  but  thrice  his  hand  fell,  and  sorrow  robbed 
him  of  his  accustomed  skill.  Too  late,  alas  !  he 
regrets  to  have  left  the  land  he  loved.  Eagerly  he 
clutched  the  stone  that  had  felled  Icarus  ;  but,  when 
the  old  man  felt  that  his  feeble  blows  on  his  own 
breast  were  vain,  and  knew  that  his  arm  could  not 
help  him  to  end  his  sore  grief  by  death,  he  threw  him- 



praecipitem  iacit  et  delapsus  pondere  prono 
membra  super  nati  moribundos  explicat  artus. 
Dum  cadit  externo  Gortynius  advena  bello, 
iam  nova  molitus  stimulate  milite  Theron, 
Alcidae  templi  custos  araeque  sacerdos,  150 

non  expectatum  Tyriis  efFuderat  agmen 
et  fera  miscebat  reserata  proelia  porta, 
atque  illi  non  hasta  manu,  non  vertice  cassis, 
sed,  fisus  latis  humeris  et  mole  iuventae, 
agmina  vastabat  elava,  nihil  indigus  ensis.  155 

exuviae  capiti  impositae  tegimenque  leonis 
terribilem  attoUunt  excelso  vertice  rictum. 
centum  angues  idem  Lernaeaque  monstra  gerebat 
in  clipeo  et  sectis  geminam  serpentibus  hydram. 
ille  lubam  Thapsumque  patrem  clarumque  Micipsam 
nomine  avi  Maurumque  Sacen,  a  moenibus  actos  161 
palantesque  fuga,  praeceps  ad  litora  cursu 
egerat,  atque  una  spumabant  aequora  dextra. 
nee  contentus  Idi  leto  letoque  Cothonis 
Marmaridae  nee  caede  Rothi  nee  caede  lugurthae,  165 
Asbytes  currum  et  radiantis  tegmina  laenae 
poscebat  votis  gemmataque  lumina  peltae 
atque  in  belligera  versabat  virgine  mentem. 
quem  ruere  ut  telo  vidit  regina  cruento, 
obliquos  detorquet  equos  laevumque  per  orbem      170 
fallaci  gyro  campum  secat  ac  velut  ales 
averso  rapitur  sinuata  per  aequora  curru. 

«  For  each  head  of  the  Hydra  (a  water-snake)  that  Her- 
cules cut  off,  two  new  heads  grew.  The  priest  of  Hercules 
displays  on  his  shield  one  of  the  Labours  of  Hercules. 

^  The  allusion  has  not  been  explained.  In  148  b.c.  a 
Micipsa  became  king  of  Numidia  and  adopted  Jugurtha. 
Perhaps  the  text  is  corrupt.  Silius  appears  to  be  giving  to 

PUNICA,   II.    146-172 

self  headlong  from  the  top  of  the  huge  tower  ;  and, 
ftilling  heavily  down,  laid  at  full  length  his  dying 
limbs  on  his  son's  body. 

While  the  Cretan  stranger  fell  thus  in  foreign  war, 
Theron,  who  guarded  Hercules'  temple  and  was  priest 
at  his  altar,  urged  on  the  fighters  and  attempted  a 
fresh  effort.  Unbarring  a  gate,  he  sent  out  a  force 
to  surprise  the  Carthaginians,  and  the  fighting  was 
fierce.  He  bore  no  spear  in  his  hand  nor  helmet  on 
his  head  ;  but,  trusting  in  his  broad  shoulders  and 
youthful  strength,  he  laid  the  enemy  low  with  a  club, 
and  craved  no  sword.  The  skin  stripped  from  a  lion 
was  laid  on  his  head,  and  raised  the  terrible  open 
mouth  aloft  on  his  tall  figure.  He  bore  likewise  on 
his  shield  a  hundred  snakes  and  the  monster  of  Lerna 
— the  hydra  °  that  multiplied  when  the  serpents  were 
cut  in  two.  Juba  and  his  father  Thapsus  ;  Micipsa, 
famous  for  the  glory  of  his  ancestor,^  and  Saces  the 
Moor — all  these  he  had  driven  from  the  walls  and 
pursued  headlong  to  the  shore  as  they  fled  in  dis- 
order ;  and  his  unaided  arm  made  the  sea  foam  with 
blood.  Not  satisfied  with  the  death  of  Idus  and  the 
death  of  Cotho  of  Marmarica,  nor  with  the  slaughter 
of  Rothus  and  the  slaughter  of  Jugurtha,  he  raised 
his  ambition  to  Asbyte's  chariot,  the  glittering  mantle 
that  covered  her,  and  her  bright  jewelled  target ; 
and  all  his  mind  was  fixed  on  the  warrior  maiden. 
When  the  princess  saw  him  rushing  on  with  blood- 
stained weapon,  she  made  her  horses  swerve  aside  ; 
and  thus,  evading  him  by  wheeling  to  the  left,  she 
cleaves  the  plain  and  flies  like  a  bird  over  the  curving 
field,  showing  him  the  back  of  her  chariot.     And, 

fictitious  persons  names  that  were  famous  later  in  Roman 
history.     He  does  the  same  thino:  elsewhere. 



dumque  ea  se  ex  oculis  aufert,  atque  ocior  Euro 

incita  pulveream  campo  trahit  ungula  nubem, 

adversum  late  stridens  rota  proterit  agmen,  175 

ingerit  et  crebras  virgo  trepidantibus  hastas. 

hie  cecidere  Lycus  Thamyrisque  et  nobile  nomen 

Eurydamas,  clari  deductum  stirpe  parentis  ; 

qui  thalamos  ausus  quondam  sperare  superbos, 

heu  demens  !  Ithacique  torum  ;  sed  enim  arte  pudica 

fallacis  totiens  revoluto  stamine  telae  181 

deceptus,  mersum  pelago  iactarat  Ulixen  ; 

ast  Ithacus  vero  ficta  pro  morte  loquacem 

affecit  leto,  taedaeque  ad  funera  versae. 

gens  extrema  viri  campis  deletur  Hiberis  185 

Eurydamas  Nomados  dextra  ;  superinstrepit  ater 

et  servat  cursum  perfractis  ossibus  axis. 

lamque  aderat  remeans  virgo,  inter  proelia  post- 
distringi  Therona  videt,  saevamque  bipennem 
perlibrans  mediae  fronti,  spolium  inde  superbum   190 
Herculeasque  tibi  exuvias,  Dictynna,  vovebat. 
nee  segnis  Theron  tantae  spe  laudis  in  ipsos 
adversus  consurgit  equos  villosaque  fulvi 
ingerit  obiectans  trepidantibus  ora  leonis. 
attoniti  terrore  novo  rictuque  minaci  195 

quadrupedes  iactant  resupino  pondere  currum. 
turn  saltu  Asbyten  conantem  linquere  pugnas 
occupat,  incussa  gemina  inter  tempora  clava, 
ferventesque  rotas  turbataque  frena  pavore 
disiecto  spargit  collisa  per  ossa  cerebro  ;  200 

ac  rapta  properans  caedem  ostentare  bipenni, 

"  Silius  seems  to  have  made  a  mistake.  In  Homer  the 
suitor  whom  Penelope  put  off  by  her  device  of  unravelling 
her  web  every  night  is  called  Eurymachus. 

"  Ulysses.  «  See  note  to  1.  71. 


PUNICA,  II.    173-201 

while  she  vanished  from  his  sight,  and  the  hoofs  of 
her  horses,  galloping  swifter  than  the  wind,  raised  a 
cloud  of  dust  on  the  field,  her  crashing  wheels  crushed 
the  opposing  ranks  far  and  wide  ;  and  the  maiden 
launched  spear  after  spear  upon  them  in  their  con- 
fusion. Here  Lycas  fell,  and  Thamyris,  and  Eury- 
damas  <*  of  famous  name,  the  scion  of  a  noble  stock. 
His  ancestor,  poor  fool !  had  dared  long  ago  to  covet 
a  splendid  marriage  with  the  wife  of  the  Ithacan  ^ ; 
but  he  was  taken  in  by  the  trick  of  the  chaste  wife, 
who  unravelled  every  night  the  threads  of  her  web. 
He  had  declared  that  Ulysses  was  drowned  at  sea ; 
but  the  Ithacan  inflicted  death  upon  the  prater — real 
death  and  no  fiction  ;  and  funeral  took  the  place  of 
marriage.  Now  his  latest  descendant,  Eurydamas, 
was  slain  by  the  hand  of  the  Numidian  queen  :  the 
fatal  chariot  thundered  over  his  broken  bones  and 
kept  its  course. 

And  now  Asbyte  came  back  to  the  place,  when  she 
saw  Theron  busy  with  battle  ;  and,  aiming  her  fierce 
battle-axe  at  the  centre  of  his  brow,  she  vowed  to 
Dictynna  ^  a  glorious  spoil  from  it,  even  the  lion-skin 
of  Hercules.  Nor  did  Theron  hang  back  :  eager  for 
so  great  a  prize,  he  rose  up  right  in  front  of  the  horses 
and  held  before  them  the  shaggy  head  of  the  tawny 
lion  and  thrust  it  in  their  frightened  faces.  Frantic 
with  fear  unfelt  before — fear  of  the  menacing  open 
jaws — the  coursers  upset  the  heavy  car  and  turned  it 
over.  Then,  as  Asbyte  tried  to  flee  from  the  fight, 
he  sprang  to  stop  her,  and  smote  her  between  the 
twin  temples  with  his  club  ;  he  spattered  the  glowing 
wheels  and  the  reins,  disordered  by  the  terrified 
horses,  with  the  brains  that  gushed  from  the  broken 
skull.     Then  he  seized  her  axe  and,  eager  to  display 



amputat  e  curru  revolutae  virginis  ora. 

necdum  irae  positae  ;  celsa  nam  figitur  hasta 

spectandum  caput ;  id  gestent  ante  agmina  Poenum, 

imperat,  et  propere  currus  ad  moenia  vertant.       205 

haec  caecus  fati  divumque  abeunte  favore 

vicino  Theron  edebat  proelia  leto. 

namque  aderat  toto  ore  ferens  iramque  minasque 

Hannibal  et  caesam  Asbyten  fixique  tropaeum 

infandum  capitis  furiata  mente  dolebat.  210 

ac  simul  aerati  radiavit  luminis  umbo, 

et  concussa  procul  membris  velocibus  arma 

letiferum  intonuere,  fugam  perculsa  repente 

ad  muros  trepido  convertunt  agmina  cursu. 

sicut  agit  levibus  per  sera  crepuscula  pennis  215 

e  pastu  volucres  ad  nota  cubilia  vesper  ; 

aut,  ubi  Cecropius  formidine  nubis  aquosae 

sparsa  super  flores  examina  tollit  Hymettos, 

ad  dulces  ceras  et  odori  corticis  antra 

mellis  apes  gravidae  properant  densoque  volatu     220 

raucum  connexae  glomerant  ad  limina  murmur. 

praecipitat  metus  attonitos,  caecique  feruntur. 

heu  blandum  caeli  lumen  !   tantone  cavetur 

mors  reditura  metu  nascentique  addita  fata  ? 

consilium  damnant  portisque  atque  aggere  tuto     225 

erupisse  gemunt ;  retinet  vix  agmina  Theron 

interdumque  manu,  interdum  clamore  minisque  : 

"  state,  viri ;  meus  ille  hostis  ;  mihi  gloria  magnae. 

«  Cecropian  =  Athenian.    Cecrops  was  an  ancient  king  of 
Athens  :  Hymettus,  famous  for  its  honey,  is  a  hill  at  Athens. 
^  Cp.  xvi.  73. 


PUNICA,   II.   202-228 

his  slaughter  of  her,  cut  off  the  head  of  the  maiden 
when  she  rolled  out  of  her  chariot.  Not  yet  was  his 
rage  sated  ;  for  he  fixed  her  head  on  a  lofty  pike, 
for  all  to  see,  and  bade  men  bear  it  in  front  of  the 
Punic  army,  and  drive  the  chariot  with  speed  to  the 
town.  Blind  to  his  doom  and  deserted  by  divine 
favour,  Theron  fought  on  ;  but  death  was  near  him. 
For  Hannibal  came  up,  with  wrath  and  menace 
expressed  in  every  feature  ;  with  frenzied  heart 
he  raged  at  the  slaughter  of  Asbyte,  and  at  the 
horrid  trophy  of  her  head  borne  aloft.  And,  as 
soon  as  his  shield  of  glittering  brass  shone  out, 
and  the  armour  on  his  swift  limbs,  rattling  afar, 
thundered  forth  doom,  the  enemy  were  suddenly 
stricken  with  fear  and  fled  in  haste  tow  ards  the  town. 
So,  in  the  late  twilight,  evening  sends  the  birds  on 
their  light  wings  back  from  their  feeding-ground  to 
their  familiar  roosts  ;  or  so,  when  Cecropian  Hymet- 
tus  "  scares  with  menace  of  a  rain-cloud  the  swarms 
scattered  over  the  flowers,  the  bees,  heavy  with 
honey,  hasten  back  to  their  luscious  combs  and  hives 
of  fragrant  cork  ;  they  fly  in  a  close  pack,  and  unite 
in  a  deep  humming  noise  outside  the  hives.  Thus 
panic  drove  the  frightened  soldiers  headlong,  and 
they  rushed  on  blindly.  Ah  !  how  sweet  is  the  light 
of  heaven !  *  Why  do  men  shun  with  such  terror 
the  death  that  must  some  day  come,  and  the  sentence 
pronounced  against  them  at  birth  ?  They  curse 
their  design,  and  lament  their  sally  from  the  protec- 
tion of  the  gates  and  the  wall.  Theron  can  hardly 
stop  their  flight,  using  force  sometimes  and  some- 
times loud  threats  :  "  Stand  fast,  my  men  ;  yon 
enemy  belongs  to  me  ;  stand  fast — victory  in  a 
mighty  combat  is  coming  to  me.    My  right  hand  shall 



state,  venit  pugnae  :  muro  tectisque  Sagunti 
hac  abigam  Poenos  dextra  ;  spectacula  tantum     230 
ferte,  viri ;  vel,  si  cunctos  metus  acer  in  urbem, 
heu  deforme  !  rapit,  soli  mihi  claudite  portas." 
At  Poenus  rapido  praeceps  ad  moenia  cursu, 
dum  pavitant  trepidi  rerum  fessique  salutis, 
tendebat ;  stat  primam  urbem  murosque  patentes 
postposita  caede  et  dilata  invadere  pugna.  236 

id  postquam  Herculeae  custos  videt  impiger  arae, 
emicat  et  velox  formidine  praevenit  hostem. 
gliscit  Elissaeo  violentior  ira  tyranno  : 
**  tu  solve  interea  nobis,  bone  ianitor  urbis,  240 

supplicium,  ut  pandas,"  inquit,  **  tua  moenia  leto." 
nee  plura  efFari  sinit  ira,  rotatque  coruscum 
mucronem  ;  sed  contortum  prior  impete  vasto 
Daunius  huie  robur  iuvenis  iacit ;  arma  fragore 
iota  gravi  raucum  gemuere,  alteque  resultant         245 
aere  illisa  cavo  nodosae  pondera  clavae. 
at  viduus  teli  et  frustrato  proditus  ictu, 
pernici  velox  cursu  rapit  incita  membra 
et  celeri  fugiens  perlustrat  moenia  planta. 
instat  atrox  terga  increpitans  fugientia  victor.        250 
conclamant  matres,  celsoque  e  culmine  muri 
lamentis  vox  mixta  sonat ;  nunc  nomine  noto 
appellant,  seras  fesso  nunc  pandere  portas 
posse  volunt ;  quatit  hortantum  praecordia  terror, 
ne  simul  accipiant  ingentem  moenibus  hostem.      255 
incutit  umbonem  fesso  assultatque  ruenti 

*  Daunian  =  Italian  =  Saguntine. 

PUNICA,   II.   229-256 

drive  away  the  Carthaginians  from  the  wall  and  houses 
of  Saguntum  :  do  your  part  as  mere  spectators  ;  or, 
if  urgent  fear  drives  you  all  into  the  city — a  sorry 
sight — then  shut  your  gates  against  me  alone." 

But  Hannibal  was  hastening  with  headlong  speed 
towards  the  walls,  while  the  besieged  were  in  fear, 
trembling  for  their  safety  and  despairing  of  life  ; 
his  purpose  was  to  attack  the  city  first  through  its 
open  gates,  deferring  the  slaughter  of  his  foe. 
When  the  bold  guardian  of  the  temple  of  Hercules 
saw  this,  he  sprang  forward  and,  urged  to  speed  by 
his  fears,  outstripped  the  foeman.  The  wrath  of  the 
Tyrian  leader  waxed  yet  fiercer  :  "  You,  worthy 
keeper  of  the  city's  gates,  shall  first  suffer  death  at 
my  hands,  and  by  your  death  throw  open  the  walls." 
Rage  prevented  further  speech,  and  he  whirled  round 
his  flashing  sword ;  but  the  Daunian  °  warrior  w  as 
before  him  and  swinging  his  club  with  mighty  force 
threw  it  at  Hannibal.  Beneath  that  heavy  blow  his 
armour  rang  with  a  hollow  sound  ;  and  the  weighty 
knotted  club,  crashing  upon  the  hollow  metal,  re- 
bounded high.  Then,  unarmed  and  betrayed  by  his 
unsuccessful  stroke,  Theron  urged  his  limbs  to  hasty 
flight  and  ran  round  the  walls,  seeking  to  escape 
by  his  speed.  The  conqueror  pursued  fiercely  and 
taunted  the  back  of  the  fugitive.  The  matrons  cried 
out  together,  and  their  voices,  together  with  wailings, 
rose  up  from  the  lofty  summit  of  the  wall ;  now  they 
address  Theron  by  his  familiar  name,  and  now,  too 
late,  they  wish  for  power  to  open  the  gate  to  him  in 
his  extremity  ;  but,  even  as  they  encourage  him, 
their  hearts  are  shaken  by  the  fear  that,  together 
with  him,  they  may  admit  within  the  walls  their 
mighty  foe.     Hannibal  struck  the  weary  runner  with 

VOL.  ID  77 


Poenus  et  ostentans  spectantem  e  moenibus  urbem  : 
**  i,  miseram  Asbyten  leto  solare  propinquo." 
haec  dicens,  iugulo  optantis  dimittere  vitam 
infestum  condit  mucronem  ac  regia  laetus  260 

quadrupedes  spolia  abreptos  a  moenibus  ipsis, 
quis  aditum  portae  trepidantum  saepserat  agmen, 
victor  agit  curruque  volat  per  ovantia  castra. 

At  Nomadum  furibunda  cohors  miserabile  humandi 
deproperat  munus  tumulique  adiungit  honorem     265 
et  rapto  cineres  ter  circum  corpore  lustrat. 
hinc  letale  viri  robur  tegimenque  tremendum 
in  flammas  iaciunt ;  ambustoque  ore  genisque 
deforme  alitibus  liquere  cadaver  Hiberis. 

Poenorum  interea  quis  rerum  summa  potestas,  270 
consultant  bello  super,  et  quae  dicta  ferantur 
Ausoniae  populis,  oratorumque  minaci 
adventu  trepidant,     movet  hinc  foedusque  fidesque 
et  testes  superi  iurataque  pacta  parentum, 
hinc  popularis  amor  coeptantis  magna  iuventae,    275 
et  sperare  iuvat  belli  meliora.     sed,  olim 
ductorem  infestans  odiis  gentilibus,  Hannon 
sic  adeo  increpitat  studia  incautumque  favorem  : 
**  cuncta    quidem,    patres,    (neque    enim    cohibere 

irae  se  valuere)  premunt  formidine  vocem.  280 

baud  tamen  abstiterim,  mortem  licet  arma  propin- 

"  Hanno,  surnamed  The  Great,  was  a  Carthaginian  general 
and  statesman,  who  possessed  great  influence  in  the  Cartha- 
ginian senate,  and  always  used  it  to  oppose  Hamilcar,  and 
Hamilcar's  sons,  Hannibal  and  Hasdrubal. 

PUNICA,  II.   257-281 

his  shield  and  sprang  upon  him  as  he  fell ;  then, 
pointing  to  the  citizens  watching  from  the  walls, 
"  Go  !  "  he  cried,  "  and  comfort  hapless  Asbyte  by 
your  speedy  death  !  "  and  at  the  same  time  buried 
his  fatal  sword  in  the  throat  of  a  victim  who  was 
fain  to  lose  his  life.  Then  the  conqueror  drove 
off  with  joy  the  horses  taken  from  Asbyte,  carrying 
them  off  from  before  the  very  walls,  where  the  body 
of  fugitives  had  used  them  to  block  the  entrance  of 
the  gate  ;  and  off  he  sped  in  the  chariot  through  the 
triumphant  lines. 

But  the  band  of  Numidians,  frantic  with  grief, 
made  haste  with  the  sad  office  of  burial,  and  gave 
Asbyte  the  tribute  of  a  pyre,  and  seized  the  dead 
man's  body  and  carried  it  thrice  round  her  ashes. 
Next  they  cast  into  the  flames  his  murderous  club 
and  his  dreadful  head-dress  ;  and,  when  the  face  and 
beard  were  burnt,  they  left  the  unsightly  corpse  to 
the  Spanish  vultures. 

Meanwhile  the  rulers  of  Carthage  took  counsel 
concerning  the  war  and  the  answer  they  must  send 
to  the  Italian  people  ;  and  the  formidable  approach 
of  the  envoys  made  them  uneasy.  On  the  one  hand 
they  were  swayed  by  loyalty  to  the  treaty,  by  the 
gods  who  witnessed  it,  and  by  the  compact  to  which 
their  fathers  swore  ;  and  on  the  other  by  the 
popularity  of  the  ambitious  young  leader  ;  and  they 
nursed  a  hope  of  victory.  But  Hanno,^  hereditary  foe 
and  constant  assailant  of  Hannibal,  with  these  words 
rebuked  their  zeal  and  heedless  partiality :  "  Senators, 
all  things  indeed  intimidate  me  from  speaking  ;  for 
the  angry  threats  of  my  opponents  have  proved  unable 
to  restrain  themselves.  Yet  I  shall  not  flinch,  not 
even  though  I  must  soon  die  by  violence.     I  shall 



testabor  superos  et  caelo  nota  relinquam, 

quae  postrema  salus  rerum  patriaeque  reposcit. 

nee  nune  obsessa  demum  et  fumante  Sagunto 

haec  serus  vates  Hannon  canit ;  anxia  rupi  285 

pectora,  ne  castris  innutriretur  et  amis 

exitiale  caput,  monui  et,  dum  vita,  monebo, 

ingenitum  noscens  virus  flatusque  paternos  ; 

ut,  qui  stelligero  speculatur  sidera  caelo, 

venturam  pelagi  rabiem  Caurique  futura  290 

praedicit  miseris  baud  vanus  flamina  nautis. 

consedit  solio  rerumque  invasit  habenas  : 

ergo  armis  foedus  fasque  omne  abrumpitur  armis, 

oppida  quassantur,  longeque  in  moenia  nostra 

Aeneadum  arrectae  mentes,  disiectaque  pax  est.   295 

exagitant  manes  iuvenem  furiaeque  paternae 

ac  funesta  sacra  et  conversi  foedere  rupto 

in  caput  infidum  superi  Massylaque  vates. 

an  nunc  ille  novi  caecus  caligine  regni 

externas  arces  quatit  ?  baud  Tirynthia  tecta  300 

(sic  propria  luat  hoc  poena  nee  misceat  urbis 

fata  suis),  nunc  hoc,  hoc  inquam,  tempore  muros 

oppugnat,  Carthago,  tuos  teque  obsidet  armis. 

lavimus  Hennaeas  animoso  sanguine  valles 

et  vix  conducto  produximus  arma  Lacone.  305 

nos  ratibus  laceris  Scyllaea  replevimus  antra 

classibus  et  refluo  spectavimus  aequore  raptis 

contorta  e  fundo  revomentem  transtra  Charybdin. 

«  This  refers  to  the  oath  which  Hamilcar  made  his  son 
swear  in  Dido's  temple,  in  the  presence  of  the  Massylian 
priestess  :  c/.  i.  81-139. 

^  "  Henna  "  =  "  Sicily."  Hanno  is  referring  to  the  First 
Punic  War,  when  Sparta  sent  troops  under  Xanthippus,  and 
Regulus,  the  Roman  general,  was  defeated  (258  b.c). 

"  When  defeated  at  sea  near  the  Aegatian  islands :    see 
note  to  i.  35. 

PUNICA,  II.  282-308 

appeal  to  the  gods,  and  I  shall  tell  Heaven,  ere  I  die, 
the  measures  demanded  by  the  safety  of  the  state 
and  of  our  country  in  its  extremity.  Not  now  only, 
when  it  is  too  late,  when  Saguntum  is  besieged  and 
burning,  do  I  prophesy  these  evils  :  I  made  a  clean 
breast  of  my  fears  :  I  warned  you  before  and,  while 
I  live,  shall  go  on  warning  you,  not  to  suffer  that 
instrument  of  destruction  to  be  bred  up  in  camps  and 
in  war  ;  for  I  marked  the  poison  of  his  nature  and  his 
hereditary  ambition,  even  as  the  watcher  of  the  starry 
heavens  foretells,  not  in  vain,  to  hapless  seamen  the 
coming  fury  of  the  sea  and  the  approaching  blasts 
of  the  North-west  wind.  Hannibal  has  taken  his 
seat  on  a  throne  and  seized  the  reins  of  government ; 
and  therefore  the  treaty  is  broken  by  the  sword,  and 
by  the  sword  every  obligation  is  broken  ;  cities  are 
shaken,  and  the  distant  Aeneadae  are  alert  to  attack 
Carthage,  and  peace  has  been  thrown  to  the  winds. 
The  young  man  is  driven  mad  by  the  ghost  and  evil 
spirit  of  his  father,  by  that  fatal  ceremony,"  by  the 
gods  who  have  turned  against  the  breaker  of  faith 
and  treaties,  and  by  the  Massylian  priestess.  Blinded 
and  dazzled  by  new-gained  power,  he  is  overthrowing 
cities  ;  but  are  they  foreign  cities  ?  It  is  not  Sagun- 
tum that  he  is  attacking — so  may  he  atone  for  this 
crime  in  his  own  person  and  not  involve  his  country 
in  his  punishment — now,  even  now,  I  declare,  he  is 
attacking  the  walls  of  Carthage  and  besieging  us  with 
his  army.  We  drenched  the  valleys  of  Henna  with 
the  blood  of  the  brave,  and  could  hardly  carry  on 
the  war  by  hiring  the  Spartan. ''  We  filled  Scylla's 
caverns  with  shipwrecks  ^ ;  and,  when  our  fleets  were 
borne  away  by  the  tide,  we  saw  Charybdis  whirling 
the  rowers'  benches  round  and  spouting  them  forth 



respice,  pro  demens  !  pro  pectus  inane  deorum  ! 
Aegates  Libyaeque  prociil  fluitantia  membra.        310 
quo  ruis  ?  et  patriae  exitio  tibi  nomina  quaeris  ? 
scilicet  immensae,  visis  iuvenilibus  armis, 
snbsident  Alpes,  subsidet  mole  nivali 
Alpibus  aequatum  attollens  caput  Apenninus. 
sed  campos  fac,  vane,  dari.     num  gentibus  istis     315 
mortales  animi  ?  aut  ferro  flammave  fatiscunt  ? 
baud  tibi  Neritia  cernes  cum  prole  laborem. 
pubescit  castris  miles,  galeaque  teruntur 
nondum  signatae  flava  lanugine  malae. 
nee  requies  aevi  nota,  exsanguesque  merendo        320 
stant  prima  inter  signa  senes  letumque  lacessunt. 
ipse  ego  Romanas  perfosso  corpore  turmas 
tela  intorquentes  correpta  e  vulnere  vidi  ; 
vidi  animos  mortesque  virum  decorisque  furorem. 
si  bello  obsistis  nee  te  victoribus  offers,  325 

quantum  heu ,  Carthago ,  donat  tibi  sanguinis  Hannon ! ' ' 
Gestar  ad  haec  (namque  impatiens  asperque  co- 
iamdudum  immites  iras  mediamque  loquentis 
bis  conatus  erat  turbando  abrumpere  vocem)  : 
"  concilione,"  inquit,  "  Libyae  Tyrioque  senatu,    330 
pro  superi  !  Ausonius  miles  sedet  ?  armaque  tantum 
baud  dum  sumpta  viro  ?  nam  cetera  non  latet  hostis. 
nunc  geminas  Alpes  Apenninumque  minatur, 
nunc  freta  Sicaniae  et  Scyllaei  litoris  undas  ; 

"  By  '*  limbs  "  it  seems  that  separate  parts  of  the  Cartha- 
ginian empire,  such  as  Sicily  and  Sardinia,  are  meant. 

"  The  false  statement  must  be  attributed  to  rhetorical 

"  The  Saguntines  are  meant :   they  came  originally  from 
Zacynthus,  an  Ionian  island  ;   and  Neritus  is  a  mountain  in 
Ithaca,  another  Ionian  island. 

PUNICA,  II.   309-334 

from  her  depths.  Madman,  with  no  fear  of  God  in 
your  heart,  look  at  the  Aegatian  islands  and  the 
limbs  "  of  Libya  drifting  far  away  !  Whither  are  you 
rushing  ?  Do  you  seek  fame  for  yourself  by  the 
ruin  of  your  country  ?  The  huge  Alps  will  sink  down, 
forsooth,  at  sight  of  the  stripling  warrior  ;  and  the 
snowy  mass  of  the  Apennines,  that  raise  their  summit 
as  high  as  the  Alps,^  will  sink  down  also.  But  sup- 
pose, vain  pretender,  that  you  reach  the  plains  ;  that 
nation  has  a  spirit  that  never  dies  ;  sword  and  flame 
can  never  wear  them  out.  You  will  not  find  yourself 
fighting  there  against  the  stock  that  came  from 
Neritus.^  Their  soldiers  grow  to  manhood  in  the 
camp,  and  their  faces  rub  against  the  helmet  before 
they  are  marked  by  the  golden  down.  Nor  is  rest 
known  to  them  in  age  ;  even  old  men,  who  have  shed 
their  blood  in  long  service,  stand  in  the  front  rank  and 
challenge  death.  My  own  eyes  have  seen  Roman 
soldiers,  when  run  through  the  body,  snatch  the 
weapon  from  their  wound  and  hurl  it  at  the  foe  ;  I 
have  seen  their  courage  and  the  way  they  die  and 
their  passion  for  glory.  From  how  much  bloodshed 
does  Hanno  save  Carthage,  if  she  sets  her  face  against 
war  and  does  not  wantonly  confront  the  conquerors!" 
To  this  speech  Gestar  replied.  Harsh  and  im- 
patient, he  had  long  been  nursing  bitter  wrath,  and 
twice  had  he  tried  to  raise  a  disturbance  and  silence 
Hanno  in  the  middle  of  his  speech.  "  Ye  gods  !  "  he 
cried  :  "is  this  a  Roman  soldier,  seated  in  the 
council  of  Libya  and  the  Carthaginian  senate  ?  Arms 
he  has  not  yet  taken  up  ;  but  in  all  else  the  foeman 
stands  declared  before  us.  Now  he  threatens  us 
with  the  twin  ranges  of  Alps  and  Apennines,  now 
with  the   Sicilian  sea   and    the    waves    on   Scylla's 



nee  procul  est,  quin  iam  manes  umbrasque  pavescat 
Dardanias  ;  tanta  accumulat  praeconia  leto  336 

vulneribusque  virum  ac  tollit  sub  sidera  gentem. 
mortalem,  mihi  crede,  licet  formidine  turpi 
frigida  corda  tremant,  mortalem  sumimus  hostem. 
vidi  ego,  cum,  geminas  artis  post  terga  catenis      340 
evinctus  palmas,  vulgo  traheretur  ovante 
carceris  in  tenebras  spes  et  fiducia  gentis 
Regulus  Hectoreae  ;  vidi,  cum  robore  pendens 
Hesperiam  cruce  sublimis  spectaret  ab  alta. 
nee  vero  terrent  puerilia  protinus  ora  345 

sub  galea  et  pressae  properata  casside  malae. 
indole  non  adeo  segni  sumus.     aspice,  turmae 
quot  Libycae  certant  annos  anteire  labore 
et  nudis  bellantur  equis.     ipse,  aspice,  ductor, 
cum  primam  tenero  vocem  proferret  ab  ore,  350 

iam  bella  et  lituos  ac  flammis  urere  gentem 
iurabat  Phrygiam  atque  animo  patria  arma  movebat. 
proinde  polo  crescant  Alpes,  astrisque  coruscos 
Apenninus  agat  scopulos  :  per  saxa  nivesque 
(dicam    etenim,    ut    stimulent    atram    vel    inania 
mentem)  355 

per  caelum  est  qui  pandat  iter,     pudet  Hercule  tritas 
desperare  vias  laudemque  timere  secundam. 
sed  Libyae  clades  et  primi  incendia  belli 
aggerat  atque  iterum  pro  libertate  labores 
Hannon  ferre  vetat.     ponat  formidinis  aestus         360 
parietibusque  domus  imbellis  femina  servet 
singultantem  animam ;  nos,  nos  contra  ibimus  hostem, 

«»  The  Trojans,  identified  by  Silius  with  the  Romans. 

^  Regulus  was  tortured  to  death  :    see  vi.  539  foil.  ;    and 
his  dead  body  seems  to  have  been  crucified  :  see  1.  435. 

PUNICA,  II.  335-362 

shore ;  he  is  not  far  from  fearing  the  very  shades 
and  ghosts  of  the  Romans  :  such  praise  does  he 
heap  upon  their  wounds  and  deaths,  and  exalts 
the  nation  to  the  sky.  But,  though  his  cold  heart 
trembles  with  base  fear,  take  my  word  for  it,  that 
the  foe  whom  we  are  engaging  is  mortal.  I  was 
looking  on,  when  Regulus,  the  hope  and  pride  of 
Hector's  race,**  was  dragged  along  amid  the  shouts  of 
the  populace  to  his  dark  dungeon,  with  both  hands 
bound  fast  behind  his  back  ;  I  was  looking  on,  when 
he  hung  high  upon  the  tree  and  saw  Italy  from  his 
lofty  cross. ^  Nor  again  do  I  dread  the  brows  that 
wear  the  helmet  in  early  boyhood,  nor  the  heads  that 
carry  the  steel  cap  before  their  time.  The  temper  of 
our  people  is  not  so  sluggish.  Look  at  the  Libyan 
squadrons :  how  many  of  them  vie  in  exertions  beyond 
their  years,  and  go  to  war  on  bare-backed  horses  ! 
Look  at  Hannibal  himself.  When  he  was  first  able  to 
utter  speech  from  his  childish  lips,  he  pledged  himself 
to  war  and  the  clarion's  sound,  and  swore  to  consume 
the  Phrygian  people  with  fire,  and  fought  in  fancy 
the  campaigns  of  his  father,  Hamilcar.  Therefore, 
let  the  Alps  soar  to  heaven,  and  the  Apennines  lift 
their  glittering  peaks  to  the  stars  :  through  rocks  and 
snows — I  will  say  it,  that  even  an  idle  boast  may  sting 
a  traitor's  heart — through  the  sky  itself  our  pioneer 
will  find  a  way.  Shameful  is  it  to  shun  a  path  that 
Hercules  trod  and  to  shrink  back  from  repeating  his 
exploit.  Hanno  exaggerates  the  defeats  of  Libya  and 
the  conflagration  of  our  first  war  with  Rome,  and  for- 
bids us  to  bear  hardship  again  in  defence  of  freedom. 
Let  Hanno  still  his  agitation  and  fears,  and  keep  his 
sobbing  breath,  like  an  unwarlike  woman,  behind  the 
walls  of  his  house.  But  we  shall  march  against  the 
VOL.  I  D  2  85 


quis  procul  a  Tyria  dominos  depellere  Byrsa, 

vel  love  non  aequo,  fixum  est.     sin  fata  repugnant, 

et  iam  damnata  cessit  Carthagine  Mavors,  365 

occumbam  potius  nee  te,  patria  inclita,  dedam 

aeternum  famulam  liberque  Acheronta  videbo. 

nam  quae,  pro  superi !  Fabius  iubet  ?  ocius  arma 

exuite  et  capta  descendite  ab  aree  Sagunti. 

turn  delecta  manus  scutorum  incendat  acervos,      370 

uranturque  rates,  ac  toto  absistite  ponto. 

di,  procul  o,  merita  est  numquam  si  talia  plecti 

Carthago,  prohibete  nefas  nostrique  solutas 

ductoris  servate  manus  !  "     ut  deinde  resedit 

factaque  censendi  patrum  de  more  potestas,  375 

hie  Hannon  reddi  propere  certamine  rapta 

instat  et  auctorem  violati  foederis  addit. 

tum  vero  attoniti,  ceu  templo  irrumperet  hostis, 

exsiluere  patres,  Latioque  id  verteret  omen, 

oravere  deum.     at  postquam  discordia  sensit  380 

pectora  et  infidas  ad  Martem  vergere  mentes, 

non  ultra  patiens  Fabius  rexisse  dolorem, 

consilium  propere  exposcit,  patribusque  vocatis, 

bellum  se  gestare  sinu  pacemque  profatus, 

quid  sedeat,  legere  ambiguis  neu  fallere  dictis       385 

imperat  ac,  saevo  neutrum  renuente  senatu, 

ceu  clausas  acies  gremioque  effunderet  arma  : 

"  accipite  infaustum  Libyae  eventuque  priori 

*  The  citadel  of  Carthage,  built  by  Dido.  The  name  is 
Semitic  (Bozra  =  "  a  citadel  "),  but  was  corrupted  by  Greeks 
into  Byrsa,  "  a  bull's  hide  "  ;  and  hence  arose  the  legend 
that  the  settlers  bought  as  much  land  as  they  could  cover 
with  a  hide  ;  but  they  were  ingenious  people  and  cut  up  the 
hide  into  strips  and  surrounded  with  them  as  much  space  as 
they  could. 

PUNICA,   II.   363-388 

foe — we  who  are  determined,  even  if  Jupiter  is  not 
on  our  side,  to  drive  foreign  rulers  far  from  Tyrian 
Byrsa.**  But,  if  Fate  fights  against  us  and  Mars  has 
already  condemned  Carthage  and  departed  from  her, 
I  shall  choose  rather  to  fall ;  I  shall  not  hand  over  my 
glorious  fatherland  to  eternal  slavery,  and  I  shall  go 
down  free  to  Acheron.^  For,  ye  gods  !  what  are  the 
demands  of  Fabius  ?  '  Lay  down  your  arms  at  once 
and  depart  from  the  captured  citadel  of  Saguntum. 
Next,  your  picked  troops  must  pile  their  shields  and 
burn  them  ;  your  ships  must  be  burnt,  and  you  must 
withdraw  altogether  from  the  sea.'  Ye  gods,  if 
Carthage  never  deserved  such  punishment,  prevent 
the  abomination,  and  keep  the  hands  of  our  general 
unfettered."  Then  he  sat  down,  and  the  senators 
were  permitted  to  vote  according  to  custom.  But 
Hanno  insisted  that  the  spoils  of  war  should  be  at 
once  given  up,  and  also  the  first  breaker  <'  of  the  treaty. 
Then  indeed  the  senate,  as  excited  as  if  the  enemy 
Avere  bursting  into  the  temple,  sprang  up  and  prayed 
the  gods  to  turn  the  evil  omen  against  Latium.  But 
when  Fabius  perceived  the  division  of  opinion,  and 
that  their  disloyal  minds  were  inclining  to  war,  he 
could  master  his  resentment  no  longer ;  and  he  de- 
manded a  swift  decision.  When  the  senate  was  sum- 
moned, he  began  thus  :  "  I  carry  war  and  peace  here 
in  my  lap  ;  choose  which  ye  will  have,  and  cheat  me 
not  by  an  ambiguous  answer."  The  angry  senators 
said  they  would  accept  neither.  Then,  as  if  he  were 
pouring  out  battle  and  war  enclosed  in  his  armS; 
*'  Take  war,"  he  cried,  "  a  fatal  war  for  Libya,  and 

''  Acheron,  one  of  the  rivers  in  Hades,  is  often  used  for 
Hades  itself. 
*  Hannibal. 



par,"  inquit,  "  bellum  " — et  laxos  effundit  amictus. 
turn  patrias  repetit  pugnandi  nuntius  arces.  390 

Atque  ea  dum  profugae  regnis  agitantur  Elissae, 
accisis  velox  populis,  quis  aegra  lababat 
ambiguo  sub  Marte  fides,  praedaque  gravatus 
ad  muros  Poenus  revocaverat  arma  Sagunti. 

Ecce  autem  clipeum  saevo  fulgore  micantem      395 
Oceani  gentes  ductori  dona  ferebant, 
Callaicae  telluris  opus,  galeamque  coruscis 
subnexam  cristis,  vibrant  cui  vertice  coni 
albentis  niveae  tremulo  nutamine  pennae  ; 
ensem,  unam  ac  multis  fatalem  milibus  hastam  ;    400 
praeterea  textam  nodis  auroque  trilicem 
loricam,  nulli  tegimen  penetrabile  telo. 
haec,  aere  et  duri  chalybis  perfecta  metallo 
atque  opibus  perfusa  Tagi,  per  singula  laetis 
lustrat  ovans  oculis  et  gaudet  origine  regni.  405 

Condebat  primae  Dido  Carthaginis  arces, 
instabatque  operi  subducta  classe  inventus, 
molibus  hi  claudunt  portus,  his  tecta  domosque 
partiris,  iustae  Bitia  venerande  senectae. 
ostentant  caput  effossa  tellure  repertum  410 

bellatoris  equi  atque  omen  clamore  salutant. 
has  inter  species  orbatum  classe  suisque 
Aenean  pulsum  pelago  dextraque  precantem 
cernere  erat.     fronte  hunc  avide  regina  serena 
infelix  ac  iam  vultu  spectabat  amico.  415 

«  Dido. 

*  Gallicia  is  the  northern  part  of  Portugal,  beyond  the 
river  Douro.    The  district  was  rich  in  metals,  especially  gold. 

"  In  what  follows  Silius  has  in  mind  the  shield  of  Achilles 
described  by  Homer  {II.  xviii.  478  foil.)  and  the  shield  of 
Aeneas  described  by  Virgil  {Aen.  viii.  Q2Q  foil.). 

^  The  horse's  head,  supposed  to  be  an  omen  of  victory, 
appears  on  coins  of  Carthage. 

PUNICA,  II.   389-415 

like  in  its  issue  to  the  last  " — and  therewith  he  shook 
loose  the  folds  of  his  gown.  Then  he  returned  to 
his  native  city,  a  harbinger  of  war. 

While  this  debate  went  on  in  the  kingdom  of  the 
exile,  Elissa,"  Hannibal  swiftly  despoiled  those  tribes 
whose  loyalty  was  waxing  faint  as  the  war  dragged 
on  ;  then,  loaded  with  plunder,  he  took  his  army  back 
to  the  walls  of  Saguntum. 

But  behold  !  the  peoples  who  dwell  by  the  Atlantic 
brought  gifts  to  the  general.  They  gave  him  a 
shield  that  glittered  with  cruel  sheen,  the  work  of 
Gallician  *''  craftsmen;  a  helmet  wreathed  with  flashing 
plumes,  on  the  height  of  whose  white  crest  snowy 
feathers  nodded  and  waved ;  a  sword  and  a  spear 
that,  though  it  was  but  one,  was  to  slay  its  thousands. 
There  was  also  a  cuirass  wrought  with  triple  bosses  of 
gold,  a  defence  that  no  weapon  could  pierce.  This 
armour  was  wrought  throughout  of  bronze  and  tough 
steel,  and  covered  richly  with  the  gold  of  the  Tagus  ; 
and  Hannibal  surveyed  each  part  of  it  with  joy  and 
triumph  in  his  eyes,  and  he  delighted  to  see  there 
depicted  the  beginnings  of  Carthage.*' 

Dido  was  shown  building  th  e  city  of  infant  Carthage ; 
her  men  had  beached  their  ships  and  were  busily  en- 
gaged. Some  were  enclosing  a  harbour  vdth  piers  ;  to 
others  dwellings  were  assigned  by  Bitias,  a  righteous 
and  venerable  old  man.  Men  pointed  to  the  head  of 
a  warhorse  which  they  had  found  in  the  soil  when 
digging,  and  hailed  the  omen  with  a  shout."'  Amid 
these  scenes  Aeneas  was  shown,  robbed  of  his  ships 
and  men  and  cast  up  by  the  sea  ;  with  his  right  hand 
he  made  supplication.  The  hapless  queen  looked 
eagerly  upon  him  with  unclouded  brow  and  with 
looks  already  friendly.     Next,  the  art  of  Gallicia  had 



hinc  et  speluncam  furtivaque  foedera  amantum 
Callaicae  fecere  manus  ;  it  clamor  ad  auras 
latrat usque  canum,  subi toque  exterrita  nimbo 
occultant  alae  venantum  corpora  silvis. 
nee  procul  Aeneadum  vacuo  iam  litore  classis         420 
aequora  nequicquam  revocante  petebat  Elissa. 
ipsa,  pyram  super  ingentem  stans,  saucia  Dido 
mandabat  Tyriis  ultricia  bella  futuris  ; 
ardentemque  rogum  media  spectabat  ab  unda 
Dardanus  et  magnis  pandebat  carbasa  fatis.  425 

parte  alia  supplex  infernis  Hannibal  aris 
arcanum  Stygia  libat  cum  vate  cruorem 
et  primo  bella  Aeneadum  iurabat  ab  aevo. 
at  senior  Siculis  exultat  Hamilcar  in  arvis — 
spirant  em  credas  certamina  anhela  movere,  430 

ardor  inest  oculis,  torvumque  minatur  imago. 
Necnon  et  laevum  clipei  latus  aspera  signis 
implebat  Spartana  cohors  ;  hanc  ducit  ovantem 
Ledaeis  veniens  victor  Xanthippus  Amyclis. 
iuxta  triste  decus  pendet  sub  imagine  poenae        435 
Regulus  et  fidei  dat  magna  exempla  Sagunto. 
laetior  at  circa  facies,  agitata  ferarum 
agmina  venatu  et  caelata  mapalia  fulgent, 
nee  procul  usta  cutem  nigri  soror  horrida  Mauri 
assuetas  mulcet  patrio  sermone  leaenas.  440 

it  liber  campi  pastor,  cui  fine  sine  ullo 
invetitum  saltus  penetrat  pecus  ;  omnia  Poenum 
armenti  vigilem  patrio  de  more  secuntur  ; 

"  Dido  and  Aeneas.  ^  Aeneas. 

"  See  note  to  1.  305.  Amyclae  is  a  city  of  Laconia,  on 
the  river  Eurotas. 

^  See  note  to  1.  344. 

*  This  seems  to  refer  to  the  tortures  that  preceded  his 
crucifixion :  see  vi.  539  foil. 


PUNICA,  II.  416-443 

fashioned  the  cave  and  the  secret  tryst  of  the  lovers* ; 
high  rose  the  shouting  and  the  baying  of  hounds  ; 
and  the  mounted  huntsmen,  alarmed  by  a  sudden 
rainfall,  took  shelter  in  the  forest.  Not  far  away,  the 
fleet  of  the  Aeneadae  had  left  the  shore  and  was 
making  for  the  open  sea,  while  Elissa  was  calling 
them  back  in  vain.  Then  Dido  by  herself  was  stand- 
ing wounded  on  a  huge  pyre,  and  charging  a  later 
generation  of  Tyrians  to  avenge  her  by  war  ;  and 
the  Dardan,^  out  at  sea,  was  watching  the  blazing 
pile  and  spreading  his  sails  for  his  high  destiny.  On 
another  part  of  the  shield  Hannibal  prayed  at  the 
altars  of  the  nether  gods,  and,  with  the  Stygian 
priestess,  made  a  secret  libation  of  blood,  and  swore 
to  fight  against  the  Aeneadae  from  his  youth  up. 
And  old  Hamilcar  was  there,  riding  proudly  over  the 
Sicilian  fields  ;  one  might  think  that  he  was  alive  and 
rousing  breathless  conflict — fire  shines  in  his  eyes, and 
his  image  is  grim  with  menace. 

The  left  side  also  of  the  shield  was  filled  with 
Spartan  warriors,  carved  in  high  relief ;  they  were 
led  in  triumph  by  victorious  Xanthippus,<^  who  came 
from  Amyclae,  the  city  of  Leda.  Near  them  hung 
Regulus,**  glorious  in  suffering,  beneath  a  picture  of 
his  punishment,*' setting  to  Saguntum  a  noble  example 
of  loyalty.  Hard  by  was  a  happier  scene — herds  of 
wild  beasts  chased  by  hunters,  and  African  huts, 
carved  in  shining  metal.  Not  far  away  the  savage 
sunburnt  sister  of  a  blackamoor  soothed  lionesses, 
her  companions,  with  her  native  speech.  The  shep- 
herd roamed  free  over  the  plains,  and  his  flock,  un- 
forbidden, made  their  way  into  pastures  without 
limit ;  the  Punic  guardian  of  the  herd  took  all  his 
possessions  with  him,  according  to  the  custom  of  his 



gaesaque  latratorque  Cydon  tectumque  focique 
in  silicis  venis  et  fistula  not  a  iu  vends.  445 

eminet  excelso  consurgens  colle  Saguntos, 
quam  circa  immensi  populi  condensaque  cingunt 
agmina  certantum  pulsantque  trementibus  hastis. 
extrema  clipei  stagnabat  Hiberus  in  ora, 
curvatis  claudens  ingentem  flexibus  orbem.  450 

Hannibal,  abrupto  transgressus  foedere  ripas, 
Poenorum  populos  Romana  in  bella  vocabat. 
tali  sublimis  dono,  nova  tegmina  latis 
aptat  concutiens  humeris  celsusque  profatur  : 
"  heu  quantum  Ausonio  sudabitis,  arma,  cruore  !  455 
quas,  belli  index,  poenas  mihi.  Curia,  pendes  !  " 
lamque  senescebat  vallatus  moenibus  hostis, 
carpebatque  dies  urbem,  dum  signa  manusque 
expectant  fessi  socias.     tandem  aequore  vano 
avertunt  oculos  frustrataque  litora  ponunt  460 

et  propius  suprema  vident.     sedet  acta  medullis 
iamdudum  atque  inopes  penitus  coquit  intima  pestis. 
est  furtim  lento  misere  durantia  tabo 
viscera  et  exurit  siccatas  sanguine  venas 
per  longum  celata  fames  ;  iam  lumina  retro  465 

exesis  fugere  genis,  iam  lurida  sola 
tecta  cute  et  venis  male  iuncta  trementibus  ossa 
extant,  consumptis  visu  deformia  membris. 
humentes  rores  noctis  terramque  madentem 
solamen  fecere  mali,  cassoque  labore  470 

e  sicco  frustra  presserunt  robore  sucos. 

"  This  appears  to  mean  that  the  Roman  Senate  claim  a 
right  to  forbid  Carthage  making  war  on  Saguntum. 

PUNICA,   II.   444-471 

country — his  javelins,  his  barking  Cretan  hound,  his 
tent,  his  fire  hidden  in  the  veins  of  flint,  and  the  reed- 
pipe  vi^hich  his  steers  know  well.  Conspicuous  on  the 
shield  was  Saguntum,  rising  on  its  lofty  eminence  ; 
and  round  it  swarmed  countless  hosts  and  serried 
ranks  of  fighters,  who  assailed  it  with  their  quivering 
spears.  On  the  outer  rim  of  the  shield  flowed  the 
Ebro,  enclosing  the  vast  circuit  with  its  curves  and 
windings.  And  there  was  Hannibal ;  having  broken 
the  treaty  by  crossing  the  river,  he  was  summoning 
the  Punic  nations  to  battle  against  Rome.  Proud 
of  such  a  gift,  the  leader  fitted  the  new  armour  to 
his  broad  shoulders  with  a  clang.  Then,  with  head 
held  high,  he  spoke  thus  :  "  Ah  !  what  torrents  of 
Roman  blood  will  drench  this  armour  !  How  great  a 
penalty  shall  the  Senate,  the  disposer  of  war,<^  pay 
to  me  !  " 

By  now  the  beleaguered  enemy  was  growing 
feebler,  and  time  sapped  the  strength  of  the  citizens, 
while  they  looked  in  their  extremity  for  the  eagles 
and  troops  of  their  ally.  At  last  they  turned  their 
gaze  away  from  the  delusive  sea,  and  gave  up  the 
shore  as  hopeless,  and  saw  their  doom  at  hand.  In- 
ward pangs,  piercing  to  the  marrow,  had  long  been 
fixed  there,  utterly  consuming  the  starving  people. 
Famine,longconcealed, devoured  theirmuch-enduring 
flesh  with  slow  and  secret  poison,  and  burnt  up  their 
bloodless  veins  ;  by  now  their  eyes  sank  back  from 
the  emaciated  cheeks  ;  the  bones,  a  hideous  sight 
when  the  flesh  was  gone,  stuck  out,  covered  only  by 
the  yellow  skin  and  ill-joined  by  the  shaking  arteries. 
They  tried  to  ease  their  suffering  by  the  moist  dews 
and  damp  soil  of  night,  and  with  useless  toil  squeezed 
in  vain  the  sap  from  dry  wood.     They  shrank  from 



nil  temerare  piget ;  rabidi  ieiunia  ventris 
insolitis  adigunt  vesci  ;  resolutaque,  nudos 
linquentes  clipeos,  armorum  tegmina  mandunt. 

Desuper  haec  caelo  spectans  Tirynthius  alto       475 
illacrimat  fractae  nequicquam  casibus  urbis. 
namque  metus  magnique  tenent  praecepta  parentis, 
ne  saevae  tendat  contra  decreta  novercae. 
sic  igitur,  coepta  occultans,  ad  limina  sanctae 
contendit  Fidei  secretaque  pectora  tentat.  480 

arcanis  dea  laeta  polo  turn  forte  remoto 
caelicolum  magnas  volvebat  conscia  curas  ; 
quam  tali  alloquitur  Nemeae  pacator  honore  : 
**  ante  lovem  generata,  decus  divumque  hominumque, 
qua  sine  non  tellus  pacem,  non  aequora  norunt,     485 
iustitiae  consors  tacitumque  in  pectore  numen, 
exitiumne  tuae  dirum  spectare  Sagunti 
et  tot  pendentem  pro  te,  dea,  cernere  poenas 
urbem  lenta  potes  ?  moritur  tibi  vulgus,  et  unam 
te  matres,  vincente  fame,  te  maesta  virorum  490 

ora  vocant,  primaque  sonant  te  voce  minores. 
fer  caelo  auxilium  et  fessis  da  surgere  rebus." 

Haec  satus  Alcmena  ;  contra  cui  talia  virgo  : 
"  cerno  equidem,  nee   pro  nihilo  est   mihi  foedera 

rumpi ; 
statque  dies,  ausis  olim  tarn  tristibus  ultor.  495 

sed  me,  pollutas  properantem  linquere  terras, 
sedibus  his  tectisque  novis  succedere  adegit 
fecundum  in  fraudes  hominum  genus  ;  impia  liqui 

"  Juno. 

*  By  killing  the  lion  of  Nemea,  whose  skin  he  wore  ever 

"  This  is  said  more  often  of  Astraea,  the  goddess  of  Justice — 
that  she  was  forced  to  leave  the  earth  because  of  the  wicked- 
ness of  men. 


PUNICA,  II.  472-498 

no  pollution  ;  their  fierce  hunger  forced  them  to  eat 
strange  food  ;  they  stripped  their  shields  bare  and 
gnawed  the  loosened  coverings  of  their  bucklers. 

Hercules  looked  down  from  high  heaven  and  beheld 
these  things  and  wept  over  the  calamities  of  the 
stricken  town  ;  but  he  was  helpless,  and  respect  for 
the  bidding  of  his  mighty  sire  hindered  him  from 
opposing  the  decrees  of  his  cruel  stepmother.** 
Therefore,  hiding  his  intent,  he  took  his  way  to  the 
abode  of  sacred  Loyalty,  seeking  to  discover  her 
hidden  purpose.  It  chanced  that  the  goddess,  who 
loves  solitude,  was  then  in  a  distant  region  of  heaven, 
pondering  in  her  heart  the  high  concerns  of  the  gods. 
Then  he  who  gave  peace  to  Nemea^  accosted  her 
thus  with  reverence  :  "  Goddess  more  ancient  than 
Jupiter,  glory  of  gods  and  men,  without  whom  neither 
sea  nor  land  finds  peace,  sister  of  Justice,  silent 
divinity  in  the  heart  of  man,  canst  thou  look  on  un- 
moved at  the  awful  doom  of  thine  own  Saguntum, 
and  watch  the  city  while  it  suffers  so  many  penalties 
in  thy  defence  ?  For  thy  sake  the  people  die  ;  the 
matrons,  conquered  by  famine,  call  on  thee  alone  ; 
the  pitiful  cries  of  the  men  invoke  thee  ;  thy  name  is 
heard  in  the  first  utterance  of  their  little  ones.  Bring 
help  from  heaven,  and  grant  that  the  fallen  may 

Thus  spoke  Alcmena's  son,  and  the  goddess  made 
answer:  "  I  see  it  indeed,  and  the  breaking  of  treaties 
is  not  disregarded  by  me  :  the  day  is  fixed  that  shall 
hereafter  punish  such  evil  deeds.  But,  when  I 
hastened  to  leave  the  sin-stained  earth,  I  was  forced 
to  settle  here  and  change  my  habitation,  because  the 
human  race  was  so  fertile  in  wickedness  '^ ;  I  fled  from 



et,  quantum  terrent,  tantum  metuentia  regna 

ac  furias  auri  nee  vilia  praemia  fraudum  600 

et  super  haec  ritu  horrificos  ac  more  ferarum 

viventes  rapto  populos  luxuque  solutum 

omne  decus  multaque  oppressum  nocte  pudorem. 

vis  colitur,  iurisque  locum  sibi  vindioat  ensis, 

et  probris  cessit  virtus,     en,  aspice  gentes  !  505 

nemo  insons  ;  pacem  servant  commercia  culpae. 

sed,  si  cura  tua  fundata  ut  moenia  dextra 

dignum  te  servent  memorando  fine  vigorem, 

dedita  nee  fessi  tramittant  corpora  Poeno, 

quod  solum  nunc  fata  sinunt  seriesque  futuri,         610 

extendam  leti  decus  atque  in  saecula  mittam 

ipsaque  laudatas  ad  manes  prosequar  umbras." 

Inde  severa  levi  decurrens  aethere  virgo 
luctantem  fatis  petit  inflammata  Saguntum. 
invadit  mentes  et  pectora  nota  pererrat  615 

immittitque  animis  numen  ;  turn,  fusa  medullis, 
implicat  atque  sui  flagrantem  inspirat  amorem. 
arma  volunt  tentantque  aegros  ad  proelia  nisus. 
insperatus  adest  vigor,  interiusque  recursat 
dulcis  honor  divae  et  sacrum  pro  virgine  letum.        620 
it  tacitus  fessis  per  ovantia  pectora  sensus, 
vel  leto  graviora  pati  saevasque  ferarum 
attentare  dapes  et  mensis  addere  crimen. 

PUNICA,   11.  499-523 

wicked  kings,  who  themselves  fear  as  much  as  they 
are  feared,  and  the  frenzy  for  gold,  and  the  rich 
rewards  of  wickedness.  I  fled  also  from  nations  hate- 
ful in  their  customs  and  living  by  violence  like  wild 
beasts,  where  all  honour  is  undermined  by  luxury, 
and  where  shame  is  buried  in  deep  darkness.  Force 
is  worshipped,  and  the  sword  usurps  the  place  of 
justice,  and  virtue  has  given  place  to  crime.  Behold 
the  nations  !  no  man  is  innocent  ;  fellowship  in  guilt 
alone  preserves  peace.  But,  if  thou  desirest  the 
walls  built  by  thy  hand  to  keep  a  manhood  worthy 
of  thee  by  a  noble  ending,  and  not,  worn  out 
as  they  are,  surrender  themselves  as  prisoners 
to  the  Carthaginian,  I  will  grant  the  only  boon 
now  allowed  by  fate  and  by  the  chain  of  coming 
events  :  I  will  prolong  the  renown  of  their  death 
and  send  it  down  to  posterity ;  and  I  myself 
will  follow  their  glorious  spirits  to  the  nether 

Then  the  austere  goddess  sped  down  the  light  ether 
and,  burning  with  anger,  made  for  Saguntum  and 
found  it  struggling  with  doom.  Taking  possession 
of  their  minds  and  pervading  their  breasts,  her 
familiar  habitation,  she  instilled  her  divine  power  into 
their  hearts.  Then,  piercing  even  to  their  marrow, 
she  filled  them  with  a  burning  passion  for  herself. 
They  call  for  arms  and  put  forth  their  feeble  efforts  in 
battle.  Strength  beyond  their  hopes  is  forthcoming ; 
to  honour  their  loved  goddess,  and  to  die  nobly  in 
her  defence — this  purpose  comes  still  closer  to  their 
hearts.  An  unspoken  resolve  fills  the  triumphant 
hearts  of  the  sufferers — to  endure  things  even  worse 
than  death,  to  imitate  the  diet  of  wild  beasts,  and 
make   their   meals   an   abomination.     But   stainless 



sed  prohibet  culpa  pollutam  extendere  lucem 

casta  Fides  paribusque  famem  compescere  membris. 

Quam  simul  invisae  gentis  conspexit  in  arce,      526 
forte  ferens  sese  Libycis  Saturnia  castris, 
virgineum  increpitat  miscentem  bella  furorem 
atque,  ira  turbata  gradum,  ciet  ocius  atram 
Tisiphonen,  imos  agitantem  verbere  manes,  530 

et  palmas  tendens  :  "  hos,"  inquit,  "  Noctis  alumna, 
hos  muros  impelle  manu  populumque  ferocem 
dextris  sterne  suis  ;  luno  iubet,  ipsa  propinqua 
efFectus  studiumque  tuum  de  nube  videbo. 
ilia  deos  summumque  lovem  turbantia  tela,  535 

quis  Acheronta  moves,  flammam  immanesque  chely- 

stridoremque  tuum,  quo  territa  comprimit  ora 
Cerberus,  ac,  mixto  quae  spumant  felle,  venena 
et  quicquid  scelerum,  poenarum  quicquid  et  irae 
pectore  fecundo  coquitur  tibi,  congere  praeceps     540 
in  Rutulos  totamque  Erebo  demitte  Saguntum. 
hac  mercede  Fides  constet  delapsa  per  auras." 

Sic  voce  instimulans  dextra  dea  concita  saevam 
Eumenida  incussit  muris  ;  tremuitque  repente 
mons  circum,  et  gravior  sonuit  per  litora  fluctus.    545 
sibilat  insurgens  capiti  et  turgentia  circa 
multus  colla  micat  squalenti  tergore  serpens. 
Mors  graditur,  vasto  cava  pandens  guttura  rictu, 
casuroque  inhiat  populo  :  tunc  Luctus  et  atri 

"  They  were  willing  to  prolong  their  lives  by  cannibalism  ; 
but  Loyalty  forbade  this.  ^  Juno. 

*  The  Furies,  called  Eumenides  by  the  Greeks,  were  three 
in  number.  Their  names  were  Alecto,  Megaera,  and  Tisi- 
phone.  They  lived  in  Hades,  where  they  tormented  the 
wicked  spirits  ;  and  they  could  also  appear  on  earth,  where 
they  invariably  spread  terror  and  madness. 

<*  The  hound  of  Hades  had  three  mouths. 

PUNICA,   II.  524-549 

Loyalty  forbids  them  to  prolong  a  life  defiled  by 
crime,  and  to  stay  their  hunger  with  the  flesh  of 

It  chanced  that  Saturn's  daughter  ^  was  repairing 
to  the  Carthaginian  camp  ;  and,  soon  as  she  saw  the 
maiden.  Loyalty,  in  the  citadel  of  the  hated  people, 
she  rebuked  her  eagerness  to  stir  up  war,  and, 
stumbling  in  her  rage,  summoned  at  once  dark  Tisi- 
phone  '^  who  drives  with  her  scourge  the  spirits  in  the 
depths  of  hell.  Stretching  out  her  hands  she  said  : 
"  Daughter  of  Night,  use  your  power  to  overthrow 
yonder  walls,  and  lay  the  proud  people  low  by  their 
own  hands.  This  is  Juno's  bidding ;  I  myself  shall  keep 
near  and  watch  from  a  cloud  your  handiwork  and  your 
zeal.  Take  up  the  weapons  that  confound  the  gods 
and  even  supreme  Jupiter,  and  that  make  Acheron 
tremble — flame  and  hideous  serpents  and  that  hissing 
which  belongs  to  you  alone  and  makes  Cerberus  shut 
his  mouths  ^  for  fear  ;  take  frothing  venom  mixed 
with  gall ;  take  all  the  crime  and  punishment  and 
wrath  that  are  nursed  in  your  teeming  breast,  and 
heap  them  headlong  upon  the  Rutulians,^  and  send 
all  Saguntum  down  to  Erebus.  Let  this  be  the  price 
they  pay  for  Loyalty's  descent  from  heaven." 

With  these  words  the  angry  goddess  spurred  on 
the  ruthless  Fury,  and  hurled  her  with  her  own  hand 
against  the  walls  ;  and  suddenly  the  mountain  shook 
all  round,  and  the  waves  along  the  shore  made  a 
deeper  sound.  Upon  the  Fury's  head  and  round  her 
swollen  neck  a  brood  of  scaly-backed  serpents  glit- 
tered and  hissed.  Opening  wide  his  hollow  jaws. 
Death  stalked  abroad  and  gaped  for  the  doomed 
citizens  ;  and  round  him  stood  Mourning  and  Wailing 
•  Saguntines. 



pectora  circumstant  Planctus  Maerorque  Dolorque, 

tque  omnes  adsunt  Poenae,  formaque  trifauci      55i 
personat  insomnis  lacrimosae  lanitor  aulae. 
protinus  assimulat  faciem  mutabile  monstrum 
Tiburnae  gressumque  simul  sonitumque  loquentis. 
haec  bello  vacuos  et  saevi  turbine  Martis  555 

lugebat  thalamos,  Murro  spoliata  marito  ; 
clara  genus  Daunique  trahens  a  sanguine  nomen. 
cui  vultus  induta  pares  disiectaque  crinem 
Eumenis  in  medios  irrumpit  turbida  coetus 
et  maestas  lacerata  genas,    "  quis  terminus  ?  "   in- 
quit,  560 
**  sat  Fidei  proavisque  datum  !  vidi  ipsa  cruentum, 
ipsa  meum  vidi  lacerato  vulnere  nostras 
terrentem  Murrum  noctes  et  dira  sonantem  : 
eripe  te,  coniux,  miserandae  casibus  urbis 
et  fuge,  si  terras  adimit  victoria  Poeni,  565 
ad  manes,  Tiburna,  meos  ;  cecidere  penates, 
occidimus  Rutuli,  tenet  omnia  Punicus  ensis. 
mens  horret,  nee  adhue  oculis  absistit  imago, 
nullane  iam  posthac  tua  tecta,  Sagunte,  videbo  ? 
felix,  Murre,  neeis  patriaque  superstite  felix.          570 
at  nos,  Sidoniis  famulatum  matribus  actas, 
post  belli  casus  vastique  pericula  ponti 
Carthago  aspiciet  victrix  ;  tandemque  suprema 
nocte  obita,  Libyae  gremio  captiva  iacebo. 
sed  vos,  o  iuvenes,  vetuit  quos  conscia  virtus          575 
posse  capi,  quis  telum  ingens  contra  aspera  mors  est, 
vestris  servitio  manibus  subducite  matres. 

"  These  are  often  identified  with  the  Furies. 

^  Cerberus. 

'^  See  i.  376  foil. 

^  Her  name,  Tiburna,  suggests  that  her  ancestors  came 
rom  Tibur,  the  city  in  Latium. 

PUNICA,   II.   550-577 

with  blackened  breast  and  Grief  and  Pain  ;  and  all  the 
Avengers  ^  were  there  ;  and  the  sleepless  guardian  ^ 
of  the  dismal  dwelling  bayed  from  his  triple  throat. 
At  once  the  Fiend  changed  her  shape  and  took  the 
likeness  of  Tiburna  and  her  gait  withal  and  the 
sound  of  her  voice.  Tiburna,  robbed  of  her  husband, 
Murrus,^  was  mourning  for  her  marriage-bed  made 
empty  by  war  and  the  fierce  blast  of  battle  ;  she  was 
of  noble  birth  and  derived  her  name  from  the  blood 
of  Daunus.^  The  Fury  assumed  her  likeness  and 
then,  with  hair  dishevelled  and  cheeks  torn  in  sign  of 
mourning,  rushed  wildly  into  the  midst  of  the  crowd. 
"  How  long  ?  "  she  cried.  "  We  have  done  enough 
for  the  sake  of  Loyalty  and  our  forefathers  ;  my  own 
eyes  have  seen  the  bleeding  form  of  my  loved  Murrus, 
have  seen  him  startling  my  nights  with  his  mangled 
body,  and  speaking  fearful  words  ;  '  Save  yourself, 
dear  wife,  from  the  calamities  of  this  hapless  city  ; 
and,  if  the  victory  of  the  Carthaginian  leaves  no  land 
for  refuge,  seek  safety,  Tiburna,  with  my  ghost.  Our 
gods  are  overthrown,  we  Rutulians  are  undone,  the 
Punic  sword  is  master  of  all.'  My  heart  quakes  with 
fear,  and  his  ghost  is  still  before  my  eyes.  Shall  I 
then  see  the  dwellings  of  Saguntum  vanish  utterly  ? 
Fortunate  Murrus,  to  die  and  leave  his  country  still 
alive  !  But  as  for  us — we  shall  be  carried  off  to  wait 
on  the  women  of  Carthage  ;  and,  after  the  calamities 
of  war  and  the  dangers  of  the  great  deep,  victorious 
Carthage  will  behold  us  ;  and  at  last,  when  the  final 
darkness  of  death  comes,  I  shall  be  laid  a  captive  in 
the  lap  of  Libya.  But  you,  young  men,  whose  con- 
scious valour  has  denied  that  you  can  ever  be  taken 
captive,  you  who  have  in  death  a  mighty  weapon 
against  misfortune,  rescue  your  mothers  from  slavery 



ardua  virtutem  profert  via.     pergite  primi 

nee  facilem  populis  nee  notam  invadere  laudem.** 

His  ubi  turbatas  hortatibus  impulit  aures,  580 

inde  petit  tumulum,  summo  quern  vertice  mentis 
Amphitryoniades  speetandum  ex  aequore  nautis 
struxerat  et  grato  cineres  deeorarat  honore. 
exeitus  sede,  horrendum  !  prorumpit  ab  ima 
eaeruleus  maeulis  auro  squalentibus  anguis  ;  585 

ignea  sanguinea  radiabant  lumina  flamma, 
oraque  vibranti  stridebant  sibila  lingua  ; 
isque  inter  trepidos  coetus  mediamque  per  urbem 
volvitur  et  muris  propere  delabitur  altis 
ac  similis  profugo  vieina  ad  litora  tendit  590 

spumantisque  freti  praeeeps  immergitur  undis. 

Turn  vero  exeussae  mentes,  ceu  prodita  teeta 
expulsi  fugiant  manes,  umbraeque  recusent 
eaptivo  iaeuisse  solo,     sperare  saluti 
pertaesum,  damnantque  eibos,  agit  abdita  Erinnys. 
haud  gravior  duris  divum  inclementia  rebus.  596 

quam  leti  proferre  moras  ;   abrumpere  vitam 
oeius  attoniti  quaerunt  lucemque  gravantur. 
certatim  struetus  surrectae  molis  ad  astra 
in  media  stetit  urbe  rogus  ;  portantque  trahuntque 
longae  paeis  opes  quaesitaque  praemia  dextris,      601 
Callaieo  vestes  distinetas  matribus  auro 
armaque  Dulichia  proavis  portata  Zaeyntho 
et  prisca  adveetos  Rutulorum  ex  urbe  penates  ; 

**  Hercules. 

*  Zacynthus  :   see  i.  276  foil. 

"  So  the  spirit  of  Anchises  appeared  to  Aeneas  in  the  form 
of  a  serpent  {Aen.  v.  84  foil.). 

^  This  snake  might  be  supposed  to  be  the  soul  of  Zacynthus 
who  was  buried  on  the  top  of  the  hill. 

^  See  note  to  i.  379. 

PUNICA,  IT.  578-604 

with  your  swords.  Steep  is  the  path  that  makes  virtue 
seen.  Hasten  to  be  the  first  to  snatch  a  glory  that 
few  can  attain  to,  a  glory  unknown  till  now  !  " 

When  she  had  stirred  up  her  hearers'  troubled 
minds  with  this  appeal,  next  she  sought  the  mound 
which  Amphitryon's  son**  had  built  on  the  topmost 
peak  of  the  mountain,  as  a  sea-mark  for  sailors  and 
a  welcome  tribute  of  honour  to  the  dead.^  Then — 
dreadful  to  behold — a  snake  burst  forth  at  her  sum- 
mons from  its  abode  in  the  depths  of  the  mound  ;  its 
body  was  dark-green  and  rough  with  spots  of  gold  ; 
its  fiery  eyes  glittered  with  blood-red  flame  ;  and  the 
mouth  with  its  flickering  tongue  made  a  loud  hissing. 
Between  the  terrified  groups  its  coils  moved  on 
through  the  centre  of  the  city,  and  swiftly  it  glided 
down  from  the  high  walls  ;  then,  as  if  escaping, 
it  made  its  way  to  the  shore  near  the  town,  and 
plunged  headlong  into  the  waves  of  the  foaming  sea." 

Then  indeed  men's  reason  tottered  :  it  seemed  that 
the  dead  were  fleeing  forth  from  abodes  no  longer 
safe,  and  that  their  ghosts  refused  to  lie  in  con- 
quered soil.*^  They  were  sick  with  disappointed  hope 
of  deliverance  ;  they  refused  food  ;  the  disguised 
Fury  possessed  them.  To  postpone  the  date  of  death 
is  as  grievous  as  Heaven's  refusal  to  pity  their  suffer- 
ing ;  in  their  frenzy  they  find  existence  a  burden  and 
long  to  snap  the  thread  of  life  instantly.  Built  by 
many  hands,  a  pyre  whose  height  rose  to  heaven  was 
erected  in  the  centre  of  the  city.  Hither  they 
dragged  or  carried  the  wealth  of  a  long  peace,  the 
prizes  won  by  valour,  robes  embroidered  with  Gal- 
lician  gold  by  their  matrons,  weapons  brought  by 
their  ancestors  from  Dulichian^  Zacynthus,  and  the 
household  gods  that  came  across  the  sea  from  the 



hue,  quicquid  superest  captis,  clipeosque  simulque  605 
infaustos  iaciunt  enses  et  condita  bello 
effodiunt  penitus  terrae  gaudentque  superbi 
victoris  praedam  flammis  donare  supremis. 

Quae  postquam  congesta  videt  feralis  Erinnys, 
lampada  flammiferis  tinctam  Phlegethontis  in  undis 
quassat  et  inferna  superos  caligine  condit.  611 

inde  opus  aggressi,  toto  quod  nobile  mundo 
aeternum  invictis  infelix  gloria  servat. 
princeps  Tisiphone,  lentum  indignata  parentem, 
pressit  ovans  capulum  cunctantemque  impulit  ensem 
et  dirum  insonuit  Stygio  bis  terque  flagello.  616 

invitas  maculant  cognato  sanguine  dextras 
miranturque  nefas  aversa  mente  peractum 
et  facto  sceleri  illacrimant.     hie,  turbidus  ira 
et  rabie  eladum  perpessaeque  ultima  vitae,  620 

obliquos  versat  materna  per  ubera  visus  ; 
hie,  raptam  librans  dileetae  in  eolla  seeurim 
eoniugis,  inerepitat  sese  mediumque  furorem 
proieeta  damnat  stupef actus  membra  bipenni. 
nee  tamen  evasisse  datur  ;  nam  verbera  Erinnys    625 
ineutit  atque  atros  insibilat  ore  tumores. 
sic  thalami  fugit  omnis  amor,  duleesque  marito 
effluxere  tori,  et  subiere  oblivia  taedae. 
ille  iaeit,  totis  connisus  viribus,  aegrum 
in  flammas  corpus,  densum  qua  turbine  nigro         630 
exundat  fumum  piceus  caligine  vertex. 

<»  Ardea. 

^  One  of  the  rivers  in  Hades,  a  river  not  of  water  but  of 
fire.  The  other  three  rivers,  often  mentioned  in  Silius,  are 
Acheron,  Cocytus,  and  Styx. 

"  The  father  is  trying  to  kill  his  own  child. 

^  He  intends  to  kill  his  mother  but  finds  it  impossible  to 
look  straight  at  her. 

PUNICA,   II.   605-631 

ancient  city  of  the  Rutulians."  They  throw  on  the 
pile  all  that  the  conquered  still  possess,  and  their 
shields  too  and  swords  that  could  not  save  ;  and  they 
dig  up  from  the  bowels  of  the  earth  hoards  buried 
in  time  of  war,  and  with  joy  and  pride  consign  the 
conqueror's  booty  to  the  all-devouring  flames. 

When  the  fatal  Fury  saw  this  pile,  she  brandished 
the  torch  that  w^as  dipped  in  the  fiery  waves  of  Phlege- 
thon  ^  ;  and  she  hid  the  gods  above  with  the  darkness 
of  Hell.  Then  the  people,  ever  unconquered,  began 
a  work,  which  glory  in  defeat  keeps  famous  for  ever 
throughout  the  world.  First  Tisiphone,  resenting  a 
father's  ^  half-hearted  stroke,  pushed  the  hilt  forward 
in  triumph  and  drove  in  the  reluctant  sword,  and 
cracked  her  hellish  scourge  again  and  again  with 
hideous  noise.  Against  their  will  men  stain  their 
hands  with  kindred  blood  ;  they  marvel  at  the  crime 
they  have  committed  with  loathing,  and  weep  over 
the  wickedness  they  have  wrought.  One  man,  dis- 
traught with  rage  and  the  madness  of  disaster  and 
extreme  suffering,  turns  a  sidelong  glance**  at  the 
breast  of  his  mother.  Another,  snatching  an  axe  and 
aiming  it  at  the  neck  of  his  loved  wife,  reproaches 
himself  and  curses  his  unfinished  crime,  and,  as  if 
paralysed,  throws  his  weapon  down.  Yet  he  is  not 
suffered  to  escape  ;  for  the  Fury  repeats  her  blows, 
and  breathes  black  passion  into  him  with  her  hissing 
mouth.  Thus  there  is  an  end  of  all  wedded  love  : 
the  husband  has  forgotten  the  joys  of  his  marriage- 
bed,  and  remembers  his  bride  no  more.  Another, 
'  exerting  all  his  strength,  throws  a  suffering  body 
into  the  flames  where  the  crest  of  the  dark- 
rolling  fire  sends  up  thick  smoke  and  pitchy  black- 



At  medios  inter  coetus  pietate  sinistra, 
infelix  Tymbrene,  furis,  Poenoqiie  parentis 
dum  properas  auferre  neeem,  reddentia  formam 
ora  tuam  laceras  temerasque  simillima  membra.    635 
vos  etiam  primo  gemini  cecidistis  in  aevo, 
Eurymedon  fratrem  et  fratrem  mentite  Lycorma, 
cuncta  pares  ;   dulcisque  labor  sua  nomina  natis 
reddere  et  in  vultu  genetrici  stare  suorum. 
iam  fixus  iugulo  culpa  te  solverat  ensis,  640 

Eurymedon,  inter  miserae  lamenta  senectae, 
dumque  malis  turbata  parens  deceptaque  visis 
*'  quo    ruis  ?     hue    ferrum,"    clamat,    "  converte, 

ecce  simul  iugulum  perfoderat  ense  Lycormas. 
sed   magno,     "  quinam,    Eurymedon,   furor   iste  ?  " 
sonabat  645 

cum  planctu,  geminaeque  nota  decepta  figurae, 
funera  mutato  revocabat  nomine  mater, 
donee,  transacto  tremebunda  per  ubera  ferro, 
tunc  etiam  ambiguos  cecidit  super  inscia  natos. 

Quis  diros  urbis  casus  laudandaque  monstra        650 
et  Fidei  poenas  ac  tristia  fata  piorum 
imperet  evolvens  lacrimis  ?     vix  Punica  fletu 
cessassent  castra  ac  miserescere  nescius  hostis. 
urbs,  habitata  diu  Fidei  caeloque  parentem 
murorum  repetens,  ruit  inter  perfida  gentis  655 

Sidoniae  tela  atque  immania  facta  suorum, 
iniustis  neglecta  deis  ;  furit  ensis  et  ignis, 

<•  By  suicide  he  escaped  the  guilt  of  matricide,  and  was 
Innocent,  compared  with  Tymbrenus  who  had  killed  his  own 


PUNICA,   II.   632-657 

Again,  in  the  midst  of  the  crowd,  ill-starred  Tym- 
brenus,  distraught  with  love  assuming  strange  dis- 
guise, and  eager  to  rob  the  Carthaginian  of  his  father's 
death,  mutilates  the  features  that  resemble  his  own, 
and  desecrates  a  body  that  is  the  image  of  himself. 
Twin  brethren  also,  alike  in  every  point,  Eurymedon 
and  Lycormas,  each  an  exact  likeness  of  the  other, 
were  slain  there  in  their  prime.  To  their  mother  it 
had  been  a  sweet  perplexity  to  name  her  sons  aright, 
and  to  be  uncertain  of  her  own  children's  features. 
The  sword  that  pierced  the  throat  of  Eurymedon, 
while  the  poor  old  mother  lamented,  had  already 
cleared  him  of  guilt "  ;  and  while  she,  distraught  with 
sorrow  and  mistaking  whom  she  saw,  cried  out, 
"  What  mean  you,  madman  ?  Turn  your  sword 
against  me,  Lycormas,"  lo !  Lycormas  had  already 
stabbed  himself  in  the  throat.  But  she  cried  aloud  : 
**  Eurymedon,  what  madness  is  this  ?  " — and  the 
mother,  misled  by  the  likeness  of  the  twins,  called 
back  her  dead  sons  by  wrong  names  ;  at  last,  driving 
the  steel  through  her  own  quivering  breast,  she  sank 
down  over  the  sons  whom  even  then  she  could  not 

Who  could  command  his  tears  when  recounting 
the  dreadful  fate  of  the  city,  the  crimes  that  deserve 
praise,  the  penalty  paid  by  Loyalty,  and  the  piteous 
doom  of  pious  souls  }  Even  the  Punic  army,  enemies 
incapable  of  pity,  could  scarce  have  refrained  from 
weeping.  A  city,  that  was  long  the  abode  of  Loyalty 
and  that  claimed  a  god  as  the  founder  of  her  walls, 
is  falling  now,  disregarded  by  the  injustice  of  Heaven, 
amid  the  treacherous  warfare  of  Carthaginians  and 
horrors  committed  by  her  own  citizens  ;  fire  and 
sword  run  riot,  and  any  spot  that  is  not  burning  is 



quique  caret  flarnma,  scelerum  est  locus,     erigit  atro 
nigrantem  funio  rogus  alta  ad  sidera  nubem. 
ardet  in  excelso  proceri  vertice  montis  660 

arx,  intacta  prius  bellis  (hinc  Punica  castra 
litoraque  et  totam  soliti  spectare  Saguntum) 
ardent  tecta  deum  ;   resplendet  imagine  flammae 
aequor,  et  in  tremulo  vibrant  incendia  ponto. 

Ecce  inter  medios  caedum  Tiburna  furores,         665 
fulgenti  dextram  mucrone  armata  mariti 
et  laeva  infelix  ardentem  lampada  quassans 
squalentemque  erecta  comam  ac  liventia  planctu 
pectora  nudatis  ostendens  saeva  lacertis, 
ad  tumulum  Murri  super  ipsa  cadavera  fertur.       670 
qualis,  ubi  inferni  dirum  tonat  aula  parentis, 
iraque  turbatos  exercet  regia  manes, 
Alecto  solium  ante  dei  sedemque  tremendam 
Tartareo  est  operata  lovi  poenasque  ministrat. 
arma  viri,  multo  nuper  defensa  cruore,  675 

imponit  tumulo  illacrimans  ;  manesque  precata, 
acciperent  sese,  flagrantem  lampada  subdit. 
tunc  rapiens  letum  :  "  tibi  ego  haec,"  ait,  **  op  time 

ad  manes,  en,  ipsa  fero."     sic  ense  recepto 
arma  super  ruit  et  flammas  invadit  hiatu.  680 

Semiambusta  iacet  nullo  discrimine  passim 
infelix  obitus,  permixto  funere,  turba. 
ceu,  stimulante  fame,  cum  victor  ovilia  tandem 
faucibus  invasit  siccis  leo,  mandit  hianti 
ore  fremens  imbelle  pecus,  patuloque  redundat      685 

"  These  are  names  for  Pluto,  or  Dis,  the  Ruler  of  Hades. 
For  Alecto,  see  note  to  1.  530. 

PUNICA,  II.   658-685 

IBl  scene  of  crime.  The  pyre  sends  up  aloft  a  sable 
'  cloud  of  black  smoke.  On  the  high  top  of  the  lofty 
mountain  the  citadel  that  former  wars  had  spared 
I  is  blazing — from  this  point  the  citizens  were  wont  to 
see  the  Punic  camp  and  the  shore  and  the  whole  of 
Saguntum, — the  temples  of  the  gods  are  blazing. 
The  sea  is  lit  up  by  the  reflection  of  the  fire,  and  the 
conflagration  quivers  on  the  restless  water. 

Lo  !  in  the  midst  of  madness  and  murder,  unhappy 
Tiburna  was  seen.  Her  right  hand  was  armed  with 
her  husband's  bright  sword,  and  in  her  left  she  brand- 
ished a  burning  torch  ;  her  disordered  hair  stood 
on  end,  her  shoulders  were  bare,  and  she  displayed 
a  breast  discoloured  by  cruel  blows.  She  hurried 
right  over  the  corpses  to  the  tomb  of  Murrus.  Such 
seems  Alecto,  when  the  palace  of  the  Infernal 
Father  ^  thunders  doom,  and  the  monarch's  wrath 
troubles  and  vexes  the  dead ;  then  the  Fury,  standing 
before  the  throne  and  terrible  seat  of  the  god,  does 
service  to  the  Jupiter  of  Tartarus  "•  and  deals  out 
punishments.  Her  husband's  armour,  lately  rescued 
with  much  bloodshed,  she  placed  on  the  mound  with 
tears  ;  then  she  prayed  to  the  dead  to  welcome  her, 
and  applied  her  burning  torch  to  the  pile.  Then, 
rushing  upon  death,  "  Best  of  husbands,"  she  cried, 
"  see,  I  myself  carry  this  weapon  to  you  in  the  shades." 
And  so  she  stabbed  herself  and  fell  down  over  the 
armour,  meeting  the  fire  with  open  mouth. 

Unhappy  in  their  death,  half-consumed  by  the  fire, 
without  distinction  or  order,  the  bodies  of  the  people 
lay  pell-mell,  one  upon  another.  Even  so,  when  a 
lion,  driven  by  hunger,  has  at  last  prevailed  and 
stormed  the  sheepfold  with  parched  gorge,  he  roars 
with  gaping  jaws  and  devours  the  helpless  sheep,  and 
VOL.  I  E  109 


gutture  ructatus  large  cruor  ;  incubat  atris 
semesae  stragis  cumulis,  aut,  murmure  anhelo 
infrendens,  laceros  inter  spatiatur  acervos. 
late  fusa  iacent  pecudes  custosque  Molossus 
pastorumque  cohors  stabulique  gregisque  magister, 
totaque  vastatis  disiecta  mapalia  tectis.  691 

irrumpunt  vacuam  Poeni  tot  cladibus  arcem. 
turn  demum  ad  manes,  perfecto  munere,  Erinnys 
lunoni  laudata  redit  magnamque  superba 
exultat  rapiens  secum  sub  Tartara  turbam.  695 

At  vos,  sidereae,  quas  nulla  aequaverit  aetas, 
ite,  decus  terrarum,  animae,  venerabile  vulgus, 
Elysium  et  castas  sedes  decorate  piorum. 
cui  vero  non  aequa  dedit  victoria  nomen' 
(audite,  o  gentes,  neu  rumpite  foedera  pacis  700 

nee  regnis  postferte  fidem)  vagus  exul  in  orbe 
errabit  toto,  patriis  proiectus  ab  oris, 
tergaque  vertentem  trepidans  Carthago  videbit. 
saepe  Saguntinis  somnos  exterritus  umbris 
optabit  cecidisse  manu  ;  ferroque  negato,  705 

invictus  quondam  Stygias  bellator  ad  undas 
deformata  feret  liventi  membra  veneno. 

«•  At  the  battle  of  Zama  (202  b.c.)  Hannibal  was  utterly 
defeated  by  Scipio. 

*  Hannibal,  fearing  to  be  given  up  to  the  Romans,  escaped 
from  Africa  in  193  b.c.  and  went  from  place  to  place — 
Tyre,  Ephesus,  Crete,  Bithynia.  It  was  in  Bithynia  that  he 
swallowed  poison  which  he  carried  in  a  ring.  The  year  of 
his  death  is  uncertain  ;   but  it  was  probably  182  b.c. 



PUNICA,  II.   686-707 

streams  of  blood  are  vomited  forth  from  his  vast 
gape ;  he  couches  down  on  dark  heaps  of  victims  half- 
devoured,  or,  gnashing  his  teeth  with  panting  and 
roaring,  stalks  between  the  piles  of  mangled  carcasses. 
Around  him  in  confusion  lie  the  sheep  with  the 
Molossian  dog  that  guarded  them,  and  the  band  of 
shepherds  with  the  owner  of  the  flock  and  fold  ;  and 
their  huts  are  utterly  destroyed  and  their  dwellings 
demolished.  The  Carthaginians  rushed  into  the 
citadel  which  so  many  disasters  had  left  undefended. 
And  then  at  last  the  Fiend,  her  duty  done,  returned, 
with  thanks  from  Juno,  to  the  nether  world,  proud 
and  triumphant  that  she  carried  with  her  to  Tartarus 
a  multitude  of  victims. 

But  you,  ye  star-like  souls,  whom  no  succeeding  age 
shall  ever  match — go,  glory  of  the  earth,  a  worship- 
ful company,  and  adorn  Elysium  and  the  pure  abodes 
of  the  righteous.  Whereas  he,  who  gained  glory 
by  an  unjust  victory — hear  it,  ye  nations,  and  break 
not  treaties  of  peace  nor  set  power  above  loyalty  ! — 
banished  from  his  native  land  he  shall  wander,  an 
exile,  over  the  whole  earth  ;  and  terrified  Carthage 
shall  see  him  in  full  retreat.'*  Often,  startled  in  his 
sleep  by  the  ghosts  of  Saguntum,  he  shall  wish  that  he 
had  fallen  by  his  own  hand  ;  but  the  steel  will  be 
denied  him,  and  the  warrior  once  invincible  in  earlier 
years  shall  carry  down  to  the  waters  of  Styx  a  body 
disfigured  and  blackened  by  poison.* 




After  the  taking  of  Saguntum,  Bostar  is  sent  to  Africa  to 
consult  Jupiter  Ammon  (1-13).  Hannibal  goes  to  GadeSj 
where  he  is  shown  the  famous  temple  of  Hercules  and  marvels 
at  the  tides  of  the  Atlantic  (14-60).  He  sends  his  wife, 
Himilce,  and  his  infant  son  to  Carthage  (61-157).  He 
dreams  of  the  coming  campaign  (158-213).  He  sets  off : 
a  catalogue  of  his  forces  (214-405).     He  crosses  the  Pyrenees 

Postquam  rupta  fides  Tyriis,  et  moenia  castae, 
non  aequo  superum  genitore,  eversa  Sagunti, 
extemplo  positos  finiti  cardine  miindi 
victor  adit  populos  cognataqiie  limina  Gades. 
nee  vatum  mentes  agitare  et  praescia  corda  6 

cessatum  super  imperio.     citus  aequore  Bostar 
vela  dare  et  rerum  praenoscere  fata  iubetur. 
prisca  fides  adytis  longo  servatur  ab  aevo, 
qua  sublime  sedens,  Cirrhaeis  aemulus  antris, 
inter  anhelantes  Garamantas  corniger  Hammon       10 
fatidico  pandit  venientia  saecula  luco. 
hinc  omen  coeptis  et  casus  scire  futuros 
ante  diem  bellique  vices  novisse  petebat. 
Exin  clavigeri  veneratus  numinis  aras 

<•  A  common  description  of  Spain. 

^  Gades  (now  Cadiz)  was  a  colony  from  Tyre  and  the 
chief  Phoenician  settlement  outside  the  Mediterranean. 

"  For  Jupiter  Ammon  see  note  to  i.  415. 


ARGUMENT  {continued) 

(406-441).  He  crosses  the  Rhone  and  the  Durance  (442-476). 
Tlie  Alps  are  described  (477-499).  After  frightful  hardships 
he  pitches  a  camp  on  the  summit  of  the  mountains  (500-556). 
Venus  and  Jupiter  converse  concerning  the  destiny  of  Rome 
(557-629).  Hannibal  encamps  in  the  country  of  the  Taurini 
(630-646).  Bostar  brings  back  from  Africa  the  response 
of  Jupiter  Ammon  (647-714). 

After  the  Carthaginians  had  broken  faith,  and  the 
walls  of  faithful  Saguntum,  frowned  on  by  the  Father 
of  Heaven,  had  been  overthrown,  the  conqueror  at 
once  visited  the  peoples  who  dwell  at  the  limit  where 
the  world  ends,**  and  Gades,^  the  home  of  a  race 
akin  to  Carthage.  Nor  did  he  omit  to  consult  the 
wisdom  and  foresight  of  prophets  concerning  the 
struggle  for  power.  Bostar  was  ordered  to  set  sail 
at  once  and  to  inquire  into  the  future  before  it  came. 
From  early  times  men  have  always  trusted  the  shrine 
where  horned  Ammon^  sits  on  high,  a  rival  of  the 
Delphian'^  caves,  and  reveals  future  ages  in  his  pro- 
phetic grove  among  the  thirsty  Garamantes.  From 
there  Hannibal  sought  a  good  omen  for  his  enterprise ; 
he  sought  to  know  coming  events  before  their  date 
and  to  learn  the  changing  fortunes  of  the  war. 
Thereafter  he  worshipped  at  the  altars  of  the  god 
«*  See  note  to  1.  98. 



captivis  onerat  donis,  quae  nuper  ab  arce  15 

victor  fumantis  rapuit  semusta  Sagunti. 
vulgatum,  nee  cassa  fides,  ab  origine  fani 
impositas  durare  trabes  solasque  per  aevum 
condentum  novisse  manus.     hinc  credere  gaiident 
consedisse  deum  seniumque  repellere  templis.  20 

turn,  quis  fas  et  honos  adyti  penetralia  nosse, 
femineos  prohibent  gressus  ac  limine  curant 
saetigeros  arcere  sues  ;  nee  discolor  ulli 
ante  aras  cultus  ;  velantur  corpora  lino, 
et  Pelusiaco  praefulget  stamine  vertex.  25 

discinctis  mos  tura  dare  atque  e  lege  parentum 
sacrificam  lato  vestem  distinguere  clavo. 
pes  nudus  tonsaeque  comae  castumque  cubile  ; 
irrestincta  focis  servant  altaria  flammae. 
sed  nulla  effigies  simulacrave  nota  deorum  30 

maiestate  locum  et  sacro  implevere  timore. 
In  foribus  labor  Alcidae  :  Lernaea  recisis 
anguibus  hydra  iacet,  nexuque  elisa  leonis 
ora  Cleonaei  patulo  caelantur  hiatu. 
at  Stygius,  saevis  terrens  latratibus  umbras,  35 

ianitor,  aeterno  tum  primum  tractus  ab  antro, 
vincla  indignatur,  metuitque  Megaera  catenas, 
iuxta  Thraces  equi  pestisque  Erymanthia  et  altos 

<•  The  temple  of  Hercules  at  or  near  Gades  was  very 
ancient,  greatly  venerated,  and  immensely  wealthy.  The 
timber  that  never  decayed  is  mentioned  by  other  writers. 
Silius  gives  more  details  about  the  ritual  than  any  other 
extant  author. 

*  The  priests  are  meant. 

«  Pelusium  is  a  district  near  one  mouth  of  the  Nile. 

<*  Cleonae  was  a  little  town  near  Nemea. 

«  Cerberus,  whom  Hercules  chained  and  brought  up  from 

PUNICA,  III.    16-38 

who  bears  the  club,"  and  loaded  them  with  offerings 
lately  snatched  by  the  conqueror  from  the  fire  and 
smoke  of  the  citadel  of  Saguntum.  Men  said — 
and  it  was  no  idle  tale — that  the  timber,  of  which 
the  temple  was  built  at  first,  never  decayed,  and  for 
ages  never  felt  the  handiwork  of  any  others  than  the 
first  builders.  Hence  men  take  pleasure  in  the  belief 
that  the  god  has  taken  up  his  abode  there  and  defends 
his  temple  from  decay.  Further,  those  who  are  per- 
mitted and  privileged  to  have  access  to  the  inner 
shrine  ^  forbid  the  approach  of  women,  and  are  careful 
to  keep  bristly  swine  away  from  the  threshold.  The 
dress  worn  before  the  altars  is  the  same  for  all :  linen 
covers  their  limbs,  and  their  foreheads  are  adorned 
with  a  head-band  of  Pelusian^  flax.  It  is  their 
custom  to  offer  incense  with  robes  ungirt ;  and, 
following  their  fathers'  rule,  they  adorn  the  garment 
of  sacrifice  with  a  broad  stripe.  Their  feet  are  bare 
and  their  heads  shaven,  and  their  bed  admits  no 
partner  ;  the  fires  on  the  hearth-stones  keep  the 
altars  alight  perpetually.  But  no  statues  or  familiar 
images  of  the  gods  filled  the  place  with  solemnity  and 
sacred  awe. 

The  doors  displayed  the  Labours  of  Hercules.  The 
Hy  dra  of  Lerna  lay  there  with  her  snakes  lopped  off, 
and  the  strangled  head  of  the  Nemean'*  lion  was 
carved  there  with  jaws  agape.  There  too  the  door- 
keeper of  the  Styx,*  who  terrifies  the  dead  by  his 
savage  barking,  raged  at  his  bonds,  when  dragged  for 
the  first  time  from  his  everlasting  cavern ;  and 
Megaera  stood  by,  fearing  to  be  fettered  too.  Near 
by  were  the  Thracian  horses,^  and  the  bane  of  Ery- 

^  The  horses  which  Diomede,  king  of  Thrace,  fed  on 
human  flesh. 



aeripedis  ramos  superantia  cornua  cervi. 
nee  levior  vinci  Libycae  telluris  alumnus  40 

matre  super  stratique  genus  deforme  bimembres 
Centauri  frontemque  minor  nune  amnis  Acarnan. 
inter  quae  fulget  sacratis  ignibus  Oete, 
ingentemque  animam  rapiunt  ad  sidera  flammae. 

Postquam  oculos  varia  implevit  virtutis  imago,     45 
mira  dehinc  cernit  :  surgentis  mole  profundi 
iniectum  terris  subitum  mare  nullaque  circa 
litora  et  infuso  stagnantes  aequore  campos. 
nam  qua  caeruleis  Nereus  evolvitur  antris 
atque  imo  freta  contorquet  Neptunia  fundo,  50 

proruptum  exundat  pelagus,  caecosque  relaxans 
Oceanus  fontes  torrentibus  ingruit  undis. 
tum  vada,  ceu  saevo  penitus  permota  tridenti, 
luctantur  terris  tumef actum  imponere  pontum. 
mox  remeat  gurges  tractoque  relabitur  aestu,  55 

ac  ratis  erepto  campis  deserta  profundo, 
et  fusi  transtris  expectant  aequora  nautae. 
Cymothoes  ea  regna  vagae  pelagique  labores 
Luna  movet,  Luna,  immissis  per  caerula  bigis, 
fertque    refertque    fretum,    sequiturque    reciproca 
Tethys.  60 

Haec  propere  spectata  duci  ;  nam  multa  fatigant. 
curarum  prima  exercet,  subducere  bello 

<*  A  wild  boar  that  laid  waste  Erymanthus  in  Arcadia. 

''  A  stag  (or  hind)  sacred  to  Diana,  which  Hercules  hunted 
for  a  whole  year  in  Arcadia. 

"  Antaeus,  who  gained  fresh  strength  every  time  that  he 
touched  his  mother,  Earth. 

^  The  Achelous,  which  lost  a  horn  in  contest  with  Hercules. 
When  ancient  rivers  are  personified,  they  generally  have  a 
bull's  head  and  horns. 

^  The  mountain  in  Thrace  on  which  Hercules  was 


PUNICA,  III.  39-62 

manthus,**  and  the  antlers  of  the  brazen-footed  stag  " 
that  rose  above  tall  trees.  And  the  child  of  the 
Libyan  land,  no  easy  conquest  when  he  stood  upon 
his  mother,*'  lay  low,  and  low  lay  the  ungainly  race  of 
Centaurs,  half  men  and  half  horses,  and  the  river  of 
Acarnania,*^  now  robbed  of  one  horn.  Amid  these 
figures  Oeta  *  shines  with  sacred  fires,  and  the  flames 
carry  the  hero's  soul  up  to  Heaven. 

When  Hannibal's  eyes  were  sated  with  the  picture 
of  all  that  valour,  he  saw  next  a  marvellous  sight  ^ — 
the  sea  suddenly  fiung  upon  the  land  with  the  mass 
of  the  rising  deep,  and  no  encircling  shores,  and  the 
fields  inundated  by  the  invading  waters.  For,  where 
Nereus  rolls  forth  from  his  blue  caverns  and  churns  up 
the  waters  of  Neptune  from  the  bottom,  the  sea 
rushes  forward  in  flood,  and  Ocean,  opening  his  hidden 
springs,  rushes  on  with  furious  waves.  Then  the 
water,  as  if  stirred  to  the  depths  by  the  fierce  trident,^ 
strives  to  cover  the  land  with  the  swollen  sea.  But 
soon  the  water  turns  and  glides  back  with  ebbing 
tide ;  and  then  the  ships,  robbed  of  the  sea,  are 
stranded,  and  the  sailors,  lying  on  their  benches, 
await  the  waters'  return.  It  is  the  Moon  that  stirs 
this  realm  of  wandering  Cymothoe  ^  and  troubles  the 
deep  ;  the  Moon,  driving  her  chariot  through  the 
sky,  draws  the  sea  this  way  and  that,  and  Tethys  * 
follows  with  ebb  and  flow. 

Hannibal  viewed  these  things  in  haste  ;  for  he  had 
much  to  trouble  him.     His  first  anxiety  was  to  remove 

'  To  the  Greeks  and  ancient  Ron  ans,  accustomed  only 
to  the  Mediterranean,  the  tides  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  visible 
at  Gades,  were  a  marvellous  sight. 

"  The  trident  is  the  sceptre  with  which  Neptune  rules  the 
sea.  '^  One  of  the  Nereids,  or  sea-nymphs. 

*  The  wife  of  Oceanus  and  mother  of  the  sea-nymphs. 
VOL.1  e2  117 



consortem  thalami  parvumque  sub  ubere  natum. 

virgineis  iuvenem  taedis  primoque  Hymenaeo 

imbuerat  coniux  memorique  tenebat  amore.  65 

at  puer,  obsessae  generatus  in  ore  Sagunti, 

bissenos  lunae  nondum  compleverat  orbes. 

quos  ut  seponi  stetit  et  secernere  ab  armis, 

affatur  ductor  :   "  spes  o  Carthaginis  altae, 

nate,  nee  Aeneadum  levior  metus,  amplior,  oro,      70 

sis  patrio  decore  et  factis  tibi  nomina  condas, 

quis  superes  bellator  avum  ;  iamque  aegra  timoris 

Roma  tuos  numerat  lacrimandos  matribus  annos. 

ni  praesaga  meos  ludunt  praecordia  sensus, 

ingens  hie  terris  ereseit  labor  ;  ora  parentis  75 

agnosco  torvaque  oeulos  sub  fronte  minaees 

vagitumque  gravem  atque  irarum  elementa  mearum. 

si  quis  forte  deum  tantos  ineiderit  actus 

et  nostro  abrumpat  leto  primordia  rerum, 

hoc  pignus  belli,  coniux,  servare  labora.  80 

cumque  datum  fari,  due  per  cunabula  nostra  ; 

tangat  Elissaeas  palmis  puerilibus  aras 

et  cineri  iuret  patrio  Laurentia  bella. 

inde  ubi  flore  novo  pubescet  firmior  aetas, 

emicet  in  Martem  et,  calcato  foedere,  victor  85 

in  Capitolina  tumulum  mihi  vindicet  arce. 

tu  vero,  tanti  felix  quam  gloria  partus 

expectat,  veneranda  fide,  discede  periclis 

incerti  Martis  durosque  reUnque  labores. 

'  This  tomb  must  have  been  a  cenotaph. 

PUNICA,   III.   63-89 

from  war  the  sharer  of  his  bed  and  their  Httle  son,  an 
infant  at  his  mother's  breast.  She  was  a  maiden  and 
he  a  youth,  when  they  first  were  wedded  ;  and  she 
clung  to  him  with  a  love  full  of  memories.  But  the 
child,  born  in  front  of  besieged  Saguntum,  had  not 
yet  completed  twelve  circuits  of  the  moon.  When 
he  had  resolved  to  send  off  mother  and  child  and 
remove  them  from  the  army,  Hannibal  addressed 
them  thus  :  "  O  my  son,  hope  of  high  Carthage,  and 
dread,  no  less,  of  the  Aeneadae,  may  you,  I  pray,  be 
more  glorious  than  your  father  and  make  a  name  for 
yourself  by  works  of  war  which  shall  surpass  your 
grandsire's.  Rome,  sick  with  fear,  already  reckons 
up  your  years — years  that  shall  make  mothers  weep. 
If  my  prophetic  soul  does  not  deceive  my  feehng, 
vast  suffering  for  the  world  is  growing  up  in  you  ;  I 
recognize  my  father's  countenance,  and  the  defiant 
eyes  beneath  a  frowning  brow  ;  I  note  the  depth  of 
your  infant  cries  and  the  beginnings  of  a  fierceness 
like  my  own.  If  haply  some  god  shall  check  my 
great  career  and  nip  my  glory  in  the  bud  by  death, 
then  be  it  your  task,  my  wife,  to  keep  safe  this  pledge 
of  war.  And,  when  he  is  able  to  speak,  lead  him 
through  the  scenes  of  my  childhood  :  let  him  lay  his 
baby  hands  on  the  altar  of  Elissa,  and  vow  to  his 
father's  ashes  that  he  will  fight  against  Rome.  Then, 
when  his  riper  age  shall  put  on  the  down  of  youth,  let 
him  rush  forth  to  war,  treading  the  treaty  under 
foot ;  and  let  him,  when  victorious,  demand  a  tomb" 
for  me  upon  the  Capitoline  hill.  But  you,  whose  love 
deserves  my  worship,  you  who  can  look  forward  to 
the  glory  and  happiness  of  so  mighty  a  son,  depart 
from  the  dangers  and  uncertainty  of  war,  and  turn 
away  from  hardship.     We  men  must  face  heights 



nos  clausae  nivibus  rupes  suppostaque  caelo  90 

saxa  manent ;  nos  Alcidae,  mirante  noverca, 
sudatus  labor  et,  bellis  labor  acrior,  Alpes. 
quod  si  promissum  vertat  Fortuna  favorem 
laevaque  sit  coeptis,  te  longa  stare  senecta 
aevumque  extendisse  velim  ;  tua  iustior  aetas,        95 
ultra  me  improperae  ducant  cui  fila  sorores." 
Sic  ille.     at  contra  Cirrhaei  sanguis  Imilce 
Cast  alii,  cui  materno  de  nomine  dicta 
Castulo  Phoebei  servat  cognomina  vatis, 
atque  ex  sacrata  repetebat  stirpe  parentes  ;  100 

tempore  quo  Bacchus  populos  domitabat  Hiberos, 
concutiens  thyrso  atque  armata  Maenade  Calpen, 
lascivo  genitus  Satyro  nymphaque  Myrice, 
Milichus  indigenis  late  regnabat  in  oris, 
cornigeram  attollens  genitoris  imagine  frontem.     105 
hinc  patriam  clarumque  genus  refer ebat  Imilce, 
barbarica  paulum  vitiato  nomine  lingua, 
quae  tunc  sic  lacrimis  sensim  manantibus  infit  : 
"  mene,  oblite  tua  nostram  pendere  salutem, 
abnuis  inceptis  comitem  ?     sic  foedera  nota  110 

primitiaeque  tori,  gelidos  ut  scandere  tecum 
deficiam  montes  coniux  tua  ?     crede  vigori 
femineo  ;   castum  baud  superat  labor  uUus  amorem. 
sin  solo  aspicimur  sexu,  fixumque  relinqui, 
cedo  equidem  nee  fata  moror  ;  deus  annuat,  oro  :  115 

"  Juno. 

''  Hannibal's  wife,  Imilce,  was  a  native  of  Castulo,  a 
Spanish  town  on  the  Guadalquivir.  Silius  derives  the  name 
of  the  city  from  a  man,  Castalius,  a  native  of  Delphi.  Castalia 
is  the  name  of  the  spring  near  Delphi.  Cirrha,  the  port  of 
Delphi,  is  often  identified  with  Delphi  itself. 


PUNICA,   III.   90-115 

barred  by  snow,  and  crags  that  reach  the  sky  ;  we 
must  face  the  labour  that  brought  the  sweat  to  the 
brow  of  Alcides  and  made  his  stepmother  "  marvel ; 
we  must  face  the  Alps,  a  sharper  ordeal  than  war. 
But,  if  Fortune  withhold  her  promised  favour  and 
frown  on  my  enterprise,  I  should  wish  you  long  life 
and  peaceful  old  age  ;  your  youth  deserves  that  the 
unhasting  Fates  should  prolong  your  threads  beyond 
my  span." 

Thus  he  spoke,  and  Imilce  answered  him.  She  was 
descended  from  Castalius,^  a  man  of  Cirrha,  who 
named  his  city,  Castulo,  after  his  mother,  and  it  still 
keeps  the  name  of  Apollo's  priest.  Thus  Imilce 
traced  her  pedigree  to  a  sacred  stock.  When 
Bacchus  was  conquering  the  Spanish  peoples  and 
attacking  Calpe  with  the  staves  and  spears  of  his 
Maenads,  Milichus  was  born  of  a  lustful  Satyr  and 
the  nymph  Myrice,  and  had  held  wide  dominion  in 
his  native  land  ;  and  horns,  like  those  of  his  father, 
grew  upon  his  forehead."  From  him  Imilce  drew  her 
nationality  and  noble  blood  ;  but  the  name  of  Milichus 
had  suffered  a  slight  corruption  in  the  native  speech. 
Thus  she  then  began  with  slowly  dropping  tears  : 
**  Do  you  forget  that  my  life  depends  on  yours  ?  Do 
you  reject  me  as  a  partner  of  your  enterprise  ?  Does 
our  union,  do  our  first  nuptial  joys,  make  you  believe 
that  I,  your  wife,  would  fall  back  when  climbing  with 
you  the  frozen  mountains  ?  Doubt  not  a  woman's 
hardihood  ;  no  danger  is  too  great  for  wedded  love 
to  face.  But  if  you  judge  me  by  sex  alone,  and  are 
determined  to  leave  me,  I  yield  indeed  and  will  not 
stay  the  course  of  destiny.     I  pray  God  to  bless  you. 

*  Satyrs  were  generally  represented  with  horns  and  goats' 
feet :   they  escorted  Bacchus  on  his  journeys  of  conquest. 



i  felix,  i  numinibus  votisque  secundis 
atque  acies  inter  flagrantiaque  arma  relictae 
coniugis  et  nati  curam  servare  memento, 
quippe  nee  Ausonios  tantum  nee  tela  nee  ignes, 
quantum  te,  metuo  ;  ruis  ipsos  aeer  in  enses  120 

obiectasque  caput  telis  ;   nee  te  ulla  secundo 
eventu  satiat  virtus,  tibi  gloria  soli 
fine  caret,  credisque  viris  ignobile  letum 
belligeris  in  pace  mori.     tremor  implicat  artus, 
nee  quemquam  horresco,  qui  se  tibi  eonferat  unus. 
sed  tu,  bellorum  genitor,  miserere  nefasque  126 

averte  et  serva  caput  inviolabile  Teucris." 

lamque  adeo  egressi  steterant  in  litore  primo, 
et  promota  ratis,  pendentibus  arbore  nautis, 
aptabat  sensim  pulsanti  carbasa  vento,  130 

cum,  lenire  metus  properans  aegramque  levare 
attonitis  mentem  curis,  sic  Hannibal  orsus  : 
"  ominibus  parce  et  lacrimis,  fidissima  coniux. 
et  pace  et  bello  cunctis  stat  terminus  aevi, 
extremumque  diem  primus  tulit  ;  ire  per  ora  135 

nomen  in  aeternum  paucis  mens  ignea  donat, 
quos  pater  aetheriis  caelestum  destinat  oris, 
an  Romana  iuga  et  famulas  Carthaginis  arces 
perpetiar  ?     stimulant  manes  noctisque  per  umbras 
increpitans  genitor  ;  stant  arae  atque  horrida  sacra 
ante  oculos,  brevitasque  vetat  mutabilis  horae        141 
prolatare  diem,     sedeamne,  ut  noverit  una 
me  tantum  Carthago  et,  qui  sim,  nesciat  omnis 

"  Mars. 

*  Here  again  the  Romans  are  called  Teucri,  i.e.  Trojans. 

«  See  i.  99  foil. 


PUNICA,  III.  116-143 

Go  and  prosper !  Go  with  favouring  gods  and  prayers ! 
And  amid  the  battles  and  the  blaze  of  arms,  remember 
to  keep  in  mind  the  wife  and  child  whom  you  leave 
behind.  For  I  fear  the  Romans,  with  their  weapons 
and  their  firebrands,  less  than  I  fear  you  :  you  rush 
fiercely  right  upon  the  swords,  and  expose  your  life 
to  the  missiles,  nor  does  any  successful  feat  of  arms 
content  you  ;  your  ambition,  unlike  that  of  other 
men,  knows  no  bounds  ;  and  you  think  a  peaceful 
death  an  inglorious  end  for  a  soldier.  Trembling 
takes  hold  of  my  limbs ;  and  yet  I  dread  no  man 
who  shall  meet  you  in  single  combat.  But  thou,  O 
Father  of  battles,'*  have  pity,  and  turn  away  evil 
from  us,  and  preserve  that  life  from  all  assaults  of 
the  Trojans  ^  !  " 

And  now  they  had  gone  forth  and  stood  upon  the 
shore-line.  The  ship,  rowed  forward,  was  slowly 
trimming  her  sails  to  the  wind,  and  the  sailors  dangled 
from  the  mast,  when  Hannibal,  eager  to  allay  her 
fears  and  relieve  her  mind,  sick  with  frantic  anxieties, 
thus  began  :  **  Have  done  with  forebodings  and  with 
tears,  my  faithful  wife.  In  war,  as  in  peace,  the  end 
of  each  man's  life  is  fixed,  and  the  first  day  leads  but 
to  the  last ;  few  there  are  whom  a  soul  of  fire  permits 
to  be  for  ever  famous  on  the  lips  of  men  ;  and  such 
the  Divine  Father  marks  out  to  dwell  in  heaven. 
Shall  I  endure  the  yoke  of  Rome,  and  not  resent  the 
slavery  of  Carthage  ?  I  am  driven  on  by  the  spirit 
of  my  father  that  rebukes  me  in  the  darkness  of 
night ;  that  altar  and  that  dreadful  sacrifice  "  stand 
clear  before  my  sight ;  and  my  brief  and  changeful 
span  forbids  me  to  defer  the  date.  Am  I  to  sit  still, 
in  order  that  Carthage  alone  may  know  my  name  ? 
And  is  all  the  world  to  be  ignorant  of  my  quality  ? 



gens  hominum?  letique  metu  decora  alta  relinquam? 
quantum  etenim  distant  a  morte  silentia  vitae  !     14£ 
nee  tamen  incautos  laudum  exhorresce  furores  ; 
et  nobis  est  lucis  honos,  gaudetque  senecta 
gloria,  cum  longo  titulis  celebratur  in  aevo. 
te  quoque  magna  manent  suscepti  praemia  belli  ; 
dent  modo  se  superi,  Thybris  tibi  serviet  omnis      150 
Iliacaeque  nurus  et  dives  Dardanus  auri." 
dumque  ea  permixtis  inter  se  fletibus  orant, 
confisus  pelago  celsa  de  puppe  magister 
cunctantem  ciet.     abripitur  divulsa  marito. 
haerent  intenti  vultus  et  litora  servant,  155 

donee,  iter  liquidum  volucri  rapiente  carina, 
consumpsit  visus  pontus,  tellusque  recessit. 

At  Poenus  belli  curis  avertere  amorem 
apparat  et  repetit  properato  moenia  gressu. 
quae  dum  perlustrat  crebroque  obit  omnia  visu,     160 
tandem  sollicito  cessit  vis  dura  labori, 
belligeramque  datur  somno  componere  mentem. 

Turn  pater  omnipotens,  gentem  exercere  periclis 
Dardaniam  et  fama  saevorum  tollere  ad  astra 
bellorum  meditans  priscosque  referre  labores,         165 
praecipitat  consulta  viri  segnemque  quietem 
terret  et  immissa  rumpit  formidine  somnos. 
iamque  per  humentem  noctis  Cyllenius  umbram 
aligero  lapsu  portabat  iussa  parentis, 
nee  mora  :  mulcentem  securo  membra  sopore         170 
aggreditur  iuvenem  ac  monitis  incessit  amaris  : 
"  turpe  duci  totam  somno  consumere  noctem, 
o  rector  Libyae  :   vigili  stant  bella  magistro. 

"  See  note  to  i.  14. 
*  The  siege  of  Troy. 

"  Mercury,  the  messenger  of  the  gods,  was  born  on  Cyllene, 
a  mountain  of  Arcadia. 


PUNICA,  III.  144-173 

Am  I,  from  fear  of  death,  to  abandon  the  heights  of 
glory  ?  How  Httle  does  an  obscure  hfe  differ  from 
death  !  Yet  fear  not  rashness  in  my  ardour  for 
renown  :  I  too  value  life,  and  the  hero  finds  pleasure 
in  old  age,  when  he  is  famed  for  great  deeds  in  the 
autumn  of  life.  You  too  may  look  for  great  rewards 
from  the  war  now  begun  :  if  only  Heaven  favours  us, 
all  Tiber  and  the  Roman  women  and  the  Dardans,° 
rich  in  gold,  shall  be  at  your  feet."  While  they  con- 
versed together  thus  and  mingled  their  tears,  the 
steersman,  feeling  that  he  could  trust  the  sea,  hailed 
the  unwilling  wife  from  his  high  seat  on  the  stern. 
Torn  from  her  husband's  arms  she  is  carried  away. 
Her  eager  eyes  still  cling  to  him  and  watch  the  shore, 
until  the  sea  made  sight  impossible  and  the  land 
fell  back,  as  the  swift  ship  sped  on  its  watery  way. 

But  Hannibal  sought  to  drown  his  love  in  the 
business  of  war  :  he  went  back  quickly  to  the  walls 
of  Gades  ;  and,  while  he  went  round  them  and  sur- 
veyed every  part  again  and  again,  the  ceaseless  toil 
proved  too  much  at  last  for  that  strong  heart,  and  he 
was  able  to  rest  his  warlike  mind  in  sleep. 

Then  the  Almighty  Father,  purposing  to  test  the 
Roman  people  by  peril,  to  raise  their  fame  to  heaven 
by  victory  in  fierce  warfare,  and  to  repeat  their 
ancient  ordeal,^  urged  on  Hannibal's  design  by  break- 
ing his  peaceful  rest  and  sending  terrors  to  disturb 
his  sleep.  Quickly  the  god  of  Cyllene,*'  flying  through 
the  dewy  darkness  of  the'Hight,  carried  the  message 
of  his  sire.  At  once  he  accosted  Hannibal,  where  he 
lay  at  ease  in  untroubled  sleep,  and  upbraided  him 
with  sharp  reproof :  "  Ruler  of  Libya,  it  becomes  not 
a  leader  to  pass  the  whole  night  in  slumber :  war 
prospers  when  the  commander  wakes.     You  will  see 



iam  maria  efFusas  cernes  turbare  carinas 
et  Latiam  toto  pubem  volitare  profundo,  175 

dum  lentus  coepti  terra  cunctaris  Hibera. 
scilicet,  id  satis  est  decoris  memorandaque  virtus, 
quod  tanto  cecidit  molimine  Graia  Saguntos  ? 
en  age,  si  quid  inest  animo  par  fortibus  ausis, 
fer  gressus  agiles  mecum  et  comitare  vocantem  ;    180 
respexisse  veto  (monet  hoc  pater  ille  deorum)  ; 
victorem  ante  altae  statuam  te  moenia  Romae." 
lamque  videbatur  dextram  iniectare  graduque 
laetantem  trahere  in  Saturnia  regna  citato, 
cum  subitus  circa  fragor  et  vibrata  per  auras  185 

exterrent  saevis  a  tergo  sibila  linguis  ; 
ingentique  metu  divum  praecepta  paventi 
effluxere  viro,  et  turbatus  lumina  flectit. 
ecce  iugis  rapiens  silvas  ac  robora  vasto 
contorta  amplexu  tractasque  per  invia  rupes,         190 
ater  letifero  stridebat  turbine  serpens, 
quantus  non  aequas  perlustrat  flexibus  Arctos, 
et  geminum  lapsu  sidus  circumligat  Anguis, 
immani  tantus  fauces  diducit  hiatu 
attollensque  caput  nimbosis  montibus  aequat.        195 
congeminat  sonitus  rupti  violentia  caeli 
imbriferamque  hiemem  permixta  grandine  torquet. 
hoc  trepidus  monstro  (neque  enim  sopor  ille  nee  altae 
vis  aderat  noctis,  virgaque  fugante  tenebras 
miscuerat  lucem  somno  deus)  ardua  quae  sit,  200 

scitatur  pestis  terrasque  urgentia  membra 
quo  ferat  et  quosnam  populos  deposcat  hiatu. 

«•  The  epithet  implies  that  Greeks  are  not  really  formidable 
opponents — a  view  generally  held  by  the  Romans. 

''  Italy  :   see  note  to  i.  70. 

*  Mercury  carried  a  magic  wand,  the  caduceus,  with  which 
he  could  send  mortals  to  sleep  or  wake  them  from  sleep. 

PUNICA,   III.    174-202 

ships  swarm  forth  ere  long  to  plough  the  sea,  and 
Roman  warriors  speeding  all  over  the  deep,  while  you, 
slow  to  begin,  stand  idle  in  the  land  of  Spain.  Is  it 
glory  enough  for  you,  and  a  memorable  feat  of  arms, 
to  have  overthrown  Greek  "■  Saguntum  with  so  great 
an  effort  ?  Arise  !  and  if  aught  in  your  heart  is 
capable  of  bold  action,  then  go  quickly  along  with 
me  and  accompany  my  summons  (I  forbid  you  to 
look  back  :  such  is  the  command  of  Jupiter)  and  I 
will  set  you  victorious  before  the  lofty  walls  of 

And  now  he  dreamed  that  Mercury  laid  a  hand  upon 
him  and  drew  him  in  joy  and  haste  to  the  land  of 
Saturn,^  when  he  was  startled  by  a  sudden  noise  about 
him  and  a  hissing  of  fierce  tongues  behind  him  that 
hurtled  through  the  sky.  Stricken  with  intense  fear, 
he  forgot  the  divine  command,  and  looked  behind 
him  in  his  dismay.  Behold  !  a  black  serpent,  sweep- 
ing along  in  its  huge  embrace  woods,  and  forest-trees 
torn  from  the  hills,  and  rocks  dragged  along  a  path- 
less track,  was  hissing  with  deadly  blast.  Huge  as 
the  Serpent  which  moves  with  its  coils  round  the 
Great  and  Little  Bear  and  encompasses  both  con- 
stellations in  its  course,  so  huge  it  parts  its  jaws  with 
cavernous  yawn,  and  raises  its  crest  to  the  height  of 
rain-swept  mountains.  And  the  fury  of  the  bursting 
heavens  redoubled  the  noise  and  discharged  a  storm 
of  rain  mixed  with  hail.  Terrified  by  this  portent 
(for  his  sleep  was  not  real  sleep,  and  the  power  of 
night  was  waning,  because  the  god  whose  rod  dispels 
darkness  '^  had  mingled  night  with  day)  Hannibal 
asked  what  this  terrible  monster  was,  and  whither  it 
was  bearing  that  body  which  weighed  down  the 
earth,  and  what  nations  were  demanded  by  its  open 



cui  gelidis  almae  Cyllenes  editus  antris  : 

"  bella  vides  optata  tibi.     te  maxima  bella, 

te  strages  nemorum,  te  moto  turbida  caelo  205 

tempestas  caedesque  virum  magnaeque  riiinae 

Idaei  generis  lacrimosaque  fata  secuntur. 

quantus  per  campos  populatis  montibus  actas 

contorquet  silvas  squalenti  tergore  serpens 

et  late  humect  at  terras  spumante  veneno,  210 

tantus,  perdomitis  decurrens  Alpibus,  atro 

involves  bello  Italiam  tantoque  fragore 

eruta  convulsis  prosternes  oppida  muris." 

His  aegrum  stimulis  liquere  deusque  soporque. 
it  membris  gelidus  sudor,  laetoque  pavore  215 

promissa  evolvit  somni  noctemque  retractat. 
iamque  deum  regi  Martique  sub  omine  fausto 
instauratus  honos  ;  niveoque  ante  omnia  tauro 
plaeatus  meritis  monitor  Cyllenius  aris. 
extemplo  edicit  convellere  signa,  repensque  220 

castra  quatit  clamor  permixtis  dissona  linguis. 

Prodite,  Calliope,  famae,  quos  horrida  coepta 
excierint  populos  tulerintque  in  regna  Latini, 
et  quas  indomitis  urbes  armarit  Hiberis 
quasque  Paraetonio  glomerarit  litore  turmas  225 

ausa  sibi  Libye  rerum  deposcere  frenos 
et  terris  mutare  iugum.     non  ulla  nee  umquam 
saevior  it  trucibus  tempestas  acta  procellis  ; 

^  The  mountain  gets  this  epithet  because  it  was  the  scene 
of  his  birth  and  might  be  called  his  nurse. 

'The  Romans  :    Ida  is  a  mountain  near  Troy. 

'  Sacrifices  are  meant. 

•*  The  shafts  of  ancient  standards  ended  in  a  metal  point 
wiiich  was  driven  into  the  ground  when  the  army  halted. 

*  Paraetonian,  more  properly  Egyptian,  is  used  loosely  for 
African  :   cp.  v.  356. 

PUNICA,  III.   203-228 

jaws.  The  god  who  was  born  in  the  cold  caverns  of 
fostering  <*  Cyllene  made  reply  :  "  You  see  the  war 
you  have  prayed  for  :  mighty  wars  follow  in  your 
train,  and  falling  forests,  and  fierce  storms  in  an 
angry  sky,  and  slaughter  of  men,  with  mighty  de- 
struction and  doleful  doom  to  the  people  of  Ida.^ 
All  this  is  your  doing.  As  that  huge  serpent  with 
scaly  hide  laid  waste  the  mountains  and  hurled  the 
uprooted  forests  over  the  plains  and  wetted  the 
whole  earth  with  its  foaming  slaver,  so  you,  as  huge, 
will  rush  down  from  the  conquered  Alps  and  wrap 
Italy  in  a  black  cloud  of  war  ;  and  with  a  noise 
like  the  serpent's  you  will  shatter  the  walls  of 
towns  and  root  out  cities  and  dash  them  to  the 

The  god  and  slumber  then  left  him,  disturbed  by 
these  incitements.  A  cold  sweat  broke  out  on  his 
body,  while  he  turned  over  the  promises  of  the  dream 
w4th  a  fearful  joy  and  reviewed  the  night  once  more. 
Soon  was  honour  ^  paid  to  the  King  of  Heaven  and 
Mars,  because  of  the  favourable  omen  ;  and  first  of 
all  the  god  of  Cyllene,  in  reward  for  his  counsel,  was 
propitiated  with  the  sacrifice  of  a  snow-white  bull. 
At  once  Hannibal  ordered  that  the  standards  should 
be  plucked  up,'^  and  a  sudden  shout  shook  the  camp 
filled  with  a  babel  of  discordant  tongues. 

Hand  down  to  fame.  Calliope,  the  peoples  sum- 
moned forth  by  this  fell  enterprise  and  borne  against 
the  realm  of  Latinus  !  Name  the  cities  of  warlike 
Spaniards  whom  Carthage  armed,  and  the  squadrons 
that  she  mustered  on  the  shore  of  Africa,^  when  she 
dared  to  claim  for  herself  the  reins  of  government, 
and  to  give  a  new  ruler  to  mankind.  Never  at  any 
time  did  a  fiercer  tempest  rage,  driven  on  by  furious 



nee  bellum  raptis  tam  dirum  mille  earinis 

aerius  infremuit  trepidumque  exterruit  orbem.       230 

Prineeps  signa  tulit  Tyria  Carthagine  pubes, 
membra  levis  celsique  decus  fraudata  superbum 
corporis,  at  docilis  fallendi  et  nectere  tectos 
numquam  tarda  dolos.    rudis  his  turn  parma,  brevique 
bellabant  ense  ;  at  vestigia  nuda,  sinusque  235 

cingere  inassuetum,  et  rubrae  velamine  vestis 
ars  erat  in  pugna  fusum  occuluisse  cruorem. 
his  rector  fulgens  ostro  super  altior  omnes 
germanus  nitet  HannibaHs  gratoque  tumultu 
Mago  quatit  currus  et  fratrem  spirat  in  armis.       240 

Proxima  Sidoniis  Utica  est  efFusa  maniphs, 
prisca  situ  veterisque  ante  arces  condita  Byrsae. 
tunc,  quae  Sicanio  praecinxit  litora  muro, 
in  chpei  speciem  curvatis  turribus,  Aspis. 
sed  dux  in  sese  converterat  ora  Sychaeus,  245 

Hasdrubahs  proles,  cui  vano  corda  tumore 
maternum  implebat  genus,  et  resonare  superbo 
Hannibal  baud  umquam  cessabat  avunculus  ore. 

Affuit  undosa  cretus  Berenicide  miles, 
nee,  tereti  dextras  in  pugnam  armata  dolone,         250 
destituit  Barce  sitientibus  arida  venis. 
nee  non  Cyrene  Pelopei  stirpe  nepotis 
Battiadas  pravos  fidei  stimulavit  in  arma. 

"  The  war  in  which  Agamemnon  launched  a  thousand 
ships  against  Troy. 

''  Utica,  a  colony  of  Tyre,  was  said  to  have  been  founded 
287  years  earlier  than  Carthage. 

«  See  note  to  ii.  363. 

•*  Aspis,  called  Clypea  by  the  Romans  (both  names  mean 
"Shield"),  was  fortified  by  Agathocles, tyrant  of  Syracuse, 
in  310  B.C.,  when  he  was  making  war  against  Carthage. 
The  city  was  shaped  like  a  shield. 

*  The  mother  of  Sychaeus  was  Hannibal's  sister. 

PUNICA,   III.    229-253 

winds  ;  not  even  that  dreadful  war**  that  swept  along  a 
thousand  ships  raged  with  more  violence  or  appalled 
more  utterly  a  terror-stricken  world. 

Foremost  in  the  ranks  were  the  soldiers  from  Tyrian 
Carthage.  Light  of  limb  were  they,  and  the  glory  of 
lofty  stature  was  denied  them;  but  they  were  readily 
taught  to  deceive,  and  never  slow  to  lay  secret  traps 
for  the  enemy.  They  carried  then  a  primitive  shield, 
and  fought  with  a  short  sword  ;  their  feet  were  bare, 
nor  was  it  their  custom  to  wear  a  belt ;  their  dress 
was  red,  and  they  had  skill  to  hide  under  its  covering 
the  blood  shed  in  battle.  Their  leader  was  Mago, 
Hannibal's  brother,  and  his  purple-clad  figure  over- 
topped them  all  while  he  drove  his  chariot  along, 
rejoicing  in  its  clattering  noise  and  bold  as  his  brother 
in  the  fray. 

Next  to  the  men  of  Carthage,  Utica  poured  forth 
her  people — Utica  hoary  with  age,^  that  was  founded 
before  the  citadel  of  ancient  Byrsa.''  Next  came 
Aspis,*^  which  borders  the  sea  with  a  wall  built  by  the 
Sicilian,  and  whose  ramparts  form  a  crescent  in  the 
shape  of  a  shield.  But  all  eyes  were  turned  upon 
their  leader,  Sychaeus,  a  son  of  Hasdrubal,  who  was 
filled  with  vainglory  on  the  score  of  his  mother's 
blood  ^  ;  and  the  name  of  his  uncle,  Hannibal,  came 
ever  proudly  from  his  lips. 

The  warlike  sons  of  Berenicis  by  the  sea  were 
present ;  nor  was  Barce  backward,  a  dry  land  of  thirsty 
springs,  whose  men  are  armed  for  battle  with  long 
smooth  pikes  ;  and  Cyrene  too  roused  to  arms  the 
sons  of  Battus,^  treacherous  men,  descendants  from  a 

^  Cyrene,  a  Greek  settlement  in  Africa,  was  founded  in 
631  B.C.  by  Battus  and  a  body  of  Dorian  colonists.  Why 
this  people  is  called  treacherous  is  not  known. 



quos  trahit,  antique  laudatus  Hamilcare  quondam, 
consilio  viridis  sed  belli  serus  Ilertes.  255 

Sabratha  turn  Tyrium  vulgus  Sarranaque  Leptis 
Oeaque  Trinacrios  Afris  permixta  colonos 
et  Tingim  rapido  mittebat  ab  aequore  Lixus. 
turn  Vaga  et  antiquis  dilectus  regibus  Hippo, 
quaeque  procul  cavit  non  aequos  Ruspina  fluctus,  260 
et  Zama  et  uberior  Rutulo  nunc  sanguine  Thapsus. 
ducit  tot  populos,  ingens  et  corpore  et  armis, 
Herculeam  factis  servans  ac  nomine  famam, 
Antaeus  celsumque  caput  super  agmina  tollit. 

Venere  Aethiopes,  gens  baud  incognita  Nilo,      265 
qui  magneta  secant ;  solis  honor  ille,  metalli 
intactum  chalybem  vicino  ducere  saxo. 
his  simul,  immitem  testantes  corpore  solem, 
exusti  venere  Nubae.     non  aerea  cassis 
nee  lorica  riget  ferro,  non  tenditur  arcus  ;  270 

tempora  multiplici  mos  est  defendere  Uno 
et  lino  munire  latus  scelerataque  sucis 
spicula  dirigere  et  ferrum  infamare  veneno. 
tum  primum  castris  Phoenicum  tendere  ritu 
Cinyphii  didicere  Macae  ;  squalentia  barba  275 

ora  viris,  humerosque  tegunt  velamine  capri 
saetigero  ;  panda  manus  est  armata  cateia. 
versicolor  contra  caetra  et  falcatus  ab  arte 
ensis  Adyrmachidis  ac  laevo  tegmina  crure. 
sed  mensis  asper  populus  victuque  maligno  ;  280 

"  Sarra  is  an  ancient  name  of  Tyre.    The  reader  would  do 
well  to  consult  an  Ancient  Atlas  for  these  places. 

"  Thapsus  was  the  scene  of  Caesar's  defeat  of  the  Pom- 
peians  (46  b.c). 

"  It  is  implied  that  Antaeus  was  descended  from  the  giant 
of  that  name  conquered  by  Hercules  :   see  1.  40. 

PUNICA,  III.   254-280 

Peloponnesian  stock.  They  were  led  by  Ilertes,whom 
old  Hamilcar  praised  long  ago,  active  still  in  council 
but  slow  in  war. 

Then  Sabratha  and  Phoenician  <*  Leptis  sent  their 
Tyrian  folk,  and  Oca  sent  Sicilian  colonists  mixed 
with  Africans,  and  the  river  Lixus  sent  the  men  of 
Tingis  from  the  stormy  shore.  Next  came  Vaga,  and 
Hippo  dear  to  kings  of  old,  and  Ruspina,  which  guards 
herself  by  distance  against  sea-floods  ;  and,  with 
Zama,  Thapsus,  now  made  more  fertile  by  Roman 
blood.^  All  these  peoples  were  led  by  Antaeus,  a 
giant  in  giant  armour ;  by  his  deeds  as  by  his 
name  he  kept  alive  the  fame  of  Hercules,^  and  towered 
above  the  heads  of  his  soldiers. 

The  Ethiopians  came,  a  race  whom  the  Nile  knows 
well,  who  dig  the  loadstone  from  the  earth  ;  they 
alone  have  the  power  to  attract  the  iron  of  the  mine 
without  the  use  of  tools  by  placing  the  stone  beside 
it.  Together  with  them  came  the  burnt-up  Nubae, 
whose  bodies  show  the  fierce  heat  of  their  sun  ;  they 
wear  no  helmet  of  brass  nor  tough  cuirass  of  steel ; 
nor  do  they  bend  the  bow.  It  is  their  custom  to  pro- 
tect their  heads  with  many  folds  of  linen,  and  with 
linen  to  cover  their  bodies,  and  to  throw  javelins 
steeped  in  noxious  juices,  thus  disgracing  the  steel 
with  poison.  Then  first  the  Macae,  from  the  river 
Cinyps,  learned  how  to  pitch  tents  in  their  camp 
in  Phoenician  fashion — shaggy  bearded  men,  whose 
backs  are  covered  with  the  bristling  hide  of  a  wild 
goat,  and  the  weapon  they  carry  is  a  curved  javelin. 
But  the  Adyrmachidae  bear  a  target  of  many  colours, 
and  a  sword  fashioned  by  the  smith  in  the  shape  of  a 
sickle,  and  wear  greaves  on  the  left  leg.  Rough 
was  this  people's  fare,  and  scanty  their  diet ;  for  their 



nam  calida  tristes  epulae  torrentur  harena. 
quin  et  Massyli  fulgentia  signa  tulere, 
Hesperidum  veniens  lucis  domus  ultima  terrae. 
praefuit,  intortos  demissus  vertice  crines, 
Bocchus  atrox,  qui  sacratas  in  litore  silvas  285 

atque  inter  frondes  revirescere  viderat  aurum. 

Vos  quoque  desertis  in  castra  mapalibus  itis, 
misceri  gregibus  Gaetulia  sueta  ferarum 
indomitisque  loqui  et  sedare  leonibus  iras. 
nulla  domus  ;  plaustris  habitant  ;  migrare  per  arva 
mos  atque  errantes  circumvectare  penates.  291 

hinc  mille  alipedes  turmae  (velocior  Euris 
et  doctus  virgae  sonipes)  in  castra  ruebant. 
ceu  pernix  cum  densa  vagis  latratibus  implet 
venator  dumeta  Lacon,  aut  exigit  Umber  295 

nare  sagax  e  calle  feras,  perterrita  late 
agmina  praecipitant  volucres  formidine  cervi. 
hos  agit  baud  laeto  vultu  nee  fronte  serena, 
Asbytes  nuper  caesae  germanus,  Acherras. 

Marmaridae,  medicum  vulgus,  strepuere  catervis  ; 
ad  quorum  cantus  serpens  oblita  veneni,  301 

ad  quorum  tactum  mites  iacuere  cerastae. 
tum,  chalybis  pauper,  Baniurae  cruda  iuventus, 
contenti  parca  durasse  hastilia  flamma, 
miscebant  avidi  trucibus  fera  murmura  linguis.       305 

■  The  Massyli  were  the  most  powerful  of  the  tribes  which 
occupied  Numidia  (now  Algeria).  Bocchus,  their  leader,  had 
seen  the  Golden  Apples  in  the  garden  of  the  Hesperides,  which 
legend  placed  in  the  far  North-west  of  Africa. 


PUNICA,  III.   281-306 

sorry  meals  are  roasted  on  the  burning  sand.  The 
Massyli "  also  brought  thither  their  ghttering  stan- 
dards, the  most  remote  inhabitants  of  earth,  coming 
from  the  groves  of  the  Hesperides.  Fierce  Bocchus 
was  their  leader  ;  from  his  head  the  hair  fell  down  in 
close  curls  ;  and  he  had  seen  the  sacred  trees  beside 
the  sea,  and  the  ghttering  gold  among  the  green 

The  Gaetulians  also,  who  are  wont  to  live  among 
packs  of  wild  beasts,  and  by  their  speech  to  allay  the 
fierceness  of  untamed  lions,  left  their  settlements  for 
the  camp  of  Hannibal.  Houseless  men,  they  dwell  in 
wagons  ;  their  custom  is  to  stray  from  place  to  place 
and  to  carry  with  them  their  moving  household  gods. 
Of  these  a  thousand  wing-footed  squadrons  came 
speeding  to  the  camp  ;  their  horses  are  swifter  than 
the  wind  and  taught  to  obey  the  switch. *>  So,  when 
the  speedy  Spartan  dog  fills  the  thickets  with  his 
roving  bark,  or  the  Umbrian  hound  by  his  keen  scent 
drives  wild  beasts  forth  from  a  mountain  path,  the 
flying  deer  in  their  terror  rush  headlong  in  their  herds 
far  and  wide.  Acherras  led  the  Gaetulians  ;  but  his 
face  was  not  joyful,  nor  his  brow  serene  ;  for  he  was 
the  brother  of  Asbyte  ^  so  lately  slain. 

Then  came  the  Marmaridae  with  a  sound  of  clash- 
ing arms,  a  people  of  magical  powers,  at  whose  spells 
the  snake  forgot  its  poison,  and  at  whose  touch  horned 
serpents  lay  still  and  harmless.  Next  came  the 
hardy  warriors  of  Baniura  ;  having  little  iron  they 
are  content  to  harden  their  spear-points  over  a 
scanty  flame  ;  eager  for  battle  they  uttered  wild  cries 

*  Their  horses  had  no  bridles:  cp.  i.  215  foil. 
"  See  ii.  5G  foil. 



necnon  Autololes,  levibus  gens  ignea  plantis  ; 
cui  sonipes  cursu,  cui  cesserit  incitus  amnis, 
tanta  fuga  est ;   certant  pennae,  campumque  volatu 
cum  rapuere,  pedum  frustra  vestigia  quaeras. 
spectati  castris,  quos  suco  nobilis  arbor  310 

et  dulci  pascit  lotos  nimiis  hospita  baca. 
quique  atro  rabidas  effervescente  veneno 
dipsadas  immensis  horrent  Garamantes  harenis. 
fama  docet,  caesae  rapuit  cum  Gorgonis  ora 
Perseus,  in  Libyam  dirum  fluxisse  cruorem  ;  315 

inde  Medusaeis  terram  exundasse  chelydris. 
milibus  his  ductor  spectatus  Marte  Choaspes, 
Neritia  Meninge  satus,  cui  tragula  semper 
fulmineam  armabat,  celebratum  missile,  dextram. 
hue  coit  aequoreus  Nasamon,  invadere  fluctu  320 

audax  naufragia  et  praedas  avellere  ponto  ; 
hue,  qui  stagna  colunt  Tritonidos  alta  paludis, 
qua  virgo,  ut  fama  est,  bellatrix  edita  lympha 
invento  primam  Libyen  perfudit  olivo. 

Necnon  totus  adest  vesper  popuHque  reposti.     325 
Cantaber  ante  omnes,  hiemisque  aestusque  famisque 
invictus  palmamque  ex  omni  ferre  labore. 
mirus  amor  populo,  cum  pigra  incanuit  aetas, 
imbelles  iam  dudum  annos  praevertere  fato 

"  The  companions  of  Ulysses,  after  eating  the  fruit  of  the 
lotus,  lost  all  desire  to  return  home  to  Ithaca. 

**  The  Gorgon,  Medusa,  had  snakes  for  hair. 

*  For  the  adj.  "  Neritian  "  see  note  to  ii.  317. 

^  Pallas  Athene  :    when  she  sprang  from  the  head  of  her 
father,    Jupiter,    she   alighted    first    in    Africa,    near    Lake 
Tritonis.     The  olive  was  her  tree,  and  she  introduced  it  first 
into  Africa. 

PUNICA,   III.   306-329 

together  with  fierce  speech.  The  Autololes  also 
came,  a  fiery  race  of  nimble  runners  :  no  horse  nor 
flooded  river  could  match  their  pace,  so  great  their 
speed.  They  vie  with  the  birds  ;  and,  when  they 
have  scoured  the  plain  in  their  flight,  you  would  look 
in  vain  for  their  footprints.  There  were  seen  also  in 
the  army  the  people  who  feed  on  the  tree  famous  for 
its  juices — on  the  sweet  berries  of  the  lotus,  too 
friendly  to  the  stranger."  The  Garamantes  were 
there,  who  dread  the  furious  serpents  that  pour  out 
black  venom  in  their  boundless  deserts.  Legend  tells 
that,  when  Perseus  slew  the  Gorgon  and  carried  off 
her  head,  the  horrid  gore  dripped  over  Libya,  and 
from  that  time  the  land  has  abounded  with  the  snakes 
of  Medusa.^  These  thousands  were  led  by  Choaspes, 
a  proved  warrior,  native  of  Meninx,  an  Ithacan " 
island  ;  his  right  arm,  swift  as  the  lightning,  ever 
bore  a  javelin,  his  renowned  weapon.  Hither  came 
the  Nasamones  from  the  sea,  men  who  fear  not  to 
attack  wrecked  ships  upon  the  water,  and  to  snatch 
their  booty  from  the  deep  ;  and  hither  came  the 
dwellers  by  the  deep  pools  of  Lake  Tritonis,  where  the 
Maiden  Warrior  sprang,  as  legend  tells,  from  the 
water  and  anointed  Libya,  before  other  lands,  with 
the  olive-oil  which  she  herself  had  discovered. '^ 

Moreover,  all  the  West  *  with  its  remote  nations 
was  present  too.  First  of  all  were  the  Cantabrians, 
proof  against  cold  and  heat  and  hunger,  and  victorious 
over  every  hardship.  This  people,  when  disabled  by 
white  old  age,  find  a  strange  pleasure  in  cutting  short 
the  years  of  weakness  by  an  instant  death,  and  they 

'  The  West  stands  for  Spain  :  Spanish  soldiers  formed  the 
backbone  of  Hannibal's  armies. 



nee  vitam  sine  Marte  pati  :  quippe  omnis  in  armis  330 
lucis  causa  sita,  et  damnatum  vivere  paci. 

Venit  et,  Aurorae  lacrimis  perfusus,  in  orbem 
diversum,  patrias  fugit  cum  devius  oras, 
armiger  Eoi  non  felix  Memnonis  Astyr. 
his  parvus  sonipes  nee  Marti  notus  ;  at  idem  335 

aut  inconcusso  glomerat  vestigia  dorso, 
aut  molli  pacata  celer  rapit  esseda  collo. 
Cydnus  agit,  iuga  Pyrenes  venatibus  acer 
metiri  iaeulove  extendere  proelia  Mauro. 

Venere  et  Celtae  sociati  nomen  Hiberis.  340 

his  pugna  cecidisse  decus,  corpusque  cremari 
tale  nefas  :  caelo  credunt  superisque  referri, 
impastus  carpat  si  membra  iacentia  vultur. 

Fibrarum  et  pennae  divinarumque  sagacem 
flammarum  misit  dives  Callaecia  pubem,  345 

barbara  nunc  patriis  ululantem  carmina  linguis, 
nunc,  pedis  alterno  percussa  verbere  terra, 
ad  numerum  resonas  gaudentem  plaudere  caetras. 
haec  requies  ludusque  viris,  ea  sacra  voluptas. 
cetera  femineus  peragit  labor  ;  addere  sulco  350 

semina  et  impresso  tellurem  vertere  aratro, 
segne  viris.     quicquid  duro  sine  Marte  gerundum, 
Callaici  coniux  obit  irrequieta  mariti. 
hos  Viriathus  agit  Lusitanumque  remotis 
extractum  lustris,  primo  Viriathus  in  aevo,  355 

nomen  Romanis  factum  mox  nobile  damnis. 

"  The  Astures  inhabited  Asturia  in  Spain.  Silius  derives 
their  name  from  Astyr,  the  charioteer  of  Memnon.  When 
Achilles  slew  Memnon  before  Troy,  his  mother,  Aurora,  shed 

**  They  were  called  Celtiberi.  "  Portuguese. 

«*  The  allusion  is  to  a  later  Viriathus,  who  for  fourteen 
years    fought   a   guerilla   warfare   against    Ptome   for   the 
freedom  of  his  country,  and  fell  by  treachery  in  142  B.C. 

PUNICA,  III.   330-366 

refuse  life  except  in  arms.  For  war  is  their  only 
reason  for  living,  and  they  scorn  a  peaceful  existence. 

Then  Astyr,**  the  ill-starred  squire  of  Eastern 
Memnon,  came ;  wetted  by  Aurora's  tears,  he  had 
fled  far  from  his  native  land  to  the  opposite  quarter  of 
the  world.  The  horses  of  the  Astyrians  are  small  and 
not  notable  in  battle  ;  yet  they  amble  without  shaking 
their  rider,  or  with  docile  neck  can  draw  a  carriage 
with  speed  in  time  of  peace.  They  were  led  by 
Cydnus,  eager  to  scour  the  heights  of  the  Pyrenees  in 
the  chase,  or  to  fight  from  a  distance  with  Moorish 

The  Celts  who  have  added  to  their  name  that  of 
the  Hiberi  ^  came  also.  To  these  men  death  in  battle 
is  glorious  ;  and  they  consider  it  a  crime  to  burn  the 
body  of  such  a  warrior  ;  for  they  believe  that  the 
soul  goes  up  to  the  gods  in  heaven,  if  the  body  is 
devoured  on  the  field  by  the  hungry  vulture. 

Rich  Galliciasent  her  people,  men  who  have  know- 
ledge concerning  the  entrails  of  beasts,  the  flight  of 
birds,  and  the  lightnings  of  heaven  ;  they  delight,  at 
one  time,  to  chant  the  rude  songs  of  their  native 
tongue,  at  another  to  stamp  the  ground  in  the  dance 
and  clash  their  noisy  shields  in  time  to  the  music. 
Such  is  the  relaxation  and  sport  of  the  men,  and  such 
their  solemn  rejoicings.  All  other  labour  is  done  by 
the  women  :  the  men  think  it  unmanly  to  throw  seed 
into  the  furrow  and  turn  the  soil  by  pressure  of  the 
plough  ;  but  the  wife  of  the  Gallician  is  never  still 
and  performs  every  task  but  that  of  stern  war. 
These  men,  and  the  Lusitanians  ^  drawn  forth  from 
their  distant  forests,  were  led  by  the  young  Viriathus 
— Viriathus,  whose  name  was  to  win  fame  from  Roman 
disasters  at  a  later  day.** 



Nee  Cerretani,  quondam  Tirynthia  castra,  | 

aut  Vasco,  insuetus  galeae,  ferre  arma  morati. 
non,  quae  Dardanios  post  vidit,  Ilerda,  furores, 
nee  qui,  Massageten  monstrans  feritate  parentem,  360 
cornipedis  fusa  satiaris,  Concane,  vena, 
iamque   Ebusus   Phoenissa  movet,   movet   Arbacus 

aclyde  vel  tenui  pugnax  instare  veruto  ; 
iam  cui  Tlepolemus  sator  et  cui  Lindus  origo, 
funda  bella  ferens  Baliaris  et  alite  plumbo  ;  3G5 

et  quos  nunc  Gravios  violato  nomine  Graium 
Oeneae  misere  domus  Aetolaque  Tyde. 
dat  Carthago  viros,  Teucro  fundata  vetusto, 
Phocaicae  dant  Emporiae,  dat  Tarraco  pubem 
vitifera  et  Latio  tantum  cessura  Lyaeo.  370 

hos  inter  clara  thoracis  luce  nitebat 
Sedetana  cohors,  quam  Sucro  rigentibus  undis 
atque  altrix  celsa  mittebat  Saetabis  arce — 
Saetabis  et  telas  Arabum  sprevisse  superba 
et  Pelusiaco  filum  componere  lino.  375 

Mandonius  populis  domitorque  insignis  equorum 
imperitat  Caeso,  et  socio  stant  castra  labore. 

At  Vettonum  alas  Balarus  probat  aequore  aperto. 
hie  adeo,  cum  ver  placidum  flatusque  tepescit, 
concubitus  servans  tacitos,  grex  perstat  equarum    380 

"  Ilerda  in  Spain  was  the  scene  of  fighting  between 
Pompey's  army  and  Caesar  in  49  b.c. 

*  The  Massagetae  were  a  Scythian  tribe  :  other  writers 
attribute  to  them  this  practice,  of  bleeding  their  horses  to  get 
a  meal  for  themselves. 

"  An  island  to  the  south  of  Spain. 

<*  Lindus  is  one  of  the  three  cities  founded  in  Rhodes  by 
Tlepolemus,  a  son  of  Hercules  and  king  of  Argos. 

PUNICA,   III.   357-380 

The  Cerretani,  who  once  fought  for  Hercules,  were 
not  slow  now  to  bear  arms  ;  nor  the  Vascones,  un- 
used to  wear  helmets ;  nor  Ilerda,  that  witnessed  later 
the  madness  of  Romans  ^  ;  nor  the  Concanian,  who 
proves  by  his  savagery  his  descent  from  the  Massa- 
getae,  when  he  opens  a  vein  of  his  horse  to  fill  his  own 
belly. ^  Now  Phoenician  Ebusus  ^  rises  in  arms  ;  and 
the  Arbacians,  fierce  fighters  with  the  dart  or  slender 
javelin  ;  and  the  Balearic  islanders,  whose  sire  was 
Tlepolemus  and  Lindus  '^  their  native  land,  waging 
war  with  the  sling  and  flying  bullet ;  and  the  men 
sent  forth  by  the  town  of  Oene  and  Aetolian  Tyde,'' 
called  Gravii  by  corruption  of  Graii,  their  former 
name.  Carthago,-^  founded  by  Teucer  of  old,  supplied 
men  ;  and  also  Emporiae,  colony  of  Massilia,  and 
Tarraco,  the  land  of  vines,  which  allows  precedence  to 
no  vintage  but  that  of  Latium.  Conspicuous  among 
these  by  the  sheen  of  their  cuirasses  were  the  Sede- 
tanian  soldiers,  who  came  from  the  icy  waters  of 
the  Sucro  and  the  lofty  citadel  of  their  mother  city, 
Saetabis — Saetabis  which  dares  to  despise  the 
looms  of  the  Arabs  and  to  match  her  webs  against 
the  linen  of  Egypt.  These  peoples  were  com- 
manded by  Mandonius  and  by  Caeso,  famous  tamer 
of  horses ;  and  their  joint  exertions  kept  the  host 

The  squadrons  of  the  Vettones  were  reviewed  on 
the  open  plain  by  Balarus.  In  that  country,  when 
spring  is  mild  and  airs  are  warm,  the  drove  of  mares 
stand  still,  mating  in  secret,  and  conceive  a  mysterious 

•  Diomedes,  king  of  Aetolia,  after  leaving  Troy,  visited 
Spain  and  there  founded  Tyde,  in  honour  of  his  father, 

^  Usually  called  New  Carthage. 
VOL.  I  F  141 


et  Venerem  occultam  genitali  concipit  aura, 
sed  non  multa  dies  generi,  properatque  senectus, 
septimaque  his  stabulis  longissima  ducitur  aestas. 

At  non  Sarmaticos  attoUens  Uxama  muros 
tam  levibus  persultat  equis  ;  hinc  venit  in  arma     385 
haud  aevi  fragilis  sonipes  crudoque  vigore 
asper  frena  pati  aut  iussis  parere  magistris. 
Rhyndacus  his  ductor,  telum  sparus  ;  ore  ferarum 
et  rictu  horrificant  galeas  ;   venatibus  aevum 
transigitur,  vel  more  patrum  vis  raptaque  pascunt.  390 

Fulget  praecipuis  Parnasia  Castulo  signis 
et  celebre  Oceano  atque  alternis  aestibus  Hispal 
ac  Nebrissa  dei  Nysaeis  conscia  thyrsis, 
quam  Satyri  coluere  leves  redimitaque  sacra 
nebride  et  arcano  Maenas  nocturna  Lyaeo.  395 

Arganthoniacos  armat  Carteia  nepotes. 
rex  proavis  fuit  humani  ditissimus  aevi, 
ter  denos  decies  emensus  belliger  annos. 
armat  Tartessos,  stabulanti  conscia  Phoebo, 
et  Munda,  Emathios  ItaHs  paritura  labores.  400 

nee  decus  auriferae  cessavit  Corduba  terrae. 
hos  duxere  viros  flaventi  vertice  Phorcys 
spiciferisque  gravis  bellator  Arauricus  oris, 

"  This  fable  of  mares  made  pregnant  by  the  wind  is  found 
in  Virgil  {Georg.  iii.  271):  it  was  a  way  of  accounting  for 
the  speed  of  their  progeny :  see  xvi.  364. 

*  The  connexion  between  Sarmatia  (Poland)  and  the 
Spanish  town  of  Uxama  is  not  elsewhere  mentioned. 

"  See  note  to  1.  98. 

^  Now  Seville,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Guadalquivir :    the 
estuary  rises  and  falls  with  the  tide. 

PUNICA,  III.   381-403 

progeny  begotten  by  the  wind."  But  their  stock  is 
short-Uved :  old  age  comes  quick  upon  them,  and 
the  Hfe  of  these  horses  lasts  but  seven  years  at  the 

Less  nimble  on  their  feet  are  the  horses  from 
Uxama,  a  city  whose  walls  are  Sarmatian  ^  ;  but  her 
steeds  that  came  to  war  were  tenacious  of  life  ;  their 
lusty  youth  found  it  hard  to  endure  the  bit  or  obey 
the  commands  of  the  rider.  These  men  were  led  by 
Rhyndacus  and  armed  with  spears ;  they  add  terror 
to  their  helmets  by  decking  them  with  the  open  jaws 
of  wild  beasts  ;  they  pass  their  lives  in  hunting,  or 
support  themselves,  as  their  fathers  did,  by  violence 
and  rapine. 

Bright  beyond  the  rest  shone  the  ensigns  of 
Delphian  Castulo  ^  ;  and  of  Hispalis,^  famous  for 
commerce  and  for  the  ebb  and  flow  of  its  tides  ;  and  of 
Nebrissa  which  knows  the  thyrsi  of  the  Nysaean  god  * 
— Nebrissa  haunted  by  nimble  Satyrs  and  nightly 
Maenads,  who  wear  the  sacred  fawn-skin  and  the 
mystic  vine-leaf.  Carteia  sent  to  war  the  children 
of  Arganthonius  ;  king  over  their  ancestors,  he  sur- 
passed all  mankind  in  length  of  days  and  waged  war 
for  the  space  of  three  hundred  years.  Tartessus,  that 
sees  the  sun  to  rest,  sprang  to  arms  ;  and  likewise 
Munda,^  doomed  to  produce  for  Italy  the  suffering  of 
Pharsalia  ;  nor  did  Corduba  hang  back,  the  pride  cf 
a  land  rich  in  gold.  These  men  were  led  by  fair- 
haired  Phorcys  and  by  Arauricus  whose  arms  were 
terrible  to  the  corn-bearing  lands  ;   the  two  were  of 

«  Bacchus,  said  to  have  been  born  at  Nysa  :  Silius  con- 
nects the  name  of  the  town  with  nehris^  "  a  fawn-skin." 

f  At  Munda  Caesar  defeated  Pompey's  sons  (45  b.c).  The 
site  of  the  battle  of  Pharsalia  is  often  called  Emathia. 



aequales  aevi  ;  genuit  quos  ubere  ripa 

Palladio  Baetis  umbratus  cornua  ramo.  405 

Talia  Sidonius  per  campos  agmina  ductor 
pulvere  nigrantes  raptat  lustransque  sub  armis, 
qua  visu  comprendere  erat,  fulgentia  signa 
ibat  ovans  longaque  umbram  tellure  trahebat. 
non  aliter,  quotiens  perlabitur  aequora  curru  410 

extremamque  petit,  Phoebea  cubilia,  Tethyn 
frenatis  Neptunus  equis,  fluit  omnis  ab  antris 
Nereidum  chorus  et  sueto  certamine  nandi 
Candida  perspicuo  convertunt  brachia  ponto. 

At  Pyrenaei  frondosa  cacumina  montis  415 

turbata  Poenus  terrarum  pace  petebat. 
Pyrene  celsa  nimbosi  verticis  arce 
divisos  Celtis  late  prospectat  Hiberos 
atque  aeterna  tenet  magnis  divortia  terris. 
nomen  Bebrycia  duxere  a  virgine  colles,  420 

hospitis  Alcidae  crimen,  qui,  sorte  laborum 
Geryonae  peteret  cum  longa  tricorporis  arva, 
possessus  Baccho  saeva  Bebrycis  in  aula 
lugendam  formae  sine  virginitate  reliquit 
Pyrenen,  letique  deus,  si  credere  fas  est,  425 

causa  fuit  leti  miserae  deus.     edidit  alvo 
namque  ut  serpentem  patriasque  exhorruit  iras, 
confestim  dulces  liquit  turbata  penates. 
turn  noctem  Alcidae  solis  plangebat  in  antris 
et  promissa  viri  silvis  narrabat  opacis,  430 

donee  maerentem  ingratos  raptoris  amores 

«•  The  olive-trees  for  which  Corduba  was  famous. 

^  Hannibal.  "  Caused  by  the  dust. 

^  See  note  to  i.  271. 

*  King  of  the  Bebryces,  an  Iberian  people  living  on  both 
sides  of  the  Pyrenees.     Another  people  of  the  same  name 
lived  near  the  Black  Sea. 

PUNICA,   III.   404-431 

equal  age,  and  were  born  on  the  fertile  banks  where 
the  Baetis  shelters  his  horns  under  the  branches  of 
the  tree  of  Pallas.** 

Such  was  the  host  which  the  Carthaginian  captain  ^ 
led  on  at  speed  over  the  dust-darkened  plains  ;  he 
reviewed  their  glittering  ensigns  in  the  field,  as  far 
as  the  eye  could  see,  and  rode  on  in  triumph,  leaving 
a  shadow"  on  all  the  land  he  traversed.  Even  so, 
wlien  Neptune  glides  over  the  deep  in  his  chariot  and 
drives  his  bitted  coursers  to  the  outermost  Ocean 
where  the  sun  sinks  to  rest,  all  the  train  of  Nereids 
issue  from  their  caves  and,  as  is  their  wont,  swim  in 
rivalry,  tossing  their  white  arms  in  the  transparent 

But  now  Hannibal,  throwing  a  peaceful  world  into 
confusion,  made  for  the  leafy  summits  of  the  Pyrenees. 
From  the  eminence  of  their  rain-swept  peaks 
they  command  a  wide  prospect  and  divide  Spain 
from  Gaul,  making  an  eternal  barrier  between  two 
great  countries.  These  mountains  took  their  name 
from  Pyrene,  daughter  of  Bebryx  and  victim  of  Her- 
cules. For  Hercules,  in  the  course  of  his  appointed 
Labours,  was  travelling  to  the  distant  land  of  three- 
bodied  Geryon,^  when  he  was  mastered  by  wine  in 
the  savage  court  of  Bebryx,*  and  left  Pyrene  robbed 
of  her  maidenhood  ;  her  beauty  was  a  cause  for 
mourning.  The  god  (if  it  is  not  sinful  to  believe  it), 
the  god  was  the  cause  of  the  poor  maiden's  death. 
F'or  when  she  gave  birth  to  a  serpent  she  fled  at  once 
from  the  home  she  loved,  in  horror  and  dread  of  her 
father's  wrath.  Then  in  lonely  caves  she  mourned 
for  the  night  when  she  lay  with  Alcides,  and  told 
his  promises  to  the  dark  forests  ;  till  at  last,  as 
she  mourned   the  ingratitude  of  her  ravisher,  and 



tendentemque  manus  atque  hospitis  arma  vocantem 
diripuere  ferae,     laceros  Tirynthius  artus, 
dum  remeat  victor,  lacrimis  perfudit  et  amens 
palluit  invento  dilectae  virginis  ore.  435 

at  voce  Herculea  percussa  cacumina  montis 
intremuere  iugis  ;  maesto  clamore  ciebat 
Pyrenen,  scopulique  omnes  ac  lustra  ferarum 
Pyrenen  resonant,     tumulo  turn  membra  reponit, 
supremum  illacrimans ;  nee  honos  intercidet  aevo,  440 
defletumque  tenent  montes  per  saecula  nomen. 

lamque  per  et  colles  et  densos  abiete  lucos 
Bebryciae  Poenus  fines  transcenderat  aulae. 
inde  ferox  quaesitum  armis  per  inhospita  rura 
Volcarum  populatur  iter  tumidique  minaces  445 

accedit  Rhodani  festino  milite  ripas. 
aggeribus  caput  Alpinis  et  rupe  nivali 
proserit  in  Celtas  ingentemque  extrahit  amnem 
spumanti  Rhodanus  proscindens  gurgite  campos 
ac  propere  in  pontum  lato  ruit  incitus  alveo.  450 

auget  opes  stanti  similis  tacitoque  liquore 
mixtus  Arar,  quern  gurgitibus  complexus  anhelis 
cunctantem  immergit  pelago  raptumque  per  arva 
ferre  vetat  patrium  vicina  ad  litora  nomen. 
invadunt  alacres  inimicum  pontibus  amnem  ;  455 

nunc  celso  capite  et  cervicibus  arma  tuentur, 
nunc  validis  gurges  certatim  frangitur  ulnis. 
fluminea  sonipes  religatus  ducitur  alno, 

"  Having  killed  Geryon. 

*  The  Arar  (now  the  Saone)  loses  its  name  when  it  falls 
into  the  Rhone. 

PUNICA,  III.   432-468 

stretched  forth  her  hands,  imploring  the  aid  of  her 
guest,  she  was  torn  in  pieces  by  wild  beasts.  When 
Hercules  came  back  victorious ,"  he  wetted  the  mangled 
hmbs  with  his  tears  ;  and  when  he  found  the  head 
of  the  maid  he  had  loved,  he  turned  pale,  distraught 
with  grief.  Then  the  high  mountain-tops,  smitten 
by  his  cries,  were  shaken ;  with  loud  lament  he 
called  Pyrene  by  name  ;  and  all  the  cliffs  and  haunts 
of  wild  beasts  echoed  the  name  of  Pyrene.  Then, 
with  a  last  tribute  of  tears,  he  laid  her  body  in  the 
grave.  And  time  shall  never  eclipse  her  fame  ;  for 
the  mountains  retain  for  ever  the  name  that  caused 
such  grief. 

And  now,  marching  through  hills  and  dense  pine- 
woods,  Hannibal  had  crossed  the  territory  of  the 
Bebrycian  king.  Thence  he  boldly  forced  his  way 
through  the  land  of  the  inhospitable  Volcae,  and 
ravaged  it,  till  he  came  with  rapid  march  to  the  for- 
midable banks  of  the  swollen  Rhone.  That  river, 
taking  its  rise  in  the  Alpine  heights  and  snow- 
covered  rocks,  flows  into  Gaul,  expanding  into  a 
mighty  stream,  cleaving  the  plains  with  its  foaming 
waters,  and  rushing  with  utmost  speed  into  the  sea 
in  a  broad  estuary.  The  Arar,  whose  noiseless  stream 
seems  to  stand  still,  joins  the  Rhone  and  swells  it ; 
and  the  Rhone,  embracing  the  reluctant  Arar  with  its 
restless  waters,  plunges  it  into  the  sea,  and  forbids 
it,  as  it  is  hurried  through  the  land,  to  carry  its  own 
name  to  the  neighbouring  shore. ^  The  river  will 
bear  no  bridges,  and  the  soldiers  eagerly  plunged 
in  ;  some  protect  their  weapons  by  holding  their  head 
and  shoulders  high,  while  others  in  keen  rivalry  stem 
the  flood  with  stout  arms.  The  horses  were  haltered 
and  taken  across  in  barges  ;  nor  did  the  terror  of  the 



belua  nee  retinet  tardante  Libyssa  timore  ; 

nam  trabibus  vada  et  iniecta  tellure  repertum        460 

connexas  operire  trabes  ac  ducere  in  altum 

paulatim  ripae  resolutis  aggere  vinclis. 

at  gregis  illapsu  fremebundo  territus  atras 

expavit  moles  Rhodanus  stagnisque  refusis 

torsit  harenoso  minitantia  murmura  fundo.  465 

lamque  Tricastinis  incedit  finibus  agmen, 
iam  faciles  campos,  iam  rura  Vocontia  carpit. 
turbidus  hie  truncis  saxisque  Druentia  laetum 
ductoris  vastavit  iter,     namque  Alpibus  ortus, 
avulsas  ornos  et  adesi  fragmina  mentis  470 

cum  sonitu  volvens,  fertur  latrantibus  undis 
ac  vada  translate  mutat  fallacia  cursu, 
non  pediti  fidus,  patulis  non  puppibus  aequus  ; 
et  tunc,  imbre  recens  fuso,  correpta  sub  armis 
corpora  multa  virum  spumanti  vertice  torquens      475 
immersit  fundo  laceris  deformia  membris. 

Sed  iam  praeteritos  ultra  meminisse  labores 
conspectae  propius  dempsere  paventibus  Alpes. 
cuncta  gelu  canaque  aeternum  grandine  tecta 
atque  aevi  glaciem  cohibent  ;  riget  ardua  montis  480 
aetherii  facies,  surgentique  obvia  Phoebo 
duratas  nescit  flammis  moUire  pruinas. 
quantum  Tartareus  regni  pallentis  hiatus 
ad  manes  imos  atque  atrae  stagna  paludis 
a  supera  tellure  patet,  tam  longa  per  auras  485 

erigitur  tellus  et  caelum  intercipit  umbra. 

"  Elephants. 

''  The  cables  served  to  secure  the  rafts  :  when  the  elephant 
had  reached  midstream,  the  cable  was  slackened. 

"  Now  the  Durance. 

''In  Hades. 

PUNICA,   III.   459-486 

Libyan  beasts «  delay  or  hinder  the  crossing;  for  they 
contrived  to  throw  rafts  over  the  stream  and  to  conceal 
the  line  of  rafts  beneath  a  covering  of  soil ;  then  they 
led  the  elephants  out  on  to  the  deep,  loosing  httle  by 
little  the  cables  ^  on  the  high  bank.  Scared  by  this 
invasion  of  trumpeting  elephants,  and  fearing  the 
dusky  monsters,  the  Rhone  turned  back  his  stream 
and  sent  up  ominous  rumblings  from  his  sandy 

Now  Hannibal  moved  on  through  the  territory  of 
the  Tricastini,  and  made  an  easy  march  through  the 
land  of  the  Vocontii.  But  here  the  Druentia,*'  rough 
with  rocks  and  trunks  of  trees,  turned  his  pleasant 
march  to  rack  and  ruin  ;  for,  rising  in  the  Alps,  it 
carries  along  with  a  roar  uprooted  ash-trees  and 
boulders  washed  away  from  the  mountains,  and  rushes 
on  with  raging  waters,  often  shifting  its  channel,  and 
changing  its  deceitful  fords.  The  foot-passenger 
cannot  trust  it ;  no  broad  ship  is  safe  upon  it.  Now, 
swollen  by  recent  rains,  it  seized  miany  of  the  armed 
men,  and  whirled  them  round  in  its  foaming  eddies, 
and  buried  in  its  depths  their  mutilated  bodies  and 
mangled  limbs. 

But  now  all  memory  of  past  hardships  was  dispelled 
by  terror,  when  they  saw  the  Alps  close  at  hand.  All 
that  region  is  covered  with  rime  and  hail  that  never 
thaws,  and  imprisons  the  ice  of  ages  ;  the  steep  face 
of  the  lofty  mountain  rises  stiffly  up,  and,  though  it 
faces  the  rising  sun,  can  never  melt  its  hardened  crust 
in  his  rays.  Deep  as  the  chasm  that  divides  the 
upper  world  from  the  pale  kingdom  of  Tartarus,  and 
descends  to  the  dead  below  and  the  pools  of  the  black 
marsh,**  so  high  does  the  earth  here  rise  towards 
heaven  and  shut  out  the  sky  by  its  shadow.     There  is 

VOL.  I  F  2  149 


nullum  ver  usquam  nuUique  aestatis  honores. 
sola  iugis  habitat  diris  sedesque  tuetur 
perpetuas  deformis  hiems  ;  ilia  undique  nubes 
hue  atras  agit  et  mixtos  cum  grandine  nimbos.      490 
iam  cuncti  flatus  ventique  furentia  regna 
Alpina  posuere  domo.     caligat  in  altis 
obtutus  saxis,  abeuntque  in  nubila  montes. 
mixtus  Athos  Tauro  Rhodopeque  adiuncta  Mimanti 
Ossaque  cum  Pelio  cumque  Haemo  cesserit  Othrys. 
primus  inexpertas  adiit  Tirynthius  arces.  496 

scindeutem  nubes  frangentemque  ardua  mentis 
spectarunt  superi  longisque  ab  origine  saeclis 
intemerata  gradu  magna  vi  saxa  domantem. 

At  miles  dubio  tardat  vestigia  gressu,  600 

impia  ceu  sacros  in  fines  arma  per  orbem, 
natura  prohibente,  ferant  divisque  repugnent. 
contra  quae  ductor  (non  Alpibus  ille  nee  ullo 
turbatus  terrore  loci,  sed  languida  maestis  604 

corda  virum  fovet  hortando  revocatque  vigorem)  ; 
**  non  pudet  obsequio  superum  fessosque  seeundis, 
post  belli  decus  atque  acies,  dare  terga  nivosis 
montibus  et  segnes  summittere  rupibus  arma  ? 
nunc,  o  nunc,  socii,  dominantis  moenia  Romae 
credite  vos  summumque  lovis  conseendere  eulmen.510 
hie  labor  Ausoniam  et  dabit  hie  in  vineula  Thybrim." 
nee  mora,  commotum  promissis  ditibus  agmen 
erigit  in  collem  et  vestigia  linquere  nota 
Herculis  edieit  magni  erudisque  locorum 

<•  The  Capitoline  Hill  at  Rome,  where  stood  the  temple  of 
Jupiter  Optimus  Maximus,  the  thunder-god. 

PUNICA,   III.   487-614 

no  spring  anywhere  and  no  beauty  of  summer  ;  un- 
sightly winter  alone  inhabits  the  gruesome  heights 
and  dwells  for  ever  there  ;  from  every  quarter  winter 
drives  hither  black  clouds  and  rain  mixed  with  hail. 
All  winds  and  storms,  moreover,  have  set  up  their 
furious  dominion  in  the  Alps.  The  gaze  turns  giddy 
on  the  high  cliffs,  and  the  mountains  are  lost  in  the 
clouds.  Athos  added  to  Mount  Taurus,  Rhodope 
united  to  Mimas,  Pelion  piled  on  Ossa  and  Othrys 
on  Mount  Haemus — all  these  must  bow  before  the 
Alps.  Hercules  was  the  first  to  set  foot  on  these 
virgin  fortresses  ;  he  was  a  sight  for  the  gods  as  he 
cleft  the  clouds,  mastered  the  steep  ascent,  and  with 
main  force  tamed  the  rocks  that  no  foot  had  ever 
trodden  during  the  long  ages  that  followed  their 

The  soldiers  moved  slow  with  lagging  steps,  think- 
ing that  they  were  marching  over  the  world  into  a 
forbidden  land,  in  defiance  of  Nature  and  in  opposition 
to  Heaven.  But  their  general  would  have  none  of  it 
— he  was  not  terrified  by  the  Alps  or  all  the  horror  of 
the  place  ;  and  his  words  raised  the  courage  of  his 
men  and  revived  their  energy  when  they  were  faint 
with  fear.  "  Shame  on  you,"  he  cried,  "  to  grow 
weary  of  success  and  Heaven's  favour,  and,  after 
glorious  victories  in  the  field,  to  retreat  now  before 
snow-clad  mountains,  cowed  and  beaten  by  cliffs  ! 
Now,  comrades,  now — believe  that  you  are  even  now 
scaling  the  walls  of  imperial  Rome  and  the  lofty  hill 
of  Jupiter.**  Our  present  toil  shall  make  Italy  and 
the  Tiber  our  prisoners."  Straightway  he  led  the 
army  uphill,  persuading  them  by  his  rich  promises. 
He  ordered  the  troops  to  abandon  the  track  beaten 
by  great  Hercules,  to  march  over  fresh  ground,  and 



ferre  pedem  ac  proprio  turmas  evadere  calle.  515 

rumpit  inaccessos  aditus  atque  ardua  primus 

exsuperat  summaque  vocat  de  rupe  cohortes. 

turn,  qua  durati  concrete  frigore  coUis 

lubrica  frustratur  canenti  semita  clivo, 

luctantem  ferro  glaciem  premit.     haurit  hiatu       520 

nix  resoluta  viros,  altoque  e  culmine  praeceps 

humenti  turmas  operit  delapsa  ruina. 

interdum  adverse  glomeratas  turbine  Caurus 

in  media  ora  nives  fuscis  agit  horridus  alis  ; 

aut  rursum  immani  stridens  avulsa  procella  525 

nudatis  rapit  arma  viris  volvensque  per  orbem 

contorto  rotat  in  nubes  sublimia  flatu. 

quoque  magis  subiere  iugo  atque,  evadere  nisi, 

erexere  gradum,  crescit  labor,     ardua  supra 

sese  aperit  fessis  et  nascitur  altera  moles,  530 

unde  nee  edomitos  exsudatosque  labores 

respexisse  libet ;  tanta  formidine  plana 

exterrent  repetita  oculis  ;  atque  una  pruinae 

canentis,  quacumque  datur  promittere  visus, 

ingeritur  facies.     medio  sic  navita  ponto,  535 

cum  dulces  liquit  terras,  et  inania  nuUos 

inveniunt  ventos  securo  carbasa  malo, 

immensas  prospectat  aquas  ac,  victa  profundis 

aequoribus,  fessus  renovat  sua  lumina  caelo. 

lamque  super  clades  atque  importuna  locorum  640 
illuvie  rigidaeque  comae  squalore  perenni 
horrida  semiferi  promunt  e  rupibus  ora, 

<•  Or  "  the  steel"  may  refer  to  iron  spikes  on  the  soldiers' 

"  The  landscape  is  "  even  "  (not  "  level "),  because  all 
irregularities  of  surface  are  obliterated  by  the  snow. 

PUNICA,   III.   515-542 

climb  up  by  a  path  of  their  own.  He  forced  a 
passage  where  no  man  had  passed ;  he  was  the  first 
to  master  heights  and  from  the  crag's  top  called 
on  his  men  to  follow.  Where  the  ascent  was  stiff 
with  frozen  ice  and  the  slippery  path  over  the  snow- 
slopes  baffled  them,  he  cut  steps  with  the  steel "  in  the 
resisting  ice.  When  the  snow  thawed,  it  swallowed 
down  the  men  in  its  opened  jaws,  and,  as  it  rushed 
down  from  a  height,  buried  whole  companies  beneath 
an  avalanche.  At  times  the  North-west  wind,  menac- 
ing with  dark  wings,  drove  the  snow,  packed  tight 
by  the  opposing  gale,  full  in  their  faces ;  or  again, 
the  fury  of  the  raging  storm  stripped  the  men  of 
their  shields,  and,  rolling  them  round  and  round, 
whirled  them  aloft  into  the  clouds  with  its  circling 
blast.  The  higher  they  climbed  in  their  struggle  to 
reach  the  top,  the  harder  grew  their  toil.  When 
one  height  had  been  mastered,  a  second  opens  and 
springs  up  before  their  aching  sight ;  and  from  it  they 
cared  not  even  to  look  back  at  the  difficulties  they 
had  already  mastered  by  their  sweat ;  with  such 
dread  did  the  monotonous  even  landscape  ^  strike  their 
sight ;  and,  as  far  as  their  eyes  could  reach,  the  same 
scene  of  frozen  snow  forced  itself  upon  them.  So 
the  sailor  in  mid-ocean,  when  he  has  left  behind  the 
land  he  loves,  and  the  flapping  sails  on  his  idle  mast 
can  find  no  wind,  looks  forth  upon  a  boundless  waste 
of  water,  and  turns  wearily  to  the  sky,  to  refresh  his 
eyes  that  cannot  endure  the  sight  of  the  deep  any 

And  now,  on  the  top  of  the  disasters  and  difficulties 
of  the  ascent,  half-savage  men  peeped  out  from  the 
rocks,  showing  faces  hideous  with  filth  and  with  the 
matted  dirt  of  bristling  locks.     Pouring  forth  from 



atque  efFusa  cavis  exesi  pumicis  antris 

Alpina  invadit  manus  assuetoque  vigore 

per  dumos  notasque  nives  atque  invia  pernix  545 

clausum  montivagis  infestat  cursibus  hostem. 

mutatur  iam  forma  locis  :  hie  sanguine  multo 

infectae  rubuere  nives,  hie,  nescia  vinci, 

paulatim  glacies  cedit  tepefacta  cruore  ; 

dumque  premit  sonipes  duro  vestigia  cornu,  650 

ungula  perfossis  haesit  comprensa  pruinis. 

nee  pestis  lapsus  simplex  ;   abscisa  relinquunt 

membra  gelu,  fractosque  asper  rigor  amputat  artus. 

bis  senos  soles,  totidem  per  vulnera  saevas 

emensi  noctes,  optato  vertice  sidunt  555 

castraque  praeruptis  suspendunt  ardua  saxis. 

At  Venus,  ancipiti  mentem  labefacta  timore, 
afFatur  genitorem  et  rumpit  maesta  querellas  : 
"  quis  poenae  modus  aut  pereundi  terminus,  oro, 
Aeneadis  erit  ?  et  quando  terrasque  fretumque      560 
emensis  sedisse  dabis  ?  cur  pellere  nostros 
a  te  concessa  Poenus  parat  urbe  nepotes  ? 
Alpibus  imposuit  Libyam  finemque  minatur 
imperio.     casus  metuit  iam  Roma  Sagunti. 
quo  Troiae  extremos  cineres  sacramque  ruinam     565 
Assaracique  larem  et  Vestae  secreta  feramus, 
da  sedem,  genitor,  tutisque  iacere.     parumne  est, 
exilia  errantes  totum  quaesisse  per  orbem  ? 
anne  iterum  capta  repetentur  Pergama  Roma  ?  ** 

"  Assaracus,  son  of  Tros,  was  a  king  of  Troy. 

^  The  fire  sacred  to  Vesta  which  Aeneas  carried  with  him 
from  Troy  to  Italy.    Pergama  was  the  citadel  of  Troy. 

PUNICA,  III.   543-669 

caves  in  the  hollow  rock,  the  natives  of  the  Alps 
attacked  them  ;  with  the  ease  of  habit  they  sped 
through  thorn-brakes  and  their  familiar  snow-drifts 
and  pathless  places  ;  and  soon  the  army  was  hemmed 
in  and  assailed  by  the  nimble  mountaineers.  And 
now  the  place  bore  a  different  aspect.  For  here  the 
snow  turned  red,  deeply  dyed  with  blood  ;  and  here 
the  ice,  unwilling  to  give  way,  yielded  by  degrees, 
when  the  hot  blood  thawed  it ;  and  where  the  horse 
stamps  his  horny  feet,  the  hoof  sticks  fast  in  the  ice  he 
has  bored  through.  Nor  is  a  fall  the  only  danger  ;  for 
men  leave  arms  and  legs  behind,  severed  by  the  frost, 
and  the  cruel  cold  cuts  off  the  limbs  already  broken. 
Twelve  days  and  as  many  dreadful  nights  they  spent  in 
such  suffering,  before  they  rested  on  the  longed-for 
summit,  and  hung  their  camp  aloft  on  precipitous  cliffs. 
But  now  Venus,  her  heart  shaken  with  doubt  and 
fear,  addressed  her  sire  and  broke  into  sorrowful 
complaint.  "  What  limit  of  their  punishment  will 
the  Aeneadae  ever  reach,  I  ask,  or  what  end  to  their 
destruction  ?  When  wilt  thou  grant  them  a  fixed 
abode,  after  all  their  wanderings  over  land  and  sea  ? 
Why  does  the  Carthaginian  essay  to  drive  my  de- 
scendants from  the  city  which  thou  didst  grant  them  ? 
He  has  planted  Libya  upon  the  Alps  and  threatens 
an  end  to  Roman  power.  Rome  now  dreads  the 
fate  of  Saguntum.  Grant  us  a  resting-place,  O 
Father,  whither  we  may  bear  at  last  the  ashes  and 
sacred  relics  of  fallen  Troy,  with  the  house  of 
Assaracus**  and  the  mysteries  of  Vesta.  ^  Grant  us 
safety  in  our  overthrow.  Is  it  not  enough  that  we 
have  wandered  over  the  whole  earth,  seeking  a  place 
of  exile  ?  Or  shall  Rome  be  taken  and  the  doom 
of  Troy  be  repeated  once  more  ?  " 



His  Venus  ;  et  contra  genitor  sic  deinde  profatur  : 
"  pelle  metus,  neu  te  Tyriae  conamina  gentis         571 
turbarint,  Cytherea  ;  tenet  longumque  tenebit 
Tarpeias  arces  sanguis  tuus.     hac  ego  Martis 
mole  viros  spectare  paro  atque  expendere  bello. 
gens  ferri  patiens  ac  laeta  domare  labores  675 

paulatim  antiquo  patrum  dissuescit  honori ; 
atque  ille,  baud  umquam  parens  pro  laude  cruoris 
et  semper  famae  sitiens,  obscura  sedendo 
tempora  agit,  mutum  volvens  inglorius  aevum, 
sanguine  de  nostro  populus,  blandoque  veneno       580 
desidiae  virtus  paulatim  evicta  senescit. 
magnae  molis  opus  multoque  labore  parandum, 
tot  populos  inter  soli  sibi  poscere  regna. 
iamque  tibi  veniet  tempus,  quo  maxima  rerum 
nobilior  sit  Roma  malis.     hinc  nomina  nostro         585 
non  indigna  polo  referet  labor  ;  hinc  tibi  Paulus, 
hinc  Fabius  gratusque  mihi  Marcellus  opimis. 
hi  tantum  parient  Latio  per  vulnera  regnum, 
quod  luxu  et  multum  mutata  mente  nepotes 
non  tamen  evertisse  queant.     iamque  ipse  creatus, 
qui  Poenum  revocet  patriae  Latioque  repulsum     591 
ante  suae  muros  Carthaginis  exuat  armis. 
hinc,  Cytherea,  tuis  longo  regnabitur  aevo. 
exin  se  Curibus  virtus  caelestis  ad  astra 

•  A  name  of  Venus,  derived  from  the  town  of  Cythera  in 

^  L.  Aemilius  Paulus  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Cannae 
(216  B.C.).  His  son,  of  the  same  name,  defeated  Perseus, 
king  of  Macedonia.  Fabius  is  the  famous  dictator  nick- 
named "  Slow-coach."  M.  Claudius  Marcellus  in  222  b.c. 
killed  Viridomarus,  king  of  the  Insubrians,  with  his  own 
hand  and  so  gained  what  were  called  spolia  opima.  He 
defeated  Hannibal  at  Nola  in  215  b.c. 

PUNICA.   III.  570  694 

Thus  Venus  spoke,  and  then  her  sire  made  answer 
thus  :  "  Fear  not,  Cytherea,*^  nor  be  disturbed  by  the 
ambition  of  the  Tyrian  people.  Your  descendants  hold 
the  Tarpeian  rock  and  long  shall  hold  it.  But  I  mean 
to  test  their  manhood  by  this  great  conflict  and  to 
try  them  in  war.  A  people,  once  steadfast  in  battle 
and  triumphant  over  hardships,  are  forgetting  by 
degrees  the  ancient  glory  of  their  sires.  Then  they 
never  spared  their  blood  in  honour's  cause,  and  ever 
thirsted  for  fame  ;  but  now  they  pass  their  time  in 
obscurity  and  inaction,  and  spend  their  lives  amid 
inglorious  silence,  though  my  blood  is  in  their  veins  ; 
and  their  manliness  is  slowly  sapped  and  weakened 
by  the  seductive  poison  of  indolence.  But  it  is  a  mighty 
enterprise  that  must  cost  intense  effort,  to  claim 
power  for  themselves  alone  among  so  many  nations. 
Thou  shalt  see  a  time  come,  when  Rome,  mistress  of 
the  world,  shall  be  more  glorious  for  her  calamities. 
Thus  suffering  shall  produce  famous  men,  worthy  to 
dwell  with  us  in  heaven  ;  thou  shalt  see  a  Paulus, 
a  Fabius,  and  a  Marcellus  who  has  pleased  me  by 
honourable  spoils.''  These  men,  by  their  defeats, 
will  gain  for  Latium  an  empire  so  great,  that  their 
descendants  will  be  unable  to  overthrow  it,  for  all 
their  luxury  and  degenerate  hearts.  Already  the 
man  '^  is  born  who  shall  drive  Hannibal  back  from 
Latium  to  his  own  land,  and  strip  him  of  his  arms 
before  the  walls  of  his  native  Carthage.  Thereafter 
thy  descendants,  Cytherea,  shall  reign  for  ages. 
Later  still,  godHke  excellence  shall  come  from  Cures  <* 

'  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus. 

**  Cures  was  an  ancient  city  in  the  Sabine  country,  where 
Vespasian  was  born.  An  elaborate  panegyric  follows  upon 
Vespasian  and  his  sons  and  successors — Titus  and  Domitian. 



efFeret,  et  sacris  augebit  nomen  lulis  695 

bellatrix  gens  bacifero  nutrita  Sabino. 

hinc  pater  ignotam  donabit  vincere  Thylen 

inque  Caledonios  primus  trahet  agmina  lucos  ; 

compescet  ripis  Rhenum,  reget  impiger  Afros 

palmiferamque  senex  bello  domitabit  Idumen.       600 

nee  Stygis  ille  lacus  viduataque  lumine  regna 

sed  superum  sedem  nostrosque  tenebit  honores. 

turn  iuvenis,  magno  praecellens  robore  mentis, 

excipiet  patriam  molem  celsusque  feretur, 

aequatum  imperio  tollens  caput  :  hie  fera  gentis   605 

bella  Palaestinae  primo  delebit  in  aevo. 

at  tu  transcendes,  Germanice,  facta  tuorum, 

iam  puer  auricomo  praeformidate  Batavo. 

nee  te  terruerint  Tarpei  culminis  ignes, 

sacrilegas  inter  flammas  servabere  terris  ;  610 

nam  te  longa  manent  nostri  consortia  mundi. 

huie  laxos  arcus  olim  Gangetica  pubes 

summittet,  vacuasque  ostendent  Bactra  pharetras. 

hie  et  ab  Arctoo  currus  aget  axe  per  urbem, 

ducet  et  Eoos,  Baccho  cedente,  triumphos.  615 

idem,  indignantem  tramittere  Dardana  signa, 

Sarmaticis  victor  compescet  sedibus  Histrum. 

quin  et  Romuleos  superabit  voce  nepotes, 

quis  erit  eloquio  partum  decus.     huic  sua  Musae 

**  The  olive-berry, 

*  The  emperors  of  the  Julio-Claudian  hne. 

"  "  Thule  "  stands  for  the  far  North — possibly  the  Shet- 
lands,  or  Iceland. 

^  Vespasian  fought  against  Judaea  before  becoming  em- 
peror ;  his  elder  son,  Titus,  took  Jerusalem  a.d.  70  and  ended 
the  war.     Idume  (Edom)  stands  for  Judaea. 

*  One  of  the  undeserved  titles  conferred  by  Domitian  on 

'  The  temple  on  the  Capitol  was  burnt  down  in  a.d.  69, 
and  Domitian  was  nearly  burnt  inside  it. 

PUNICA,   III.  595-619 

and  soar  to  heaven  ;  and  a  warrior  family,  reared 
on  the  berry  <*  that  grows  in  the  Sabine  land,  shall 
increase  the  fame  of  the  deified  Julii.^  The  father  of 
that  family  shall  give  Rome  victory  over  Thule,<' 
unknown  till  then,  and  shall  be  the  first  to  lead  an 
army  against  the  Caledonian  forests  ;  he  shall  set 
banks  to  restrain  the  Rhine,  he  shall  rule  Africa  with 
vigour,  and,  in  his  old  age,  he  shall  subdue  in  war  the 
palm-groves  of  Idume.**  Nor  shall  he  descend  to  the 
pools  of  the  Styx  and  the  realm  deprived  of  light ; 
but  he  shall  attain  to  the  habitation  of  the  gods  and 
the  honours  we  enjoy.  Then  his  son,  unrivalled  in 
mighty  strength  of  mind,  shall  take  up  his  father's 
task  and  move  on  in  majesty,  raising  his  head  as  high 
as  his  power.  While  yet  a  youth,  he  shall  put  an 
end  to  war  with  the  fierce  people  of  Palestine.  But 
thou.  Conqueror  of  Germany,*  shalt  outdo  the  exploits 
of  thy  father  and  brother  ;  even  in  boyhood  thou 
wert  dreaded  by  the  yellow-haired  Batavians.  The 
burning  of  the  Tarpeian  temple  cannot  alarm  thee  ; 
but  in  the  midst  of  the  impious  flames  thou  shalt  be 
saved,  for  the  sake  of  mankind ;  ^  for  in  the  distant 
future  thou  shalt  share  with  me  the  kingdom  of  the 
sky.  The  people  of  the  Ganges  shall  one  day  lower 
their  unbent  bows  before  him,  and  Bactra^  display 
its  empty  quivers.  He  shall  drive  the  triumphal 
car  through  Rome  after  conquering  the  North ;  he 
shall  triumph  over  the  East,  and  Bacchus  give  place 
to  him.  When  the  Danube  refuses  a  passage  to  the 
Roman  legions,  he  shall  be  victorious  and  retain  the 
river  in  the  land  of  the  Sarmatians.  Moreover,  his 
oratory  shall  surpass  all  the  sons  of  Romulus  who  have 
gained  glory  by  their  eloquence  ;  the  Muses  shall 
•  The  Parthians  are  meant  here. 



sacra  ferent,  meliorque  lyra,  cui  substitit  Hebrus    620 

et  venit  Rhodope,  Phoebo  miranda  loquetur. 

ille  etiam,  qua  prisca,  vides,  stat  regia  nobis, 

aurea  Tarpeia  ponet  Capitolia  rupe 

et  iunget  nostro  templorum  culmina  caelo. 

tunc,  o  nate  deum  divosque  dature,  beatas  625 

imperio  terras  patrio  rege.     tarda  senectam 

hospitia  excipient  caeli,  solioque  Quirinus 

concedet,  mediumque  parens  fraterque  locabunt : 

siderei  iuxta  radiabunt  tempora  nati." 

Dum  pandit  seriem  venturi  lupiter  aevi,  630 

ductor  Agenoreus,  tumulis  delatus  iniquis, 
lapsantem  dubio  devexa  per  invia  nisu 
firmabat  gressum  atque  humentia  saxa  premebat. 
non  acies  hostisve  tenet,  sed  prona  minaci 
praerupto  turbant  et  cautibus  obvia  rupes.  635 

stant  clausi  maerentque  moras  et  dura  viarum. 
nee  refovere  datur  torpentia  membra  quiete  ; 
noctem  operi  iungunt  et  robora  ferre  coactis 
approperant  humeris  ac  raptas  collibus  ornos. 
iamque  ubi  nudarunt  silva  densissima  montis,         640 
aggessere  trabes  ;  rapidisque  accensus  in  orbem 
excoquitur  flammis  scopulus.     mox  proruta  ferro 
dat  gemitum  putris  resoluto  pondere  moles 
atque  aperit  fessis  antiqui  regna  Latini. 

"  Domitian  wrote  an  epic  poem,  "  The  War  on  the 
Capitol,"  which  described  the  fighting  in  Rome  when 
Vitellius  fell ;  but  no  line  of  it  is  preserved. 

**  Orpheus. 

*  Domitian  rebuilt  the  temple  of  Jupiter  with  great  magni- 
ficence :  it  was  completed  a.d.  82. 

^  Domitian  had  one  son  who  died  in  childhood. 

PUNICA,   III.   620-644 

bring  him  offerings,  and  Phoebus  shall  marvel  at 
his  song  ^ — a  sweeter  strain  than  his  ^  whose  music 
made  the  Hebrus  stand  still  and  Mount  Rhodope 
move  on.  He  shall  also  erect  a  golden  Capitol  on  the 
Tarpeian "  rock,  where,  as  thou  seest,  my  ancient 
palace  now  stands,  and  raise  the  summit  of  the 
temple  to  reach  our  abode  in  the  sky.  Then,  O  son 
of  gods  and  father  of  gods  to  be,**  rule  the  happy  earth 
with  paternal  sway.  Heaven  shall  welcome  thee  at 
last,  in  thy  old  age,  and  Quirinus  *  give  up  his  throne 
to  thee  ;  thy  father  and  brother  shall  place  thee  be- 
tween them  ;  and  hard  by  the  head  of  thy  deified 
son  shall  send  forth  rays." 

While  Jupiter  thus  revealed  the  sequence  of 
future  events,  the  Carthaginian  leader,  descending  the 
dangerous  heights,  tried  with  uncertain  effort  to  get 
a  firm  foothold,  as  he  slid  down  pathless  slopes  and 
trod  on  dripping  rocks.  No  hostile  army  detained 
him  ;  but  he  was  troubled  by  the  dreadful  steepness 
of  the  descent  and  by  rocks  confronting  cliffs.  The 
men  stand  still,  as  if  shut  in,  and  lament  the 
obstacles  and  difficulties  of  the  way.  Nor  can  they 
sleep  and  so  revive  their  frozen  bodies  ;  but  they  work 
on  all  night  in  haste,  forced  to  carry  wood  on  their 
shoulders  and  to  tear  up  ash-trees  from  the  hills. 
Then  after  stripping  the  mountain  where  the  trees 
grew  thickest,  they  piled  the  timber  in  a  heap  ;  and 
the  rock,  set  on  fire  all  round,  was  melted  by  the 
devouring  flames.  Then  demolished  by  the  axe, 
the  heavy  mass  crumbled  and  parted  asunder  with  a 
rumbling  sound  and  opened  up  to  the  weary  soldiers 
the  land  of  old  Latinus.^     At  last,  after  all  these 

*  The  name  given  to  Romulus  when  deified. 
/  Italy. 



his  tandem  ignotas  transgressus  casibus  Alpes,       646 
Taurinis  ductor  statuit  tentoria  campis. 

Interea,  voces  lovis  atque  oracula  portans, 
emensis  aderat  Garamantum  laetus  harenis 
Bostar  et  ut  viso  stimulabat  corda  Tonante  : 
"  maxime  Belide,  patriis  qui  moenibus  arces  050 

servitium  dextra,  Libycas  penetravimus  aras. 
nos  tulit  ad  superos  perfundens  sidera  Syrtis, 
nos  paene  aequoribus  tellus  violentior  hausit. 
ad  finem  caeli  medio  tenduntur  ab  orbe 
squalentes  campi.     tumulum  natura  negavit  655 

immensis  spatiis,  nisi  quem  cava  nubila  torquens 
construxit  turbo,  impacta  glomeratus  harena, 
vel  si,  perfracto  populatus  carcere  terras, 
Africus  et,  pontum  spargens  super  aera,  Caurus 
invasere  truces  capientem  proelia  campum  660 

inque  vicem  ingesto  cumularunt  pulvere  montes. 
has  observatis  valles  enavimus  astris  ; 
namque  dies  confundit  iter,  peditemque  profundo 
errantem  campo  et  semper  media  arva  vidcntem 
Sidoniis  Cynosura  regit  fidissima  nautis.  665 

verum  ubi  defessi  lucos  nemorosaque  regna 
cornigeri  lovis  et  fulgentia  templa  subimus, 
exceptos  hospes  tectis  inducit  Arisbas. 
Stat  fano  vicina,  novum  et  memorabile,  lympha, 
quae  nascente  die,  quae  deficient e  tepescit  670 

"  The  name  of  this  Gallic  tribe  survives  in  the  city  of 

»  See  11.  6  foil. 

«  See  note  to  i.  408. 

«*  See  note  to  i.  193. 

*  The  Phoenicians  used  the  Little  Bear  (Cynosura)  to 
steer  by  ;  the  Greeks  used  the  Great  Bear  (Helice) :  see  xiv. 

^  Jupiter  Ammon  :  see  note  to  i.  415. 

PUNICA,   III.   645-670 

sufferings,  Hannibal  crossed  the  untrodden  Alps  and 
pitched  his  camp  on  the  plains  of  the  Taurini.« 

Meanwhile  Bostar  ^  arrived,  bearing  the  oracular 
response  of  Jupiter.  He  came  with  joy,  after 
traversing  the  deserts  of  the  Garamantes,  and  en- 
couraged Hannibal,  as  if  he  had  seen  the  Thunder-god 
with  his  own  eyes :  "  Mighty  son  of  Belus,  whose 
right  arm  defends  your  native  walls  from  slavery,  we 
made  our  way  to  the  shrine  of  Libya.  The  Syrtis," 
which  spatters  the  stars  with  its  foam,  bore  us  on 
towards  the  gods  ;  and  the  land,  more  furious  than  the 
sea,  almost  swallowed  us  up.  From  the  centre  of 
earth  to  the  limit  of  the  sky  the  barren  plains  stretch 
out.  Nowhere  in  that  boundless  tract  does  Nature 
suffer  the  level  to  rise,  save  where  a  whirlwind,  thick 
with  accumulated  sand,  and  driving  the  hollow  clouds 
along,  has  raised  up  a  mound.  Or  sometimes  the 
South-west  wind  breaks  its  prison  ^  and  devastates 
the  earth  ;  and  then  a  blast  from  the  North-west, 
scattering  the  sea  over  the  sky,  falls  fiercely  on  the 
plain  that  is  large  enough  for  their  battle  ;  and 
the  two  winds,  blowing  against  each  other,  raise 
mountains  of  heaped-up  sand.  We  steered  our 
course  across  these  hollows  by  observation  of  the 
stars  ;  for  daylight  confuses  the  tracks,  and  the 
Little  Bear,  which  never  deceives  the  Phoenician 
mariner,*  guides  the  traveller,  as  he  strays  over  the 
sandy  depths  and  ever  sees  the  waste  all  round  him. 
But  when  we  came,  weary  travellers,  to  the  groves 
and  tree-clad  abode  and  shining  temple  of  Jupiter 
who  has  horns  on  his  forehead,^  Arisbas  welcomed 
us  as  guests  and  took  us  to  his  house.  Beside 
the  temple  is  a  wondrous  marvel — a  spring,  whose 
water  is  lukewarm  at  morning  and  at  evening,  but 



quaeque  riget,  medius  cum  sol  accendit  Olympum, 
atque  eadem  rursum  nocturnis  fervet  in  umbris. 
turn  loca  plena  deo,  dites  sine  vomere  glebas 
ostentat  senior  laetaque  ita  mente  profatur  : 
*  has  umbras  nemorum  et  connexa  cacumina  caelo  676 
calcatosque  lovi  lucos  prece,  Bostar,  adora. 
nam  cui  dona  lovis  non  divulgata  per  orbem, 
in  gremio  Thebes  geminas  sedisse  columbas  ? 
quarum,  Chaonias  pennis  quae  contigit  oras, 
implet  fatidico  Dodonida  murmure  quercum.  680 

at  quae,  Carpathium  super  aequor  vecta,  per  auras 
in  Libyen  piceis^  tranavit  concolor  alis. 
hanc  sedem  templo  Cythereia  condidit  ales  ; 
hie,  ubi  nunc  aram  lucosque  videtis  opacos, 
ductore  electo  gregis,  admirabile  dictu,  685 

lanigeri  capitis  media  inter  cornua  perstans, 
Marmaricis  ales  populis  responsa  canebat. 
mox  subitum  nemus  atque  annoso  robore  lucus 
exiluit ;   qualesque  premunt  nunc  sidera  quercus, 
a  prima  venere  die  ;  prisco  inde  pavore  690 

arbor  nimien  habet  coliturque  tepentibus  aris.' 
dumque  ea  miramur,  subito  stridor e  tremendum 
impulsae  patuere  fores,  maiorque  repente 
lux  oculos  ferit.     ante  aras  stat  veste  sacerdos 
efFulgens  nivea,  et  populi  concurrere  certant.  695 

inde  ubi  mandatas  effudi  pectore  voces, 
ecce  intrat  subitus  vatem  deus.     alta  sonoro, 
collisis  trabibus,  volvuntur  murmura  luco, 
^  piceis :  niveis  edd. 

"  Silius  seems  to  mean  Thebes  in  Greece  ;   but  Herodotus 
and  others  refer  the  legend  to  Thebes  in  Egypt. 

"  A  district  of  Epirus  including  the  forest  of  Dodona. 

"  Aegean. 

'^  A  district  of  N.  Africa  :  the  inhabitants  are  called  Mar 

PUNICA,   III.   671-698 

cold  when  the  midday  sun  kindles  the  sky  ;  and  the 
same  water  boils  again  in  the  darkness  of  night. 
Then  that  old  man  showed  us  the  places  which  the 
god  fills  with  his  presence,  and  the  fields  that  bear 
crops  without  the  plough  ;  and  thus  he  addressed  us 
with  cheerful  heart ;  *  Bostar,  bow  down  in  prayer 
before  these  shady  woods,  this  roof  that  soars  to 
heaven,  and  these  groves  where  Jupiter  has  trodden. 
For  who  upon  earth  has  not  heard  of  the  gift  of 
Jupiter — the  two  doves  that  perched  on  the  lap  of 
Thebe  "  ?  One  of  these  flew  to  the  land  of  Chaonia  ^ 
and  there  fills  the  oak  of  Dodona  with  prophetic 
utterance  ;  but  the  other  bird  of  Venus  sailed  through 
the  sky  over  the  Carpathian  "  sea,  and  flew  on  dusky 
wings  to  the  dusky  people  of  Libya,  and  founded 
here  the  site  for  a  temple.  Here,  where  now  you  see 
the  altar  and  the  shady  groves,  the  dove — marvellous 
to  tell — chose  out  a  leader  of  the  flock,  and  stood 
between  the  horns  of  his  fleecy  head,  and  prophesied 
to  the  people  of  Marmarica.'^  Later,  trees  sprang 
suddenly  from  the  earth,  and  a  grove  of  ancient  oaks  ; 
and,  as  the  branches  now  reach  the  skies,  so  they  grew 
on  their  first  day.  Hence  the  grove  is  sacred  and 
awful  from  ancient  times,  and  is  worshipped  with 
steaming  altars.'  While  we  marvelled  at  his  words, 
the  doors  suddenly  flew  open  with  a  terrible  crash, 
and  a  brighter  light  suddenly  struck  upon  our  eyes. 
Before  the  altar  stood  the  priest,  conspicuous  in  his 
snow-white  robe,  and  the  people  thronged  eagerly  to 
the  doors.  Then  when  I  had  uttered  the  message 
with  which  I  was  charged,  behold  !  the  god  suddenly 
entered  the  breast  of  the  prophet.  The  trees  clashed 
against  one  another,  and  a  deep  humming  noise 
passed  through  the  resounding  grove  ;    and  then  a 



ac  maior  nota  iam  vox  prorumpit  in  auras  : 

*  tenditis  in  Latium  belloque  agitare  paratis  700 

Assaraci  prolem,  Libyes.     coepta  aspera  cerno 

Gradivumque  trucem  currus  iam  scandere  et  atram 

in  latus  Hesperium  flammam  expirare  furentes 

cornipedes  multoque  fluentia  sanguine  lora. 

tu,  qui  pugnarum  eventus  extremaque  fati  705 

deposcis  claroque  ferox  das  vela  labori, 

invade  Aetoli  ductoris  lapyga  campum  ; 

Sidonios  augebis  avos  nullique  relinques 

altius  Ausoniae  penetrare  in  viscera  gentis, 

donee  victa  tibi  trepidabunt  Dardana  regna.  710 

nee  ponet  pubes  umquam  Saturnia  curam, 

dum  carpet  superas  in  terris  Hannibal  auras.'  " 

Talia  portabat  laetis  oracula  Bostar 
impleratque  viros  pugnae  propioris  amore. 

<•  The  Romans :  see  note  to  I.  566. 

^  This  epithet,  often  applied  to  fire  by  Silius,  may  mean 
"terrible,"  "awful"  rather  than  "black." 

«  Italy. 

^  Diomede,  the  Homeric  hero  and  King  of  Aetolia,  after 
returning  from  Troy,  settled  in  Apulia  and  there  founded 
Argyripa,  later  called  Arpi.    The  "  lapygian  plain  "  is  the 


PUNICA,   III.   699-714 

voice,  louder  than  any  we  know,  burst  forth  into  the 
air  :  '  Men  of  Libya,  ye  move  against  Latium,  and 
prepare  to  make  war  against  the  seed  of  Assaracus.** 
I  see  a  perilous  enterprise  ;  I  see  fierce  Mars  even 
now  mounting  his  chariot  ;  I  see  his  furious  steeds 
breathing  forth  black  ^  flame  against  the  Western 
land,^  and  the  blood  that  streams  down  from  his 
reins.  And  thou,  who  seekest  to  know  the  issue  of 
battle  and  the  fated  end,  and  boldly  spreadest  thy 
sail  for  the  glorious  adventure,  advance  against  the 
lapygian  plain  of  the  Aetolian  leader  ^  :  thou  shalt 
glorify  thy  Phoenician  ancestors,  and  no  man  after 
thee  shall  be  able  to  pierce  deeper  into  the  vitals  of 
the  Ausonian  race,  so  long  as  the  Dardan  ^  realm 
shall  tremble  beneath  thy  conquests.  Nor  shall  the 
race  of  Saturn^  ever  be  free  from  fear,  so  long  as 
Hannibal  draws  breath  in  the  upper  world.'  " 

Such  was  the  welcome  oracle  that  Bostar  brought 
back  ;  and  he  filled  the  army  with  desire  for  instant 

site  of  the  battle  of  Cannae :  lapygia  is  part  of  Apulia  in 
S.  Italy. 

'  Dardan  =  Trojan  =  Roman.  '  The  Romans. 




Rome  is  greatly  alarmed  by  the  news  that  Hannibal  has 
reached  Italy  :  but  the  Senate  does  not  lose  heart  (1-88). 
Hannibal  courts  the  Gauls  of  N.  Italy.  Scipio  hurries 
back  from  Marseilles  (39-55).  Both  generals  address  their 
soldiers  and  prepare  for  battle  (56-100).  An  omen  precedes 
the  battle  (101-134).  The  battle  of  the  Ticinus  (135-479). 
Scipio  withdraws  to  the  Trebia,  and  is  joined  by  an  army 
under  Ti.  Sempronius  Longus  (480-497).     Hannibal  forces 

Fama  per  Ausoniae  turbatas  spargitur  urbes 
nubiferos  montes  et  saxa  minantia  caelo 
accepisse  iugum,  Poenosque  per  invia  vectos, 
aemulaque  Herculei  iactantem  facta  laboris 
descendisse  ducem.     diros  canit  improba  motus       6 
et  gliscit  gressu  volucrique  citatior  Euro 
terrificis  quatit  attonitas  rumoribus  arces. 
astruit  auditis,  docilis  per  inania  rerum 
pascere  rumorem  vulgi,  pavor.    itur  in  acres 
bellorum  raptim  curas,  subitusque  per  omnem  10 

Ausoniam  Mavors  strepit  et  ciet  arnia  virosque. 
pila  novant,  ac  detersa  rubigine  saevus 
induitur  ferro  splendor,  niveumque  repostae 
instaurant  galeae  coni  decus  ;  hasta  iuvatur 
animento,  revocantque  novas  fornace  bipennes.        15 

"  For  this  contrivance  see  note  to  i.  318. 


ARGUMENT  (continued) 

the  Romans  to  fight  (498-524).  The  battle  of  the  Trehia 
(525-704).  The  consul  G.  Flaminius  leads  a  fresh  army 
into  Etruria  (705-721).  Instigated  by  Juno^  Hannibal  crosses 
the  Apennines  and  encamps  by  Lake  Trasimene  (722-762). 
Envoys  from  Carthage  inquire  whether  he  consents  to  the 
immolation  of  his  infant  son  :  he  refuses  (763-829). 

Rumour,  spreading  through  the  dismayed  cities 
of  Ausonia,  told  that  cloud-capped  mountains  and 
heaven-threatening  peaks  had  been  conquered,  that 
the  Carthaginians  had  passed  over  trackless  wilds,  and 
that  Hannibal  had  descended  from  the  Alps,  boasting 
an  exploit  that  rivalled  the  labour  of  Hercules.  Mis- 
chievous Rumour  prophesied  dread  commotions,  and, 
growing  as  she  went,  and  moving  swifter  than  the 
Avings  of  the  wind,  shook  the  panic-stricken  cities  with 
alarming  reports.  Then  fear,  quick  to  feed  the  talk 
of  the  populace  with  falsehood,  exaggerated  what  it 
heard.  Men  turned  quickly  to  the  fierce  business  of 
war,  and  Mars  suddenly  raised  a  clamour  throughout 
Italy,  summoning  arms  and  men.  They  refashion 
their  javelins  ;  the  steel  is  cleansed  of  rust  and  puts 
on  its  cruel  glitter  ;  and  helmets,  long  laid  by,  renew 
the  beauty  of  their  snowy  plumes  ;  the  spear  is 
strengthened  by  a  thong,"  and  axes  are  brought  back 



conseritur  tegimen  laterum  impenetrabile,  multas 
passurus  dextras  atque  irrita  vulnera,  thorax, 
pars  arcu  invigilant,  domitat  pars  verbere  anhelum 
cornipedem  in  gyros  saxoque  exasperat  ensem. 
nee  vero  muris,  quibus  est  luctata  vetustas,  20 

ferre  morantur  opem  ;  subvectant  saxa  cavasque 
retractant  turres,  edit  quas  longior  aetas. 
hinc  tela  accipiunt  arces,  ac  robora  portis 
et  fidos  certant  obices  accersere  silva ; 
circumdant  fossas.     baud  segnis  cuncta  magister    25 
praecipitat  timor,  ac  vastis  trepidatur  in  agris. 
deseruere  larem  ;  portant  cervicibus  aegras 
attoniti  matres  ducentesque  ultima  fila 
grandaevos  rapuere  senes  ;  turn  crine  solute 
ante  agitur  coniux,  dextra  laevaque  trahuntur         30 
parvi,  non  aequo  coniitantes  ordine,  nati. 
sic  vulgus  ;  traduntque  metus,  nee  poscitur  auctor. 
at  patres,  quamquam  exterrent  immania  coepta 
inque  sinu  bellum,  atque  Alpes  et  pervia  saxa 
decepere,  tamen  crudam  contra  aspera  mentem      35 
et  magnos  tollunt  animos  :  iuvat  ire  periclis 
ad  decus  et  dextra  memorandum  condere  nomen, 
quale  dedit  numquam  rebus  Fortuna  secundis. 
Sed  Libyae  ductor  tuto  fovet  agmina  vallo, 
fessa  gradum  multoque  gelu  torpentia  nervos  ;        40 
solandique  genus — laetis  ostentat  ad  urbem 

PUNICA,  IV.  16-41 

reforged  from  the  furnace.  The  cuirass  that  must 
parry  many  a  thrust  and  unsuccessful  blow  is  fitted 
together,  to  form  a  protection  for  the  body  that 
nothing  can  pierce.  Some  sit  late,  to  mend  the  bow  ; 
some  tame  the  panting  steed  with  the  whip  and  make 
him  wheel  about ;  and  others  whet  the  sword  upon  the 
stone.  Nor  are  men  slow  to  repair  the  walls  that 
time  has  attacked  ;  they  bring  up  stone  in  wagons 
and  refashion  the  hollow  towers  eaten  away  by  age. 
The  citadels  too  are  stored  with  missiles  ;  men  hasten 
to  bring  from  the  forest  oak-timber  for  their  gates 
and  trusty  bars,  and  dig  moats  around.  Fear,  an 
active  taskmaster,  speeds  all  the  work  ;  and  terror  is 
rife  in  the  deserted  fields.  Men  leave  their  homes  ; 
panic-stricken,  they  carry  ailing  mothers  upon  their 
shoulders  and  drag  along  old  men  whose  span  of  life 
is  almost  ended  ;  they  drive  their  wives  with  dis- 
hevelled hair  in  front  of  them  ;  behind  them  come 
the  little  children  with  shorter  steps,  clinging  to  their 
father's  right  hand  and  left.  Thus  the  people  flee, 
handing  on  their  fear  to  one  another  ;  and  no  man 
asks  the  origin  of  the  reports.  But  the  Senate, 
though  alarmed  by  the  enemy  at  their  doors  and  by 
his  enormous  enterpri&e,  and  disappointed  by  his 
passage  over  the  Alps,  nevertheless  opposed  the 
danger  with  unbroken  spirit  and  high  courage. 
They  rejoice  to  march  through  peril  to  glory, 
and  to  build  by  strength  of  arm  such  a  monu- 
ment of  fame  as  Fortune  has  never  granted  to 

But  Hannibal  nursed  his  army  behind  the  protec- 
tion of  a  camp,  while  the  men  were  weary  of  marching 
and  their  muscles  were  stiff  with  continued  frost ; 
and,  by  way  of  consolation,  he  pointed  out  that  the 



per  campos  superesse  viam,  Romamque  sub  ictu. 
at  non  et  rerum  curas  consultaque  belli 
stare  probat,  solusque  nequit  perferre  quietem. 
armiferae  quondam  prisca  inter  tempora  gentes      46 
Ausonium  invasere  latus  sedesque  beatas 
et  metui  peperere  manu  :  mox  impia  bella 
Tarpeius  pater  et  capti  sensere  Quirites. 
hos  dum  sollicitat  donis  et  inania  corda 
ac  fluxam  morum  gentem  fovet  armaque  iungit,     60 
iam  consul,  volucri  pervectus  litora  classe, 
Scipio  Phocaicis  sese  referebat  ab  oris  ; 
ingentesque  duces,  pelagi  terraeque  laborem 
diversum  emensos,  propiora  pericula  vallo 
iungebant,  magnaeque  aderant  primordia  cladis.     66 
namque  ut,  collatis  admoto  consule  castris, 
sustulerat  Fortuna  moras,  signumque  furoris 
accensae  viso  poscebant  hoste  cohortes  : 
"  debellata  procul,  quaecumque  vocantur  Hiberis," 
ingenti  Tyrius  numerosa  per  agmina  ductor  60 

voce  sonat ;  non  Pyrenen  Rhodanumve  ferocem 
iussa  aspernatos,  Rutulam  fumasse  Saguntum, 
raptum  per  Celtas  iter,  et,  qua  ponere  gressum 
Amphitryoniadae  fuerit  labor,  isse  sub  armis 
Poenorum  turmas,  equitemque  per  ardua  vectum   66 
insultasse  iugo,  et  fremuisse  hinnitibus  Alpes. 
Contra  pulchra  suos  vocat  ad  discrimina  consul : 

"  Gauls  made  their  appearance  in  Italy  in  the  fifth  century 
B.C.  and  gradually  spread  southwards  ;  in  390  b.c.  they  took 
and  burnt  Rome.  Hannibal  therefore  hoped  to  lead  the 
Gauls  of  N.  Italy  against  Rome  a  second  time. 

^  Massilia  (Marseilles),  founded  by  colonists  from  Phocaea 
in  Asia  Minor.  P.  Cornelius  Scipio,  consul  in  218  b.c,  sailed 


PUNICA,  IV.  42-67 

rest  of  the  march  to  Rome  was  over  level  ground,  and 
that  the  city  was  at  their  mercy.  But  he  did  not 
approve  of  any  pause  in  his  own  survey  of  affairs  and 
plan  of  campaign  ;  and  he  alone  could  not  endure 
inaction.  Once  before,  in  ancient  days,  armed  tribes 
had  invaded  the  happy  land  of  Italy  and  caused  terror 
by  their  might ;  and  soon  the  Tarpeian  Father  and 
the  conquered  Quirites  felt  the  shock  of  sacrilegious 
warfare."  But,  while  he  was  tempting  the  Gauls 
with  bribes,  working  on  the  folly  and  fickleness  of 
that  people,  and  making  an  alliance  with  them,  the 
consul  Scipio  was  returning  from  the  land  of  the 
Phocaeans,^  sailing  with  speed  along  the  coast.  Each 
mighty  chief  had  completed  his  hard  task,  one  on 
land  and  the  other  by  sea  ;  and  now  a  more  instant 
danger  brought  their  camps  together  ;  and  the  be- 
ginnings of  a  great  disaster  were  present.  For  when 
the  consul  arrived  and  the  armies  faced  each  other, 
and  Fortune  put  an  end  to  delays,  the  soldiers,  roused 
by  the  sight  of  the  enemy,  demanded  the  signal  for 
the  furious  assault.  Then  Hannibal's  voice  rose  in  a 
great  shout  over  his  mighty  host :  "  We  have  subdued 
all  that  distant  land  that  bears  the  name  of  Spain  ; 
the  Pyrenees  and  the  proud  Rhone  have  obeyed  our 
bidding  ;  Rutulian  Saguntum  has  gone  up  in  smoke  ; 
we  forced  a  passage  through  Gaul  ;  and,  where  Her- 
cules found  it  hard  to  tread,  the  soldiers  of  Carthage 
have  marched  in  arms  ;  our  horsemen  have  ridden 
up  the  heights  and  trampled  on  the  peaks,  and  the 
Alps  have  echoed  with  the  snorting  of  our  steeds." 

On  the  other  side  the  consul  summoned  his  men 
to  danger  and  to  glory  :    "  Soldiers,  your  foes  are 

back  in  haste  from  Marseilles  on  hearing  that  Hannibal 
had  crossed  the  Alps :  see  xvi.  333  foil. 

VOL.  I  o  173 


"  hostem,  miles,  habes  fractum  ambustumque  nivosis 
cautibus  atque  aegre  torpentia  membra  trahentem. 
en  age,  qui  sacros  montes  rupesque  profundas         70 
transiluit,  discat,  quanto  stat  Celsius  arce 
Herculea  vallum,  et  maius  sit,  scandere  colles, 
an  vestros  rupisse  globos.     det  inania  famae, 
dum  magna  fuso  pugna  retroque  ruenti, 
qua  ventum  est,  obstent  Alpes.     super  ardua  ductum 
hue  egere  dei,  Latios  ut  sanguine  fines  76 

imbueret,  tellusque  hostilis  conderet  ossa. 
scire  libet,  nova  nunc  nobis  atque  altera  bellum 
Carthago,  anne  eadem  mittat,  quae,  mersa  sub  aequor, 
Aegates  inter  vasto  iacet  obruta  ponto."  80 

Haec  ait  atque  agmen  Ticini  flectit  ad  undas. 
caeruleas  Ticinus  aquas  et  stagna  vadoso 
perspicuus  servat  turbari  nescia  fundo 
ac  nitidum  viridi  lente  trahit  amne  liquorem. 
vix  credas  labi  ;  ripis  tam  mitis  opacis,  85 

argutos  inter  volucrum  certamine  cantus, 
somniferam  ducit  lucenti  gurgite  lympham. 

lamque  sub  extremum  noctis  fugientibus  umbris 
lux  aderat,  Somnusque  suas  confecerat  horas — 
explorare  locos  consul  coUisque  propinqui  90 

ingenium,  et  campis  quae  sit  natura,  parabat. 
par  studium  Poeno  similesque  in  pectore  curae. 
ergo  aderant,  rapidis  equitum  comitantibus  alis. 

Verum  ubi  commoto  docuerunt  pulvere  nubes 

"  He  asserts  that  his  camp  is  more  impregnable  than  the 
city  had  been. 

"  See  note  to  i.  35. 

"  The  river  beside  which  Hannibal  won  the  first  of  his 
four  great  victories  in  Italy  :   a  tributary  of  the  Po. 


PUNICA.   IV.   68-94 

enfeebled  and  frost-bitten  by  the  Alpine  snows,  and 
drag  their  benumbed  limbs  with  difficulty.  They 
have  crossed  inviolate  mountains  and  rocky  chasms : 
well,  let  them  learn  how  high  our  rampart «  rises 
above  the  citadel  of  Saguntum,  and  which  is  the 
harder  task — to  climb  hills  or  to  break  your  ranks. 
Let  them  boast  of  their  useless  exploit — I  care  not, 
if  only  the  Alps  oppose  them,  when  they  have  been 
routed  in  a  great  battle  and  are  rushing  back  the  way 
they  came.  Heaven  brought  them  hither  and  led 
them  over  the  heights,  that  they  might  dye  the  land 
of  Latium  with  their  blood  and  lay  their  bones  in  a 
hostile  soil.  I  would  fain  know  whether  this  war  is 
launched  by  a  new  and  different  Carthage  or  by  the 
same  power  which  sank  beneath  the  waves  and  now 
lies  buried  in  the  boundless  deep  near  the  Aegatian 
islands."  ^ 

Thus  he  spoke,  and  turned  his  march  aside  to  the 
river  Ticinus.*'  That  crystal  river  keeps  its  pools  of 
blue  water  free  from  all  stain  above  its  shallow  bed, 
and  slowly  draws  along  its  fair  stream  of  greenish 
hue.  One  would  scarce  believe  it  was  moving ;  so 
softly  along  its  shady  banks,  while  the  birds  sing 
sweet  in  rivalry,  it  leads  along  in  a  shining  flood  its 
waters  that  tempt  to  sleep. 

And  now  night  was  ending  and  the  darkness  de- 
parting ;  dawn  was  near  and  Sleep  had  completed 
his  allotted  hours,  when  the  consul  made  ready  to 
examine  the  ground  and  ascertain  the  character 
of  the  neighbouring  hill  and  plains.  Hannibal  had 
the  same  intention,  and  the  same  anxiety  filled  his 
heart.  So  the  two  came  near,  escorted  by  speedy 
squadrons  of  horsemen. 

But  when  the  rising  cloud  of  dust  showed  that  the 



hostem  ferre  gradum,  et  propius  propiusque  sonoro  95 

quadrupedum  cornu  tellus  gemit,  ac  simul  acer 

vincentum  lituos  hinnitus  saevit  equorum  : 

"  arma,  viri,  rapite  arma,  viri,"  dux  instat  uterque. 

ambobus  velox  virtus  geminusque  cupido 

laudis  et  ad  pugnas  Martemque  insania  concors.      100 

Haud  mora,  iam  tantum  campi  dirimebat  ab  ictu, 
quantum  impulsa  valet  comprendere  lancea  nodo, 
cum  subitum  liquida,  non  ullis  nubibus,  aethra 
augurium  mentes  oculosque  ad  sidera  vertit. 
accipiter,  medio  tendens  a  limite  solis,  105 

dilectas  Veneri  notasque  ab  honore  Diones 
turbabat  violentus  aves  atque  unguibus  idem, 
idem  nunc  rostro,  duris  nunc  ictibus  alae, 
ter  quinas  dederat  saeva  inter  vulnera  leto  ; 
nee  finis  satiesve,  novi  sed  sanguinis  ardor  110 

gliscere,  et  urgebat  trepidam  iam  caede  priorum 
incertamque  fugae,  pluma  labente,  columbam, 
donee  Phoebeo  veniens  lovis  ales  ab  ortu 
in  tenues  tandem  nubes  dare  terga  coegit. 
tum  victrix  laetos  signa  ad  Romana  volatus  115 

convertit,  prolesque  ducis  qua  parte  decora 
Scipio  quassabat  puerilibus  arma  lacertis, 
clangorem  bis  terque  dedit,  rostroque  coruscae 
perstringens  conum  galeae,  se  reddidit  astris. 

Exclamat  Liger  (huic  superos  sentire  monentes  120 
ars  fuit  ac  penna  monstrare  futura  magistra)  : 
"  Poene,  bis  octonos  I  talis  in  finibus  annos, 

"  See  note  to  i.  318. 

^  That  is,  from  the  South,  the  direction  in  which  Carthage 

"  A  name  of  Venus  :  the  dove  was  her  favourite  bird. 

^  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus,  afterwards  conqueror  of 



PUNICA,   IV.   95-122 

enemy  were  on  the  march,  and  the  earth  rang  with 
the  sound  of  hoofs  coming  ever  nearer,  and  at  the 
same  time  the  trumpet  was  drowned  by  the  eager 
neighing  of  the  horses,  then  both  leaders  called 
upon  their  troops  :  "To  arms,  my  men  !  to  arms 
with  speed  !  "  Each  had  the  same  restless  valour, 
and  the  same  thirst  for  glory,  and  they  were  kindred 
spirits  in  their  passion  for  war  and  battle. 

There  was  no  delay.  Soon  the  combatants  were 
separated  only  by  as  much  ground  as  a  lance  sped 
by  a  thong  "  can  cover,  when  suddenly  all  eyes  and 
thoughts  were  turned  to  the  sky  by  a  portent  appear- 
ing in  the  clear  and  cloudless  heavens.  A  hawk, 
flying  from  the  sun  in  his  meridian,^  was  fiercely 
assailing  a  flock  of  the  birds  that  are  dear  to  Venus 
and  owe  their  fame  to  the  favour  of  Dione  " ; 
now  with  talons,  now  with  beak,  and  now  with  fierce 
buffeting  of  his  wings,  he  had  cruelly  wounded  and 
slain  fifteen  victims.  Nor  did  he  stop,  satisfied  :  his 
eagerness  for  a  fresh  victim  grew,  and  he  pressed 
hard  on  the  last  dove,  while  she  wavered  in  her  flight 
with  flagging  wing,  terrified  by  the  slaughter  of  the 
rest.  But  now  an  eagle,  coming  up  from  the  East, 
forced  the  hawk  at  last  to  fly  for  refuge  to  the 
unsubstantial  clouds.  Then  the  undefeated  dove 
turned  and  flew  gladly  towards  the  Roman  standards 
and  the  place  where  the  general's  son,  Scipio,** 
was  brandishing  shining  weapons  with  his  childish 
strength  ;  then,  when  she  had  uttered  her  note  thrice 
and  pecked  at  the  plume  of  the  boy's  glittering 
helmet,  she  went  back  to  the  sky. 

A  cry  came  from  Liger — he  was  skilled  to  perceive 
the  warnings  of  heaven  and  to  foretell  the  future  by 
watching  the  birds  : — **  Hannibal,  you,  like  that  bold 



audaci  similis  volucri,  sectabere  pubem 

Ausoniam  multamque  feres  cum  sanguine  praedam. 

sed  compesce  minas  ;  renuit  tibi  Daunia  regna       125 

armiger  ecce  lovis.     nosco  te,  summe  deorum. 

adsis  o  firmesque  tuae,  pater,  alitis  omen. 

nam  tibi  servantur  (ni  vano  cassa  volatu 

mentitur  superos  praepes)  postrema  subactae 

fata,  puer,  Libyae  et  mains  Carthagine  nomen."   130 

Contra  laeta  Bogus  Tyrio  canit  omina  regi, 
et  faustum  accipitrem  caesasque  in  nube  volucres 
Aeneadis  cladem  et  Veneris  portendere  genti. 
tum  dictis  comitem  contorquet  primus  in  hostcs, 
ceu  suadente  deo  et  fatorum  conscius,  hastam.       135 
ilia  volans  patuli  longe  per  inania  campi 
ictum  perdiderat  spatio,  ni,  fusus  habenas, 
dum  primae  decus  affectat  decerpere  pugnae, 
obvia  quadrupedis  praeceps  Catus  ora  tulisset. 
sic  elanguescens  ac  iam  casura,  petitum  140 

invenit  vulnus  caedemque  accepit  ab  hoste 
cornus  et  oblatae  stetit  inter  tempora  frontis. 

Incurrunt  acies,  magnoque  fragore  per  aequor 
suspendunt  cuncti  frenis  sublime  reductos 
cornipedes  ultroque  ferunt  :  erectus  in  auras  145 

it  sonipes,  rapidaque  volans  per  aperta  procella, 
tenuia  vix  summo  vestigia  pulvere  signat. 
Boiorum  ante  alias  Crixo  duce  mobilis  ala 

"  The  number  of  years  corresponds  to  the  number  of 
pigeons.     The  young  Scipio  is  the  eagle. 

^  A  common  title  of  the  eagle  which  was  supposed  to  carry 
Jupiter's  thunderbolts. 

"  Africanus. 

^  Not,  to  our  ears,  a  felicitous  name  for  a  prophet. 

*  A  Celtic  tribe. 


PUNICA,   IV.   123-148 

bird,  for  twice  eight  years  "  shall  pursue  the  men  of 
Rome  in  the  land  of  Italy,  and  shall  carry  off  much 
booty  and  shed  much  blood.  But  restrain  your 
threats  ;  for,  lo  !  the  armour-bearer  of  Jupiter  ^  with- 
holds from  you  the  realm  of  Daunus.  I  recognize 
thy  hand,  O  mightiest  of  the  gods.  Be  present,  O 
Father,  and  confirm  the  omen  of  thy  bird  !  For, 
unless  the  eagle  is  false  to  the  gods  and  his  flight 
means  nothing,  it  is  reserved  for  this  boy  to  seal  the 
fate  of  conquered  Libya,  and  to  gain  a  name  "  greater 
than  that  of  Carthage." 

Bogus,'^  on  the  other  hand,  prophesied  good  fortune 
to  Hannibal :  the  hawk  was  a  favourable  sign,  and  the 
slaughter  of  birds  in  the  sky  foretold  disaster  to  the 
Aeneadae,  the  descendants  of  Venus.  Then,  to  suit 
his  words,  he  hurled  the  first  spear  against  the  foe,  as 
if  prompted  by  heaven  and  aware  of  coming  events. 
The  weapon  flew  far  over  the  empty  space  of  the 
spreading  plain,  and  distance  would  have  robbed  it  of 
its  effect,  but  for  the  desire  of  Catus  to  reap  glory  in 
the  first  battle.  He  galloped  forward  with  loosened 
rein  and  drove  his  horse's  head  to  meet  it  ;  and  so 
the  spear,  when  flagging  in  its  course  and  ready  to 
fall,  found  the  mark  it  sought  and  received  from  the 
enemy  power  to  kill ;  it  lodged  between  the  temples 
of  the  brow  that  courted  death. 

The  armies  advance  at  speed,  and  a  mighty  noise 
spreads  over  the  field  when  all  the  riders  raise  their 
horses'  heads  high  with  the  bridle  and  then  urge 
them  forward  ;  rearing  aloft,  the  chargers  then  rush 
on  and  in  their  stormy  flight  over  the  plain  leave 
hardly  a  trace  of  their  hoof-prints  on  the  dusty 
surface.  A  swift  squadron  of  Boii,*  commanded  by 
Crixus,  takes  the  lead,  dashing  against  the  front  rank 



arietat  in  primos  obicitque  immania  membra. 

ipse,  tumens  atavis,  Brenni  se  stirpe  ferebat  160 

Crixus  et  in  titulos  Capitolia  capta  trahebat. 

Tarpeioque  iugo  demens  et  vertice  sacro 

pensantes  aurum  Celtas  umbone  gerebat. 

colla  viri  fulvo  radiabant  lactea  torque, 

auro  virgatae  vestes,  manicaeque  rigebant  155 

ex  auro,  et  simili  vibrabat  crista  metallo. 

Sternitur  impulsu  vasto  perculsa  Camertum 
prima  phalanx,  spissaeque  ruunt  conferta  per  arma 
undae  Boiorum  ;   sociata  examina  densent 
infandi  Senones  ;  collisaque  quadrupedantum         160 
pectoribus  toto  volvuntur  corpora  campo. 
arva  natant,  altusque  virum  cruor,  altus  equorum 
lubrica  belligerae  sorbet  vestigia  turmae. 
seminecum  letum  peragit  gravis  ungula  pulsu 
et  circumvolitans  taetros  e  sanguine  rores  165 

spargit  humo  miserisque  suo  lavit  arma  cruore. 
spicula  prima,  puer,  tumidi,  Tyrrhene,  Pelori 
purpureo  moriens  victricia  sanguine  tinguis. 
nam  tibi,  dum  stimulas  cornu  atque  in  proelia  mentes 
accendis  renovasque  viros  ad  vulnera  cantu,  170 

haesit  barbaricum  sub  anhelo  gutture  telum 
et  clausit  raucum  letali  vulnere  murmur, 
at  sonus,  extremo  morientis  fusus  ab  ore, 
flexa  pererravit  mutis  iam  cornua  labris. 

«  For  this  Gallic  chief  see  note  to  i.  624-625. 

''  A  town  in  Umbria,  whose  inhabitants  were  called 

"  So  called  because  the  capture  of  Rome  in  390  b.c.  was 
effected  by  that  tribe. 

^  The  names  of  the  common  soldiers  were  no  doubt  in- 
vented by  Silius.  He  gives  the  name  of  Tyrrhenus  to  a 
trumpeter,  because  this  epithet  is  often  applied  to  the  trumpet 

PUNICA,  IV.  149-174 

K:  of  Romans,  and  blocking  the  way  with  their  giant 
B  bodies.  Crixus  himself,  proud  of  his  ancestry, 
S  claimed  descent  from  Brennus,**  and  the  taking  of  the 
«^  Capitol  was  one  of  his  titles  to  fame.  Poor  fool  !  he 
displayed  on  his  shield  the  Gauls  weighing  the  gold 
on  the  sacred  eminence  of  the  Tarpeian  hill.  A  golden 
collar  glittered  on  his  snow-white  neck  ;  his  garments 
were  striped  with  gold,  with  gold  his  gauntlets  were 
stiff,  and  his  helmet-crest  sparkled  with  the  same 

Their  fearful  charge  struck  and  overthrew  the  men 
of  Camerium  ^  in  the  front  rank,  and  the  Boii  rushed 
over  the  close-packed  spears  like  crowding  waves  ; 
and  the  accursed"  Senones  joined  them  and  swelled 
their  ranks  ;  and  men's  bodies,  shattered  by  the 
chests  of  the  horses,  tumble  over  all  the  plain.  The 
ground  is  drenched  ;  pools  of  blood,  from  men  and 
horses,  swallow  up  the  slippery  footprints  of  the  fight- 
ing squadron.  The  heavy  hoof  kills  outright  those 
who  are  half-dead  already  ;  and  the  horses,  as  they 
ride  round,  scatter  on  the  ground  a  hideous  dew  of 
blood,  and  the  armour  of  the  poor  vtretches  is  drenched 
with  their  own  gore.  The  first  victorious  javelin 
was  thrown  by  proud  Pelorus,  and  stained  by  the  red 
life-blood  of  young  Tyrrhenus.**  For,  while  he  blew 
his  horn,  to  stir  the  soldiers'  hearts  and  kindle  their 
courage  for  battle,  and  to  make  them  face  fresh 
wounds  by  his  music,  the  barbarian's  weapon  stuck 
fast  in  his  windpipe  and  stopped  with  a  deadly 
wound  the  hoarse  murmur  of  the  horn.  Yet  the  last 
music  that  came  from  his  dying  lips  trickled  through 
the  curved  instrument,  after  the  lips  themselves  were 

which  was  invented  by  the  Tyrrheni  (the  Greek  name  for  the 
Etruscans  or  Tuscans). 

VOL.  I  G  2  181 


Crixus  Picentem  Laurumque,  nee  eminus  ambo,    176 

sed  gladio  Laurum  ;   Picenti  rasilis  hasta, 

ripis  lecta  Padi,  letum  tulit.     avia  namque 

dum  petit  ae  laevo  meditatur  fallere  gyro, 

hasta  viri  femur  et  pariter  per  nuda  volantis 

ilia  sedit  equi  et  geminam  dedit  horrida  mortem.  180 

idem,  sanguinea  Venuli  cervice  revellens, 

sternit  praecipitem  tepido  te,  Farfare,  tele 

et  te  sub  gelido  nutritum,  Tulle,  Velino, 

egregium  Ausoniae  decus  ac  memorabile  nomen, 

si  dent  fata  moras,  aut  servent  foedera  Poeni ;       185 

turn  Remulum  atque,  olim  celeberrima  nomina  bello, 

Tiburtes  Magios  Hispellatemque  Metaurum 

et  Clanium,  dubia  meditatus  cuspide  vulnus. 

Nee  locus  est  Tyriis  belli  pugnaeve,  sed  omnem 
Celticus  implevit  campum  furor  ;  irrita  nuUi  190 

spicula  torquentur,  statque  omne  in  corpore  ferrum. 
hie  inter  trepidos  immane  Quirinius  audens, 
cui  fugere  ignotum  atque  invicta  mente  placebat 
rebus  in  adversis  exceptum  pectore  letum, 
cuspide  flammat  equum  ac  dispergit  gaesa  lacerto,  195 
si  reserare  viam  atque  ad  regem  rumpere  ferro 
detur  iter  ;  certusque  necis  petit  omnibus  ausis, 
quod  nequeat  sentire,  decus.     cadit  inguine  fosso 
Teutalus,  et  vasto  quatitur  sub  pondere  tellus. 
occumbit  Sarmens,  flavam  qui  ponere  victor  200 

caesariem  crinemque  tibi,  Gradive,  vovebat 

"  The  name  of  a  river  and  lake  in  the  Sabine  country. 
*  In  which  case  there  would  have  been  no  war. 


PUNICA,  IV.  175-201 

dumb.  Crixus  slew  Picens  and  Laurus,  but  not  both 
from  a  distance  ;  for  Laurus  fell  by  the  sword,  but 
Picens  was  slain  by  a  polished  spear,  once  cut  on 
the  banks  of  the  Po.  For,  when  Picens  tried  to  turn 
aside  and  sought  to  elude  his  foe  by  wheehng  to  the 
left,  the  terrible  spear  pierced  at  the  same  time  the 
rider's  thigh  and  the  unprotected  belly  of  the  flying 
steed,  inflicting  a  double  death.  Crixus  also  plucked 
his  weapon  from  the  gory  neck  of  Venulus  and,  while 
it  was  still  warm,  laid  low  Farfarus  with  it,  and  Tullus 
who  was  reared  near  cold  Velinus  « — a  proud  boast 
of  Italy  he  would  have  been  and  a  famous  name,  if 
the  Fates  had  granted  him  longer  Hfe  or  the  Cartha- 
ginians had  adhered  to  the  treaty.^  Next  Crixus  slew 
Remulus,  and  warriors  whose  names  were  once 
famous  in  arms — the  Magii  of  Tibur,  Metaurus  of 
Hispellum,  and  Clanius, — and  aimed  his  blow  with  a 
spear  which  doubted  whom  to  strike. 

The  Carthaginians  had  no  room  for  fighting,  because 
the  furious  Gauls  filled  all  the  field  ;  not  one  of  them 
hurled  his  weapon  in  vain  ;  every  missile  was  planted 
in  the  body  of  a  foe.  And  now  Quirinius,  to  whom 
flight  was  a  thing  unknown,  and  whose  dauntless 
heart  chose  death  with  wounds  in  front,  when  the 
battle  went  against  them,  showed  mighty  daring, 
while  those  around  him  trembled.  He  spurred  his 
horse  with  his  spear-point  and  hurled  javelins  with 
his  strong  arm,  hoping  to  clear  a  passage  and  burst 
his  way  by  the  steel  to  Crixus.  Assured  of  death,  he 
sought  with  might  and  main  the  glory  he  could  never 
hope  to  enjoy.  Teutalus,  pierced  in  the  groin,  fell 
before  him,  and  the  earth  shook  under  his  huge 
weight ;  and  Sarmens  next,  who  vowed,  if  victorious, 
to  offer  to  Mars  his  yellow  locks — the  hair  that  rivalled 



auro  certantem  et  rutilum  sub  vertice  nodum. 

sed  Parcae  intonsa  non  exaudita  voventem 

ad  manes  traxere  coma  ;  per  Candida  membra 

it  fumans  cruor,  et  tellus  perfusa  rubescit.  205 

at,  non  tardatus  iaculo  occurrente,  Ligaunus 

irruit  adversumque  viro  rotat  obvius  ensem 

et  ferit  insurgens,  humero  qua  brachia  lenti 

annectunt  nervi,  decisaque  vulnere  laeva^ 

laxatis  paulum  moribunda  pependit  habenis  ;         210 

dumque  micans  tremulo  conatu  lora  retemptat, 

flectentem  assuetos  imitatur  nescia  frenos. 

demetit  aversi  Vosegus  tum  colla,  iubaque 

suspensam  portans  galeam  atque  inclusa  perempti 

ora  viri,  patrio  divos  clamore  salutat.  215 

Dumque  ea  Gallorum  populi  dant  funera  campo, 
accitas  propere  castris  in  proelia  consul 
raptabat  turmas  primusque  ruebat  in  hostem, 
candenti  sublimis  equo.     trahit  undique  lectum 
divitis  Ausoniae  iuvenem,  Marsosque  Coramque    220 
Laurentumque  decus  iaculatoremque  Sabellum 
et  Gradivicolam  celso  de  colle  Tudertem 
indutosque  simul  gentilia  lina  Faliscos, 
quosque  sub  Herculeis  taciturno  flumine  muris 
pomifera  arva  creant  Anienicolae  Catilli,  225 

quosque  in  praegelidis  duratos  Hernica  rivis 
mittebant  saxa  et  nebulosi  rura  Casini. 
ibant  in  Martem  terrae  dominantis  alumni, 

*  laeva  Ruperti :  dextra  edd. 

"  The  knot  in  which  the  Gauls  tied  up  their  long  hair  is 
often  mentioned  by  Latin  writers. 

*  The  men  of  Tibur  (now  Tivoli)  are  meant.     Hercules  had 
a  famous  temple  there.     The  city  was  said  to  have  been 
founded  by  Catillus  and  Tiburtus,  sons  of  Amphiaraus.    The 
district  was  famous  for  its  fruit. 

PUNICA,   IV.   202-228 


M  gold — and  the  ruddy  topknot  ^  on  the  crowTi  of  his 
K  head.  But  his  vow  was  unheard,  and  the  Fates  drew 
■|  him  down  to  the  shades  below  with  his  locks  unshorn  ; 
Ir  the  steaming  blood  drenched  his  white  limbs,  and 
the  soaked  earth  turned  red.  But  now  Ligaunus, 
undeterred  by  the  javelin  that  met  him,  rushed  on 
and  whirled  his  sword  full  in  face  of  Quirinius,  rising 
to  his  full  height  as  he  struck  ;  and  the  left  arm, 
where  the  tough  muscles  attach  the  Hmb  to  the 
shoulder,  was  cut  off  by  the  blow  ;  for  a  space  it  hung 
dying  over  the  slackened  reins,  and  the  quivering 
hand,  while  it  felt  again  with  feeble  effort  for  the 
bridle,  imitated  unwittingly  the  familiar  gesture  of 
the  horseman.  Then  Vosegus  cut  off  his  head  from 
behind,  and  carried  off  the  helmet  hanging  by  its 
plume  with  the  dead  man's  head  inside  it,  and  hailed 
his  gods  with  the  war-cry  of  his  nation. 

While  the  Gallic  tribes  dealt  death  thus  over  the 
field,  the  consul  summoned  his  troops  in  hot  haste 
from  their  camp,  and  charged  foremost  against  the 
foe,  borne  aloft  on  his  white  steed.  Behind  him  came 
the  soldiers,  chosen  from  every  part  of  fertile  Italy — 
Marsians  and  men  of  Cora,  the  pride  of  Laurentum 
and  the  Sabine  throwers  of  javelins,  the  hill-dwellers 
of  Tuder  who  worship  Mars,  and  with  them  the  men 
of  Falerii  who  wear  the  flaxen  stuff  of  their  country  ; 
the  men  who  were  bred  by  the  orchards  of  Catillus, 
dwellers  by  the  Anio,  where  the  stream  runs  silent 
under  the  walls  of  Hercules  ^  ;  and  the  men  sent  forth 
by  the  misty  fields  of  Casinum  and  by  the  Hernician 
rocks,  where  the  people  are  made  hardy  by  their  icy 
streams.  Thus  the  children  of  the  ruling  land  '^  went 
forth  to  battle  ;  but  heaven  had  condemned  them, 
«  Italy. 



damnati  superis  nee  iam  reditura  iuventus. 
Seipio,  qua  medius  pugnae  vorat  agmina  vertex,   230 
infert  cornipedem  atque,  instinctus  strage  suorum, 
inferias  caesis  mactat  Labarumque  Padumque 
et  Caunum  et  multo  vix  fusum  vulnere  Breucum 
Gorgoneoque  Larum  torquentem  lumina  vultu. 
occidis  et  tristi,  pugnax  Lepontice,  fato  ;  235 

nam  dum  frena  ferox  obiecto  corpore  prensat 
atque  aequat  celsus  residentis  consulis  ora 
ipse  pedes,  frontem  in  mediam  gravis  incidit  ensis, 
et  divisum  humeris  iacuit  caput,     at  Batus,  amens 
qui  luctatur  equo  parmaque  incursibus  obstat,       240 
ictu  quadrupedis  fulva  porrectus  harena 
elisa  incussis  amisit  calcibus  ora. 
perfurit  Ausonius  turbata  per  aequora  ductor, 
ceu  Geticus  Boreas,  totum  cum  sustulit  imo 
Icarium  fundo  victor  mare  ;  navita  vasto  245 

iactatur  sparsus,  lacerata  classe,  profundo, 
cunctaque  canenti  perfunditur  aequore  Cyclas. 
Crixus,  ut  in  tenui  spes  exiguumque  salutis, 
armat  contemptu  mentem  necis  ;  horrida  barba 
sanguinea  rutilat  spuma,  rictusque  furentis  250 

albet,  et  afFuso  squalent  a  pulvere  crines. 
invadit  Tarium,  vicino  consule  pugnas 
miscentem,  saevisque  virum  circumtonat  armis. 
volvitur  ille  solo  ;  nam  pronum  efFundit  in  armos 
fata  extrema  ferens  abies,  rapiturque  pavore  255 

tractus  equi,  vinctis  connexa  ad  cingula  membris. 

"  That  part  of  the  Aegean  Sea  into  which  Icarus  fell  was 
named  after  him. 



PUNICA,   IV.   229-256 

and  the  army  was  doomed  never  to  return.  Scipio 
urged  his  steed  to  where  the  central  whirlpool  of 
battle  was  swallowing  up  the  fighters  ;  then,  in- 
furiated by  the  carnage  of  his  men,  he  slaughtered, 
as  offerings  to  the  dead,  Labarus  and  Padus  and 
Caunus  and  Brucus,  scarcely  laid  low  with  many  a 
wound,  and  Larus,  as  he  rolled  his  eyes  with  the  stare 
of  a  Gorgon.  Cruel  too  was  the  doom  by  which  brave 
Leponticus  fell.  For  when  he  boldly  threw  himself 
in  the  consul's  way,  catching  hold  of  the  reins,  and, 
though  on  foot,  reaching  up  to  the  level  of  the 
rider's  face,  down  came  the  heavy  sword  on  the  centre 
of  his  forehead,  and  the  head,  split  in  two,  fell  upon 
the  shoulders.  Then  Batus,  while  he  fought  madly 
against  Scipio 's  horse  and  warded  off  attacks  with 
his  shield,  was  stretched  on  the  yellow  sand  by  a 
blow  from  the  steed,  and  his  face  was  crushed  out 
of  recognition  by  the  stamping  hoofs.  Thus  the 
Roman  general  raged  over  the  troubled  plain,  Uke  the 
Thracian  North-wind,  when  in  his  might  he  has  stirred 
up  from  the  bottom  the  whole  Icarian  <»  sea ;  ships 
are  wrecked,  and  seamen  scattered  and  tossed  on  the 
mighty  deep  ;  and  all  the  Cyclades  are  drenched  with 
the  foaming  flood. 

With  slender  hopes  and  little  chance  of  safety, 
Crixus  steeled  his  heart  with  contempt  of  death  :  his 
bristling  beard  was  red  with  a  bloody  foam,  foam 
flew  from  his  open  mouth  in  his  fury,  and  his  hair  was 
rough  with  a  coating  of  dust.  He  attacked  Tarius, 
who  was  fighting  beside  Scipio,  and  thundered  round 
him  with  furious  assault.  Tarius  rolled  upon  the 
ground  ;  for  the  death-dealing  spear  drove  him  for- 
ward upon  his  horse's  neck,  and  he  was  dragged  along 
by  the  frightened  beast,  with  his  feet  caught  in  the 



longa  cruor  sparse  linquit  vestigia  campo, 
et  tremulos  cuspis  ductus  in  pulvere  signat. 
laudabat  leti  iuvenem  egregiosque  parabat 
ulcisci  consul  manes,  cum  dira  per  aures  260 

vox  venit,  et  Crixum  ferri  clamoribus  audit, 
baud  notum  vultu.     surgit  violentior  ira 
comminus  atque  oculos  optato  in  corpore  figit. 
tum,  stimulans  grato  plausae  cervicis  honore, 
cornipedem  alloquitur  :    "  vulgum  Martemque  mino- 
rem  265 

mox,  Gargane  ;  vocant  super!  ad  maiora.     videsne, 
quantus  eat  Crixus  ?     iam  nunc  tibi  praemia  pono 
ilium  Sidonio  fulgentem  ardore  tapeta, 
barbaricum  decus,  et  fulvis  donabere  frenis." 
sic  fatus,  magno  Crixum  clamore  ciebat  270 

in  pugnam  ac  vacuo  poscebat  proelia  campo. 
nee  detractantem  par  ira  accenderat  hostem. 
ut  iussae  cessere  retro  spatiumque  dederunt 
hinc  atque  hinc  alae,  medio  stetit  aequore  pugna. 
quantus  Phlegraeis  Telluris  alumnus  in  arvis  275 

movit  signa  Mimas  caelumque  exterruit  armis, 
tantus  semifero  Crixus  sub  pectore  murmur 
torquet  et  horrisonis  ululatibus  erigit  iras  : 
"  nemone  incensae  captaeque  superfuit  urbi, 
ut  tibi,  quas  Brenni  populus  ferremus  in  arma,       280 
narraret,  dextras  ?     disce  en  nunc,"  inquit  et  una 
contorquet  nodis  et  obusto  robore  diram 
vel  portas  quassare  trabem.     sonat  ilia  tremendum 
ac,  nimio  iactu  servasse  improvida  campi 
distantis  spatium,  propiorem  trans volat  hostem.     285 

"  Phlegra,  afterwards  called  Pallene,  in  Macedonia  was 
the  place  where  Mimas  and  the  other  Titans  fought  against 
the  gods. 

"  See  note  to  i.  624. 

PUNICA,   IV.   257-285 

encircling  girth.  His  blood  sprinkled  the  plain  and 
left  long  traces  there  ;  and  the  spear  printed  uneven 
marks  on  the  sand.  Scipio  praised  the  young  man's 
death,  and  was  preparing  to  avenge  his  noble  spirit, 
when  a  dreadful  sound  struck  his  ear,  and  he  knew  by 
the  shouting  that  Crixus,  whose  face  he  did  not  know, 
was  coming.  His  wrath  grew  fiercer  as  they  got 
closer,  and  he  fastened  his  gaze  upon  the  coveted 
victim.  Then  encouraging  his  steed,  and  patting 
his  neck  to  please  and  honour  him,  Scipio  spoke  thus  : 
"  Garganus,  leave  till  later  the  common  herd  of  lesser 
foes  ;  the  gods  summon  us  to  greater  things.  Do  you 
see  the  mighty  Crixus  coming  ?  Even  now  I  promise  to 
reward  you  with  yonder  saddle-cloth,  glittering  with 
Tyrian  purple — an  adornment  fit  for  the  barbarian  ; 
and  I  shall  give  you  the  reins  of  gold."  Thus  Scipio 
spoke,  and  summoned  Crixus  to  battle  with  a  great 
shout,  and  demanded  an  open  space  for  the  duel. 
His  enemy,  fired  with  equal  ardour,  proved  no  lag- 
gard. When  the  squadrons  on  both  sides  fell  back  as 
they  were  bidden  and  left  a  clear  space,  the  combat- 
ants took  stand  in  the  centre  of  the  field.  Like  the  Giant 
Mimas,  the  son  of  Earth,  when  he  fought  on  the  fields 
of  Phlegra  "  and  terrified  Heaven,  so  the  gigantic 
Crixus  sent  forth  a  cry  from  his  brutish  breast  and 
roused  his  fury  with  hideous  yells.  "  When  Rome  was 
taken  and  burnt,^  was  no  survivor  left,  to  tell  you  the 
strength  of  arm  that  the  tribe  of  Brennus  showed  in 
battle  ?  Well,  learn  it  now  !  "  As  he  spoke,  he 
threw  his  spear,  whose  knotted  strength  and  fire- 
hardened  point  were  fit  to  batter  down  even  a  city 
gate.  With  a  dreadful  sound  it  flew  ;  but  it  went 
too  far,  misjudging  the  distance  to  be  crossed,  and 
the  foe  was  too  close  ;   so  it  passed  over  the  consul's 



cui  consul  :  **  ferre  haec  umbris  proavoque  memento, 

quam  procul  occumbas  Tarpeia  sede,  tibique 

baud  licitum  saeri  Capitolia  cernere  mentis." 

turn  nodo  cursuque  levi  simul  adiuvat  hast  am, 

dignum  mole  viri  nisus.     fugit  ilia  per  or  as  290 

multiplicis  lini  subtextaque  tegmina  nervis 

atque  altum  tota  metitur  cuspide  pectus. 

procumbit  lata  porrectus  in  arva  ruina, 

et  percussa  gemit  tellus  ingentibus  armis. 

baud  aliter,  structo  Tyrrhena  ad  litora  saxo,  295 

pugnatura  fretis  subter  caecisque  procellis, 

pila,  immane  sonans,  impingitur  ardua  ponto  : 

immugit  Nereus,  divisaque  caerula  pulsu 

illisum  accipiunt  irata  sub  aequora  montem. 

ductore  amisso  pedibus  se  credere  Celtae  ;  300 

una  spes  anima  tantusque  pependerat  ardor. 

ac  veluti  summo  venator  densa  Picano 

cum  lustra  exagitat  spissisque  cubilibus  atram 

immittit  passim  dumosa  per  invia  pestem — 

dum  tacitas  vires  et  flammam  colligit  ignis,  305 

nigranti  piceus  sensim  caligine  vertex 

volvitur  et  pingui  contorquet  nubila  fumo  ; 

mox  subita  in  toto  lucent  incendia  monte — 

fit  sonitus,  fugere  ferae,  fugere  volucres, 

atque  ima  longe  trepidant  in  valle  iuvencae.  310 

At  Mago,  ut  vertisse  globos  primumque  laborem, 
qui  solus  genti  est,  cassum  videt,  arma  suorum 

"  For  breastplates  made  of  linen  see  iii.  272. 
''  Silius  refers  to  the  houses  built  by  rich  Romans  on  the 
Campanian  coast :   these  often  projected  over  the  sea. 
"  A  mountain  in  Apulia. 
<*  Hannibal's  brother. 


PUNICA,   IV.   286-312 

head.  But  to  him  said  Scipio :  "  Remember  to  tell  the 
shades  below  and  Brennus,  your  ancestor,  how  far 
from  the  Tarpeian  temple  you  fell,  and  that  you  were 
not  permitted  to  behold  the  sacred  hill  of  the  Capitol." 
Then  he  added  force  to  his  spear  by  the  thong  and 
by  the  trotting  of  his  horse,  and  threw  it  with  an 
effort  worthy  of  his  huge  antagonist.  Through  the 
many  folds  of  linen  «  it  sped  and  through  the  shield 
fashioned  of  hide,  and  pierced  with  the  length  of  its 
point  his  inmost  breast.  Down  he  sank,  stretching 
far  over  the  field  in  his  overthrow,  and  the  earth 
groaned,  smitten  by  his  gigantic  armour.  Even  so, 
when  masons  build  on  the  Tuscan  shore, ^  they  hurl 
a  mass  of  stone  from  a  height  upon  the  water  with  a 
mighty  noise,  to  battle  with  the  sea  and  the  invisible 
currents  below :  the  sea  roars  ;  and  the  deep, 
parted  by  the  blow,  receives  the  huge  mass  as  it 
crashes  beneath  the  angry  water.  Deprived  of  their 
leader,  the  Gauls  had  recourse  to  flight  ;  all  their 
confidence  and  all  their  valour  depended  upon  a 
single  life.  So  the  hunter  on  the  top  of  Mount 
Picanus  '^  harries  the  haunts  of  wild  beasts,  and  all 
through  the  untrodden  thickets  spreads  fell  destruc- 
tion in  their  crowded  lairs  ;  while  the  fire  is  silently 
gathering  strength  and  flame,  the  tops  of  the  pine- 
trees  are  gradually  wrapt  in  black  darkness,  and  the 
thick  smoke  goes  eddying  to  the  sky  ;  but  soon  flames 
blaze  out  suddenly  over  the  whole  mountain  :  a 
crackling  is  heard,  the  wild  beasts  flee,  the  birds  flee, 
and  the  heifers  are  startled  in  the  lowland  valleys  far 

When  Mago  ^  saw  that  the  ranks  of  Gaul  had 
turned  back  and  that  their  first  effort  had  failed  (and 
that  people  is  incapable  of  a  second),  he  summoned 




ac  patrium  in  pugnas  equitem  vocat  :   undique  nudi 
assiliunt  frenis  infrenatique  manipli. 
nunc  Itali  in  tergum  versis  referuntur  habenis,       315 
nunc  rursus  Tyrias  retro  pavor  avehit  alas  ; 
aut  illi  dextros  lunatis  flexibus  orbes, 
aut  illi  laevos  sinuant  in  cornua  gyros  ; 
texunt  alterno  glomerata  volumina  cursu 
atque  eadem  refuga  cedentes  arte  resolvunt.  320 

hac  pontum  vice,  ubi  exercet  discordia  ventos, 
fert  Boreas  Eurusque  refert  molemque  profundi 
nunc  hue  alterno,  nunc  illuc,  flamine  gestant. 
Advolat  aurato  praefulgens  murice  ductor 
Sidonius,  circaque  Metus  Terrorque  Furorque.       325 
isque  ubi  Callaici  radiantem  tegminis  orbem 
extulit  et  magno  percussit  lumine  campos, 
spes  virtusque  cadunt,  trepidaque  a  mente  recedit 
vertere  terga  pudor  ;  nee  leti  cura  decori 
sed  fugere  infixum  est,  terraeque  optantur  hiatus.  330 
sic,  ubi  Caucaseis  tigris  se  protulit  antris, 
linquuntur  campi,  et  tutas  petit  omne  latebras 
turbatum  insano  vultu  pecus  ;  ilia  pererrat 
desertas  victrix  valles,  iamque  ora  reducto 
paulatim  nudat  rictu,  ut  praesentia  mandens  335 

corpora,  et  immani  stragem  meditatur  hiatu. 
non  ilium  Metabus,  non  ilium  celsior  Ufens 
evasere  tamen,  quamvis  hie  alite  planta, 
hie  ope  cornipedis  totis  ferretur  habenis. 
nam  Metabum  ad  manes  demisit  cuspide  fulgens   340 

«  See  note  to  i.  215  foil. 

''  Silius  seems  here  to  describe  not  a  real  battle  of  cavalry, 
but  the  Troia,  a  sham  fight  between  boys  armed  and 
mounted  :  there  is  a  full  account  of  it  in  Virgil  {Aen.  v.  545 
foil.) :  and  Silius  has  imitated  Virgil. 

"  For  Hannibal's  shield  see  ii.  395  foil. 

PUNICA,   IV.   313-340 

to  battle  his  own  men  and  the  cavalry  of  his  country. 
From  all  sides  they  rode  up,  men  who  used  bridles 
and  men  who  used  none."  At  one  time  the  Romans 
turn  their  reins  and  retreat ;  at  another,  panic  carries 
back  the  squadrons  of  Carthage  ;  either  one  force 
wheels  to  the  right  in  crescent-shaped  curves,  or  the 
other  turns  with  a  left  wheel  to  outflank  the  foe  ; 
riding  forwards  and  then  back,  they  weave  their 
massed  moving  ranks  and  then  unweave  them  in  the 
skill  of  their  retreat.*'  With  such  alternation,  when 
the  winds  are  at  variance,  the  North-wind  drives  the 
sea  one  way  and  the  East-wind  another,  and  the  two 
with  alternate  blasts  carry  the  mighty  deep  in  different 

Now  the  Carthaginian  leader  flew  to  the  spot, 
gleaming  in  purple  and  gold,  and  with  him  were  Fear 
and  Terror  and  Madness.  When  he  raised  up  the 
beamy  circle  of  his  Gallician  shield  ^  and  threw  a  great 
light  over  the  plains,  then  hope  and  courage  fled,  and 
the  shame  of  retreat  was  forgotten  by  fearful  hearts  ; 
none  cared  for  a  noble  death,  but  all  were  resolved 
to  fly  and  prayed  to  the  earth  to  swallow  them.  So, 
when  a  tigress  comes  forth  from  her  den  in  the 
Caucasus,  the  plains  are  deserted,  and  every  beast, 
terrified  by  her  furious  mien,  seeks  a  safe  hiding- 
place  ;  she  wanders  victorious  through  the  deserted 
valleys,  and  presently  draws  back  her  lips  and  slowly 
bares  her  teeth,  as  if  tearing  actual  bodies,  and  devises 
carnage  with  wide-gaping  jaws.  Metabus  could  not 
escape  Hannibal,  nor  could  Ufens  for  all  his  greater 
stature,  though  the  last  ran  with  winged  feet,  and 
the  other,  with  his  horse  to  help  him,  galloped  at 
full  speed.  For  the  spear  with  shining  point  sent 
Metabus  to  the  lower  world  ;    and  the  sword  slew 



fraxinus,  Ufentem  collapsum  poplite  caeso 
ensis  obit  laudemque  pedum  cum  sanguine  ademit. 
iamque  dedit  leto  Sthenium  Laurumque  domoque 
Collinum  gelida,  viridi  quem  Fucinus  antro 
nutrierat  dederatque  lacum  tramittere  nando.        345 
fit  socius  leti  coniecta  Massicus  hasta, 
vitiferi  sacro  generatus  vertice  montis 
et  Liris  nutritus  aquis,  qui  fronte  quieta 
dissimulat  cursum  ac,  nullo  mutabilis  imbri, 
perstringit  tacitas  gemmanti  gurgite  ripas.  350 

exoritur  rabies  caedum,  ac  vix  tela  furori 
sufficiunt ;  teritur  iunctis  umbonibus  umbo, 
pesque  pedem  premit,  et  nutantes  casside  cristae 
hostilem  tremulo  pulsant  conamine  frontem. 

Tergemini  primam  ante  aciem  sacra  proelia  fratres 
miscebant,  quos  Ledaeo  Sidonia  Barce  356 

Xanthippo  felix  uteri  inter  bella  crearat. 
res  Graiae  ductorque  parens  ac  nobile  Amyclae 
nomen  et  iniectus  Spartanis  colla  catenis 
Regulus  inflabant  veteri  praecordia  fama.  360 

Marte  probare  genus  factisque  Lacona  parentem 
ardebant  gelidosque  dehinc  invisere  montes 
Taygeta  et  tandem  bellis  innare  subactis 
Eurotan  patrium  ritusque  videre  Lycurgi. 
sed  Spartam  penetrare  deus  fratresque  negarunt  365 
Ausonii,  totidem  numero,  quos  miserat  altis 

«»  Among  the  Apennine  Hills,  in  the  country  of  the  Marsi. 

*  Mount  Massicus  in  Campania,  famous  for  its  vines. 

*  See  note  to  ii.  304.  The  "  wars  "  are  the  First  Punic 
War,  in  which  Regulus  was  taken  prisoner.  Leda  was  a 
legendary  queen  of  Sparta :  hence  Ledaean  =  Spartan. 


PUNICA,  IV.   341-366 

Ufens  when  he  fell  hamstrung  and  so  lost  his  life  and 
his  repute  for  speed  together.  Next  Hannibal  slew 
Sthenius  and  Laurus  and  Collinus,  the  son  of  a  cool 
country,  whom  Lake  Fucinus  <*  had  reared  in  its 
moss-covered  grotto  and  had  suffered  to  swim  across 
its  waters.  From  these  Massicus  was  not  divided  in 
death,  when  the  spear  struck  him — Massicus  who 
was  born  on  the  sacred  top  of  the  vine-clad  hill,^  and 
drank  the  water  of  the  Liris,  a  placid  stream  that 
conceals  its  flow,  and,  never  affected  by  rain,  brushes 
its  silent  banks  with  sparkling  wave.  And  now  began 
a  furious  slaughter,  and  the  madness  of  the  combat- 
ants could  scarce  find  weapons  ;  shield  met  and 
clashed  against  shield  ;  foot  pressed  on  foot,  and  the 
nodding  helmet-plume  waved  as  it  struck  the  enemy's 

Three  brothers,  all  of  an  age,  fought  fiercely  in  the 
first  rank.  They  were  the  sons  of  Barce,  a  Cartha- 
ginian, whom  their  fertile  mother  bore,  during  the 
wars,  to  Xanthippus,"  the  Spartan.  Their  hearts 
swelled  with  pride  for  the  past — the  victory  of  Greece 
when  their  father  led  the  host,  the  famous  name  of 
Amyclae,*^  and  the  fetters  that  the  Spartans  fastened 
upon  the  neck  of  Regulus.  They  burned  to  prove 
by  deeds  of  valour  their  descent  from  a  Laconian 
sire  ;  and  then  they  were  fain  to  visit  the  cold 
heights  of  Taygetus,  and  at  last,  when  war  was  over, 
to  swim  in  their  native  Eurotas,*  and  see  the  laws 
of  Lycurgus.  But  they  never  went  to  Sparta ;  for 
Heaven  and  three  Italian  brothers  prevented  them. 
The  three  were  of  the  same  age  and  the  same  spirit ; 

**  An  equivalent  for  Sparta. 

*  Taygetus  is  a  mountain  and  Eurotas  a  river,  both  near 


Egeriae  genitos  immitis  Aricia  lucis, 
aetatis  mentisque  pares  ;   at  non  dabat  ultra 
Clotho  dura  lacus  aramque  videre  Dianae. 
namque  ut  in  adversos,  impact!  turbine  pugnae,    370 
Eumachus  et  Critias  et  laetus  nomine  patris 
Xanthippus  iunxere  gradus,  ceu  bella  leones 
inter  se  furibunda  movent  et  murmure  anhelo 
squalentes  campos  ac  longa  mapalia  complent — 
omnis  in  occultas  rupes  atque  avia  pernix  375 

Maurus  saxa  fugit,  coniuxque  Libyssa  profuso, 
vagitum  cohibens,  suspendit  ab  ubere  natos  ; 
illi  dira  fremunt,  perfractaque  in  ore  cruento 
ossa  sonant,  pugnantque  feris  sub  dentibus  artus — 
baud  secus  Egeriae  pubes,  hinc  Virbius  acer,  380 

bine  Capys,  assiliunt  paribusque  Albanus  in  armis. 
subsidens  paulum  perfossa  proruit  alvo 
Albanum  Critias  (ast  illi  cuncta  repente 
implerunt  clipeum  miserando  viscera  lapsu), 
Eumachus  inde  Capyn  ;  sed  tota  mole  tenebat      385 
ceu  fixum  membris  tegimen  ;  tamen  improbus  ensis 
annexam  parmae  decidit  vulnere  laevam, 
inque  suo  pressa  est  non  reddens  tegmina  nisu 
infelix  manus  atque  haesit  labentibus  armis. 
ultima  restabat  fusis  iam  palma  duobus  390 

Virbius.     huic  trepidos  simulanti  ducere  gressus 
Xanthippus  gladio,  rigida  cadit  Eumachus  hasta, 
et  tandem  aequatae  geminato  funere  pugnae. 
inde  alterna  viris  transegit  pectora  mucro, 
inque  vicem  erepta  posuerunt  proelia  vita.  395 

"  The  spring  of  the  nymph  Egeria  was  near  Aricia  ;   and 
here  were  the  grove  and  temple  of  Diana,  where  the  priest 
obtained  his  office  by  killing  his  predecessor :    hence  the 
epithet  "  ruthless." 

PUNICA,   IV.   367-395 

they  were  bred  in  the  tall  groves  of  Egeria,  and 
ruthless  Aricia  °  sent  them  forth  ;  but  stern  Fate 
suffered  them  not  to  look  again  on  Diana's  lake  ^  and 
temple.  For  Eumachus  and  Critias,  with  Xanthippus, 
proud  to  bear  his  father's  name,  were  swept  on  by  the 
tide  of  battle,  and  confronted  the  Romans.  Even  so, 
when  lions  fight  one  another  with  fury  and  fill  the 
desert  plains  and  distant  huts  with  their  hoarse  roar- 
ing, every  Moor  hastens  to  remote  rocks  and  un- 
trodden crags,  and  the  African  mother  raises  her 
babes  to  her  streaming  breast,  to  still  their  cries  ; 
the  beasts  roar  terribly,  the  broken  bones  crack  in 
their  blood-stained  jaws,  and  the  limbs  ^  still  fight  on, 
in  the  grip  of  the  cruel  teeth.  Even  so  Egeria's  sons, 
brave  Virbius  and  Capys  and  their  comrade  Albanus, 
sprang  forward.  Critias,  crouching  down  a  moment, 
stabbed  Albanus  in  the  belly  and  overthrew  him  ;  and 
at  once  his  bowels  all  gushed  out  and  filled  his  shield 
— a  piteous  sight.  Next  Eumachus  attacked  Capys  ; 
and  though  he  clutched  his  shield  with  all  his  strength 
as  though  it  were  fastened  to  his  body,  yet  a  cruel 
sword-cut  lopped  off  the  left  arm  as  it  clung  to  the 
shield  ;  and  the  luckless  hand,  refusing  to  surrender 
the  buckler,  still  kept  its  grip  and  clung  to  the  armour 
as  it  fell.  Two  were  now  slain,  and  Virbius  alone  was 
left  to  conquer.  He,  while  shamming  flight,  slew 
Xanthippus  with  his  sword  and  Eumachus  with  his 
unbending  spear.  So  at  last,  when  these  two  were 
slain,  the  combat  was  on  equal  terms.  Then  each 
ran  his  sword  through  the  other's  breast,  and  they 
ended  the  combat  by  mutual  slaughter.     Fortunate 

*  The  Lake  of  Nemi. 

"  These  must  be  the  limbs  of  the  lion,  still  fighting  while 
being:  eaten  ;  but  the  phrase  is  strange. 


felices  leti,  pietas  quos  addidit  umbris  ! 
optabunt  similes  venientia  saecula  fratres, 
aeternumque  decus  memori  celebrabitur  aevo, 
si  modo  ferre  diem  serosque  videre  nepotes 
carmina  nostra  valent,  nee  famam  invidit  Apollo.  400 

At  consul  toto  palantes  aequore  turmas 
voce  tenet,  dum  voce  viget :   "  quo  signa  refertis  ? 
quis  vos  heu  vobis  pavor  abstulit  ?    horrida  primi 
si  sors  visa  loci  pugnaeque  lacessere  frontem, 
post  me  state,  viri,  et  pulsa  formidine  tantum        405 
aspicite  !     has  dextras  capti  genuere  parentes. 
quo  fugitis  ?     quae  spes  victis  ?     Alpesne  petemus  ? 
ipsam  turrigero  portantem  vertice  muros 
credite  summissas  Romam  nunc  tendere  palmas. 
natorum  passim  raptus  caedemque  parentum         410 
Vestalesque  focos  extingui  sanguine  cerno. 
hoc  arcete  nefas  !  "     postquam  inter  talia  crebro 
clamore  obtusae  crassoque  a  pulvere  fauces, 
hinc  laeva  frenos,  hinc  dextra  corripit  arma 
et  latum  obiectat  pectus  strictumque  minatur        415 
nunc  sibi,  nunc  trepidis,  ni  restent,  comminus  ensem. 

Quas  acies  alto  genitor  dum  spectat  Olympo, 
consulis  egregii  movere  pericula  mentem. 
Gradivum  vocat  et  patrio  sic  ore  profatur  : 
**  magnanimi,  me  nate,  viri,  ni  bella  capessis,         420 
haud  dubie  extremus  terret  labor  ;   eripe  pugnae 
ardentem  oblitumque  sui  dulcedine  caedum. 

"  He  means  that  the  Carthaginians  had  been  conquered 
in  the  First  Punic  War,  a  generation  ago. 

''  Personifications  of  cities  often  wear  this  kind  of  crown. 
"  He  threatened  to  commit  suicide  if  they  disgraced  him. 


PUNICA,   IV.   396-422 

in  death  were  they,  whom  love  of  kin  and  country 
sent  down  to  join  the  dead !  Coming  ages  will  pray 
for  brethren  like  them,  and  their  undying  fame  shall 
be  for  ever  remembered,  if  only  my  verse  has  power 
to  endure  and  see  a  distant  posterity,  and  if  Apollo 
has  not  begrudged  me  fame. 

When  the  ranks  were  straggling  over  all  the  plain, 
Scipio's  voice  (while  his  voice  lasted)  stopped  them  : 
"  Whither  do  you  carry  back  your  standards  ?  What 
panic  has  robbed  you  of  yourselves  ?  If  it  seemed  a 
dreadful  thing  to  stand  in  the  front  rank  and  challenge 
the  van  of  the  foe,  then  take  your  stand  behind  me, 
soldiers,  dismiss  your  fears,  and  merely  look  on  ! 
Yonder  warriors  are  the  sons  of  our  prisoners.*^ 
Whither  do  you  fly  ?  What  hope  have  you,  if  defeated? 
Shall  we  make  for  the  Alps  ?  Believe  that  Rome  in 
person,  with  her  walls  and  her  head  crowned  with 
towers ,**  is  now  stretching  out  her  hands  in  supplica- 
tion. I  see  all  our  children  carried  captive,  our 
parents  slain,  and  the  fires  of  Vesta  quenched  witli 
blood.  Keep  this  sacrilege  far  away  !  "  Thus  he 
shouted  again  and  again,  till  the  effort  and  the  thick 
dust  choked  his  voice  ;  then  he  seized  his  reins  with 
the  left  hand  and  his  sword  with  the  right,  and  ex- 
posed his  broad  breast  to  the  foe,  threatening  to  use 
his  bare  blade  at  once,  now  against  himself"  and  now 
against  the  fugitives,  if  they  refused  to  stand. 

When  the  Father  of  Heaven  beheld  this  battle 
from  the  height  of  Olympus,  his  heart  was  moved  by 
the  danger  of  the  noble  consul.  He  summoned  Mars 
and  spoke  thus  to  his  son  :  "  Son,  unless  thou  takest 
part  in  the  strife,  this  will  surely  be  the  last  fight  of 
yonder  hero  ;  and  I  fear  for  him.  Snatch  him  away 
from  the  battle  ;    so    fiery   is   he,    and    he   forgets 



siste  ducem  Libyae  ;  nam  plus  petit  improbus  uno 
consulis  exitio,  tota  quam  strage  cadentum. 
praeterea,  cernis,  tenerae  qui  proelia  dextrae         425 
iam  credit  puer  atque  annos  transcendere  factis 
molitur  longumque  putat  pubescere  bello, 
te  duce  primitias  pugnae,  te  magna  magistro 
audeat,  et  primum  hoc  vincat,  servasse  parentem." 

Haec  rerum  sator.     at  Mavors  in  proelia  currus  430 
Odrysia  tellure  vocat  ;  tum  fulminis  atri 
spargentem  flammas  clipeum  galeamque  deorum 
baud  ulli  facilem  multoque  labore  Cyclopum 
sudatum  thoraca  capit  quassatque  per  auras 
Titanum  bello  satiatam  sanguinis  hastam  435 

atque  implet  curru  campos.     exercitus  una 
Irarum  Eumenidesque  simul  letique  cruenti 
innumerae  facies,  frenisque  operata  regendis 
quadriiugos  atro  stimulat  Bellona  flagello. 
fertur  ab  immenso  tempestas  horrida  caelo  440 

nigrantesque  globos  et  turbida  nubila  torquens 
involvit  terras  ;   quatitur  Saturnia  sedes 
ingressu  tremefacta  dei  ;  ripasque  relinquit, 
audito  curru,  fontique  relabitur  amnis. 

Ductorem  Ausonium  telis  Garamantica  pubes    445 
cinxerat  et  Tyrio  regi  nova  dona  parabat, 
armorum  spolium  ac  rorantia  consulis  ora. 
stabat  Fortunae  non  cedere  certus  et  acri 
mole  retorquebat,  crudescens  caedibus,  hastas, 

"  The  consul's  son,  P.  Cornelius  Scipio,  the  elder  Africanus. 

^  Thrace. 

*  The  vast  size  of  the  chariot  is  implied, 

^  Italy  :   see  note  to  i.  70. 


PUNICA,   IV.  423-449 

himself  in  the  joy  of  slaughter.  Stop  Hannibal ;  for 
the  insatiate  African  hopes  more  from  the  death 
of  Scipio  than  from  all  the  heaps  of  slain.  Thou 
seest,  moreover,  that  boy  "  who  already  relies  on  his 
youthful  arm  for  battle,  and  aims  at  prowess  beyond 
his  years,  and  thinks  that  ripeness  for  war  is  slow  to 
come.  Thou  must  be  his  leader  when  he  wins  his 
maiden  spurs  ;  thou  must  teach  him  to  aspire  to  great 
deeds  ;  and  let  his  first  victory  be  the  rescue  of  his 

Thus  spoke  the  Father  of  all  things.  And  straight- 
way Mars  summoned  his  chariot  from  the  land  of  the 
Odrysae.^  Then  he  took  the  shield  that  scatters 
flames  of  terrible  lightning  ;  he  put  on  the  helmet 
too  heavy  for  any  other  of  the  gods  to  wear,  and  the 
breastplate  which  cost  the  Cyclopes  who  wrought  it 
much  sweat ;  he  brandished  aloft  the  spear  that  had 
its  fill  of  blood  in  the  war  with  the  Titans  ;  and  he 
filled  the  fields  with  his  chariot.''  With  him  went 
his  train — Wrath  accompanied  by  the  Furies,  and 
countless  forms  of  bloody  death  ;  and  Bellona,  busy 
\\'ith  the  reins,  urged  on  the  four  coursers  with  her 
fatal  scourge.  A  fearful  storm  burst  from  the  bound- 
less sky  and  shrouded  the  earth,  driving  dark  masses 
of  stormy  cloud.  The  land  of  Saturn  ^  trembled  and 
shook  at  the  approach  of  the  god  ;  and  the  Ticinus  left 
its  banks  at  the  sound  of  the  chariot  and  flowed  back- 
wards to  its  source. 

The  Garamantian  spearmen  had  made  a  ring  round 
the  Roman  general ;  they  sought  to  give  Hannibal 
what  he  had  never  got  before — the  dripping  head  of 
a  consul,  and  his  armour  as  booty.  Scipio  stood  firm, 
resolved  never  to  yield  to  Fortune  ;  made  fiercer 
by  slaughter,  he  hurled  back  spear  for  spear  with 



iamque  suo,  iamque  hostili  perfusa  cruore  450 

membra  madent,  cecidere  iubae,  gyroque  per  orbem 
artato,  Garamas  iaculis  propioribus  instat 
et  librat  saeva  f  coniectum|^  cuspide  ferrum. 
Hie  puer  ut  patrio  defixum  corpore  telum 
conspexit,  maduere  genae,  subitoque  trementem  455 
corripuit  pallor,  gemitumque  ad  sidera  rupit. 
bis  conatus  erat  praecurrere  fata  parentis, 
conversa  in  semet  dextra  ;  bis  transtulit  iras 
in  Poenos  Mavors.     fertur  per  tela,  per  hostes 
intrepidus  puer  et  Gradivum  passibus  aequat.        460 
continue  cessere  globi,  latusque  repente 
apparet  campo  limes,     metit  agmina  tectus 
caelesti  clipeo  et  sternit  super  arma  iacentum 
corporaque  auctorem  teli  multasque  paternos 
ante  oculos  animas,  optata  piacula,  mactat.  465 

tunc,  rapta  propere  duris  ex  ossibus  hasta, 
innixum  cervice  ferens  humeroque  parentem, 
emicat.     attonitae  tanta  ad  spectacula  turmae 
tela  tenent,  ceditque  loco  Libys  asper,  et  omnis 
late  cedit  Hiber  ;  pietasque  insignis  et  aetas  470 

belligeris  fecit  miranda  silentia  campis. 
tum  celso  e  curru  Mavors  :   "  Carthaginis  arces 
exscindes,"  inquit,  "  Tyriosque  ad  foedera  coges. 
nulla  tamen  longo  tanta  exorietur  in  aevo 
lux  tibi,  care  puer :  macte,  o  macte  indole  sacra,  475 
vera  lovis  proles  !     et  adhuc  maiora  supersunt ; 
sed  nequeunt  meliora  dari."     tum  nubila  Mavors 

^  The  word  obelized  seems  to  he  corrupt. 

"  For  Scipio's  parentage  see  xiii.  634  foil. 

^  It  is  doubtful  whether  Scipio  was  really  saved  by  his 
son :     Livy   preserves    a    contemporary    tradition,    that   a 
ligurian  slave  was  the  rescuer. 

PUNICA,    IV.   450-477 

vehement  effort.  By  now  his  Hmbs  were  drenched 
with  his  own  blood  and  the  enemy's  ;  the  plume  fell 
from  his  helmet ;  the  Garamantes,  drawing  a  closer 
circle  round  him,  pressed  nearer  with  their  weapons  ; 
and  one  launched  a  dart  that  pierced  him  with  its 
cruel  point. 

When  the  boy  saw  the  weapon  lodged  in  his 
father's  body,  tears  wetted  his  cheeks,  he  trembled 
and  turned  pale  in  a  moment,  and  his  loud  cry  went 
up  to  heaven.  Twice  he  sought  to  lay  violent  hands 
on  himself  and  die  before  his  father  ;  but  twice  Mars 
turned  his  fury  against  the  Carthaginians  instead. 
Boldly  the  boy  rushed  on  through  missiles  and  through 
enemies,  keeping  pace  with  Mars  himself.  At  once 
the  ranks  gave  way,  and  a  wide  passage  was  seen 
suddenly  upon  the  plain.  Protected  by  the  god's 
shield,  he  mowed  down  the  host  ;  over  the  armour 
and  bodies  of  the  slain  he  laid  low  the  thrower  of 
the  dart,  and  many  a  life — the  atoning  sacrifice  he 
longed  for — does  he  immolate  before  his  father's  eyes. 
Then  in  haste  he  drew  the  spear  from  the  tough  bone, 
and  sped  away,  bearing  his  father  supported  on  his 
neck  and  shoulders.  Amazed  at  such  a  sight,  the 
soldiers  lowered  their  weapons  ;  every  fierce  Libyan 
and  every  Spaniard  everywhere  gave  ground  :  his 
youth  and  his  noble  defence  of  his  father  brought 
about  a  wondrous  silence  on  the  field  of  battle. 
Then  Mars  spoke  from  his  lofty  car  :  "  Thou  shalt 
sack  the  citadel  of  Carthage,  and  force  her  people  to 
make  peace.  But  the  glory  of  this  day  surpasses  all 
that  a  long  life  will  offer  thee,  dear  boy.  Blessings 
on  thy  glorious  promise,  true  child  of  Jupiter  °  ! 
Greater  things  are  yet  to  come,  but  a  better  gift 
Heaven  cannot  give."  ^    The  sun  had  now  completed 



aetheraque,  emenso  terras  iam  sole,  capessit ; 
et  fessas  acies  castris  clausere  tenebrae. 

Condebat  noctem  devexo  Cynthia  curru  480 

fraternis  afflata  rotis,  et  ab  aequore  Eoo 
surgebant  roseae  media  inter  caerula  flamrnae. 
at  consul,  tristes  campos  Poenisque  secundam 
planitiem  metuens,  Trebiam  collesque  petebat. 
iamque  dies  rapti  cursu  navoque  labore,  485 

et  medio  abruptus  fluitabat  in  amne  solutis 
pons  vinclis,  qui  Dardanium  travexerat  agmen, 
Eridani  rapidas  aderat  cum  Poenus  ad  undas. 
dumque  vada  et  molles  aditus  per  devia  flexo 
circuitu  petit  et  stagni  languentia  quaerit,  490 

interdum  rapta  vicinis  saltibus  alno 
flumineam  texit,  qua  travehat  agmina,  classem  : 
ecce  aderat  Trebiaeque  simul  vicina  tenebat, 
Trinacrio  accitus  per  caerula  longa  Peloro, 
Gracchorum  proles,  consul,     gens  inclita  magno    495 
atque  animosa  viro,  multusque  in  imagine  claris 
praefulgebat  avus  titulis  bellique  domique. 

Nee  Poeni,  positis  trans  amnem  in  gramine  castris, 
deerant ;     namque    animos    stimulabant    prospera 

increpitansque  super  ductor  :   "  quis  tertius  urbi   500 
iam  superest  consul  ?     quaenam  altera  restat  in  armis 
Sicania  ?     en  omnes  Latiae  Daunique  nepotum 

<»  The  moon  :   her  "  brother  "  is  the  sun. 

*  The  Carthaginian  cavahy  was  especially  formidable. 
TheTrebia  is  an  Apennine  tributary  of  the  Po. 

<=  The  other  consul  in  this  year  (218  b.c),  Ti.  Sem- 
pronius  Longus.  The  Gracchi  also  belonged  to  the  Sem- 
pronian  gens. 

^  The  consul  had  just  brought  reinforcements  from  Sicily  ; 


PUNICA,   IV.   478-502 

his  journey  over  the  earth,  and  Mars  betook  himself 
to  the  clouds  and  the  sky  ;  and  darkness  confined 
the  weary  armies  to  their  camps. 

Cynthia  °  with  downward  course  was  ending  the 
night,  while  her  brother's  coursers  breathed  fire  upon 
her ;  and  from  the  eastern  wave  roseate  lights  ascended 
amid  the  blue  of  heaven.  Then  Scipio,  fearing  the 
fatal  plain  and  the  level  ground  so  favourable  to  the 
Carthaginians,^  made  for  the  Trebia  and  the  hills. 
The  days  flew  by,  as  they  marched  and  toiled  busily  ; 
and,  when  Hannibal  reached  the  swift  stream  of  the 
Po,  the  bridge  by  which  the  Roman  army  had  crossed 
was  broken  down  and  floating  in  midstream,  with 
its  cables  cut.  While  Hannibal  marched  round  by 
devious  paths,  seeking  a  ford  and  an  easy  approach 
and  a  peaceful  stretch  of  the  river,  meantime  he 
felled  with  speed  the  trees  that  grew  hard  by,  and 
built  barges,  to  take  his  army  across  the  stream.  And 
now,  behold  !  a  consul,  a  scion  of  the  Gracchi,"  arrived 
and  encamped  near  his  colleague  beside  the  Trebia. 
In  answer  to  a  summons  he  had  made  the  long  voyage 
from  Pelorus  in  Sicily.  The  family  of  this  great  man 
was  famous  for  its  high  spirit  ;  and,  among  the  busts 
of  his  ancestors,  many  were  conspicuous  for  dis- 
tinctions won  both  in  war  and  peace. 

The  Carthaginians,  after  pitching  their  camp  in 
the  fields  across  the  river,  were  not  backward  either. 
For  they  were  encouraged  by  success  and  by  their 
leader,  who  taunted  the  Romans  thus  :  "  Has  Rome 
yet  a  third  consul  in  reserve,  or  a  second  Sicily  <^ 
to  fight  her  battles  ?  No  !  all  the  fighting  men  of 
Latium  and  all  the  descendants  of  Daunus  are  here 

and  Hannibal  assumes  that  no  further  help  can  come  from 

VOL.  I  H  205 


convenere  manus.     feriant  nunc  foedera  mecum 

ductores  Italum  ac  leges  et  pacta  reposcant. 

at  tu,  donata  tela  inter  Martia  luce,  505 

infelix  animae,  sic,  sic  vivasque  tuoque 

des  iterum  hanc  laudem  nato  ;  nee  fine  sub  aevi 

oppetere  in  bello  detur,  cum  fata  vocabunt. 

pugnantem    cecidisse    meum    est."    haec    personat 

inde  levl  iaculo  Massylumque  impiger  alis  610 

castra  sub  ipsa  datis  irritat  et  elicit  hostem. 

Nee  Latius  vallo  miles  debere  salutem 
fas  putat,  aut  clausas  pulsari  cuspide  portas. 
erumpunt,  cunctisque  prior  volat  aggere  aperto 
degener  baud  Gracchis  consul,    quatit  aura  comantes 
cassidis  Auruncae  cristas,  humeroque  refulget        516 
sanguinei  patrium  saguli  decus.     agmina  magno 
respectans  clamore  vocat,  quaque  obvia  densos 
artat  turba  globos,  rumpens  iter  aequore  fertur. 
ut  torrens  celsi  praeceps  e  vertice  Pindi  520 

cum  sonitu  ruit  in  campos  magnoque  fragore 
avulsum  montis  volvit  latus  ;  obvia  passim 
armenta  immanesque  ferae  silvaeque  trahuntur  ; 
spumea  saxosis  clamat  convallibus  unda. 

Non,  mihi  Maeoniae  redeat  si  gloria  linguae,      525 
centenasque  pater  det  Phoebus  fundere  voces, 
tot  caedes  proferre  queam,  quot  dextera  magni 
consulis,  aut  contra  Tyriae  furor  edidit  irae. 

<*  Scipio. 

''  "  Auruncan  "  seems  to  mean  "  Roman  "  or  "  Italian." 
The  Aurunci  were  an  ancient  people  of  Campania. 

"  A  mountain  in  Thrace. 

•*"  Maeonian  "  =  "  Homeric  "  :  Maeonia  is  an  ancient 
name  of  Lydia,  one  of  the  countries  which  claimed  to  be 
Homer's  birthplace :  Maeonides,  a  common  name  for 
Homer  in  all  Latin  poetry,  is  used  by  Milton  also. 

PUNICA,  IV.   503-528 

assembled.  Now  let  the  Roman  leaders  make  a 
treaty  with  me  ;  now  let  them  insist  upon  their 
contracts  and  covenants  !  And  you,"  whose  life  was 
spared  in  the  battle,  life  that  was  no  boon,  so,  so  may 
you  live  on  and  again  confer  this  glory  on  your  son  ! 
When  life  ends  and  Fate  summons  you,  may  death 
in  battle  be  denied  you !  To  fall  fighting  belongs 
to  Hannibal."  Thus  he  cried  in  his  fury.  Then, 
impatient  of  delay,  he  sent  hght-armed  Massylian 
squadrons  to  the  verge  of  the  Roman  camp,  to  pro- 
voke the  foe  and  draw  him  forth. 

The  Roman  soldiers  too  were  ashamed  to  owe  their 
safety  to  their  stockade,  or  to  let  the  spears  strike 
against  the  closed  gates  of  the  camp.  They  sallied 
forth  ;  and,  when  the  rampart  was  levelled,  the  consul, 
worthy  descendant  of  the  Gracchi,  rushed  out  before 
them  all.  The  wind  blew  out  the  horse-hair  plume 
of  his  Auruncan  ^  helmet,  and  the  scarlet  cloak  that 
had  graced  his  ancestors  was  conspicuous  on  his 
shoulder.  Looking  back  on  the  ranks,  he  summoned 
them  with  a  loud  voice  ;  and  wherever  a  mass  of  foe- 
men  in  close  formation  met  him,  he  burst  his  way 
through  and  sped  along  the  plain.  Even  so  a  roaring 
torrent  falls  headlong  from  the  summit  of  Pindus  '^  to 
the  plain  ;  with  a  mighty  noise  it  tears  away  a  side 
of  the  mountain  and  rolls  it  down  ;  all  the  cattle  in 
its  path,  the  wild  beasts,  and  the  forests,  are  swept 
along  ;  and  the  foaming  waters  are  loud  in  the  rocky 

Even  if  I  could  reproduce  the  glorious  voice  of 
Homer,^  and  if  Father  Phoebus  granted  me  to  speak 
with  a  hundred  tongues,  I  could  not  set  forth  all  the 
victims  slain  by  the  arm  of  the  great  consul  or  by  the 
furious  rage  of  his  Carthaginian  opponent.    Murranus 



Murranum  ductor  Libyae,  ductorque  Phalantum 
Ausonius,  gnaros  belli  veteresque  laborum,  630 

alter  in  alterius  fuderunt  comminus  ore. 
monte  procelloso  Murranum  miserat  Anxur, 
Tritonis  niveo  te  sacra,  Phalante,  profundo. 
ut  primum  insigni  fulsit  velamine  consul, 
quamquam  orbus  partem  visus  unoque  Cupencus  535 
lumine  sufficiens  bellis,  citat  improbus  hastam 
et  summae  figit  tremebundam  margine  parmae. 
cui   consul,   namque   ira  coquit  :     "  pone,   improbe, 

restat  in  ore  fero  et  truncata  front e  relucet." 
sic  ait,  intorquens  derecto  turbine  robur,  640 

et  dirum  tota  tramittit  cuspide  lumen, 
nee  levior  dextra  generatus  Hamilcare  saevit ; 
huic  cadit  infelix  niveis  Varenus  in  armis, 
Mevanas  Varenus,  arat  cui  divitis  uber 
campi  Fulginia,  et  patulis  Clitumnus  in  arvis  645 

candentes  gelido  perfundit  flumine  tauros. 
sed  tristes  superi,  atque  ingrata  maxima  cura 
victima  Tarpeio  frustra  nutrita  Tonanti. 
instat  Hiber  levis  et  levior  discurrere  Maurus. 
hinc  pila,  hinc  Libycae  certant  subtexere  cornus    660 
densa  nube  polum  ;   quantumque  interiacet  aequi 
ad  ripas  campi,  tantum  vibrantia  condunt 
tela  ;  nee  artatis  locus  est  in  morte  cadendi. 
Allius,  Argyripa  Daunique  profectus  ab  arvis 

<*  Also  called  Tarracina,  a  city  built  on  a  hill  in  the 
Volscian  country. 

*  See  note  to  iii.  322. 

"  Hannibal. 

^  Mevania,  a  town  in  Umbria,  stands  on  the  river  Clitum- 
nus, whose  water  was  supposed  to  turn  white  the  cattle  that 


PUNICA,  IV.  629-554 

and  Phalantus  were  hardy  veterans  both  ;  but  Hanni- 
bal slew  the  first  in  close  combat  and  Gracchus  the 
second,  each  general  fighting  in  full  view  of  his  rival. 
Murranus  came  from  the  wind-swept  height  of 
Anxur,«and  Phalantus  from  the  stainless  waters  of  the 
sacred  lake,  Tritonis.*  Cupencus  had  lost  an  eye,  but 
found  the  other  enough  to  fight  with  ;  and,  when  he 
sighted  Gracchus,  conspicuous  in  the  garb  of  his 
rank,  he  boldly  hurled  his  spear,  and  planted  it  quiver- 
ing in  the  topmost  rim  of  the  consul's  shield.  Boil- 
ing with  rage,  Gracchus  cried  to  him  :  "  Rash  man, 
leave  here  the  sight  that  still  remains  in  that  fierce 
face  and  gleams  from  that  mutilated  brow."  With 
these  words  he  threw  his  spear  with  a  strong  straight 
cast,  and  the  whole  point  passed  through  the  threat- 
ening eye.  Nor  was  the  son  of  Hamilcar  '^  less  for- 
midable in  the  fray  :  he  slew  luckless  Varenus  who 
wore  white  armour  and  came  from  Mevania  ;  for  him 
fertile  Fulginia  ploughed  her  rich  soil,  where  the 
Clitumnus,  flowing  through  the  spreading  fields, 
bathes  the  white  bulls  in  its  cool  stream. '^  But  Heaven 
was  cruel,  and  Varenus  got  no  recompense  for  the 
stately  victim  he  had  bred  up  with  fruitless  care  for 
the  Thunderer  of  the  Capitol.  The  Spaniards  were 
nimble  in  attack,  and  the  Moors  yet  more  nimble 
in  their  movements.  Roman  javelins  and  African 
spears  vied  in  covering  the  sky  with  a  thick  cloud, 
and  all  the  level  ground,  as  far  as  the  river-banks,  was 
hidden  by  the  hurtling  missiles  ;  and  in  that  close- 
})acked  throng  the  dead  had  no  room  to  fall. 

The  hunter  Allius  had  come  from  Argyripa  *  in  the 

drank  of  it ;    and   one  of  these  white   bulls  was  regularly 
sacrificed  in  the  course  of  a  Roman  "  triumph." 
«  Also  called  Arpi,  a  city  in  Apulia. 


venator,  rudibus  iaculis  et  lapyge  campum  555 

persultabat  equo,  mediosque  invectus  in  hostes, 
Apula  non  vana  torquebat  spicula  dextra. 
huic  horret  thorax  Samnitis  pellibus  ursae, 
et  galea  annosi  vallatur  dentibus  apri. 
verum  ubi  turbantem,  solo  ceu  lustra  pererret        560 
in  nemore  aut  agitet  Gargano  terga  ferarum, 
hinc  Mago,  hinc  saevus  pariter  videre  Maharbal, 
ut  subigente  fame  diversis  rupibus  ursi 
invadunt  trepidum  gemina  inter  proelia  taurum, 
nee  partem  praedae  patitur  furor — baud  secus  acer 
hinc  atque  hinc  iaculo  devolvitur  Allius  acto.  566 

it  stridens  per  utrumque  latus  Maurusia  taxus  ; 
obvia  tum  medio  sonuerunt  spicula  corde, 
incertumque  fuit,  letum  cui  cederet  hastae. 
et  iam,  dispersis  Romana  per  agmina  signis,  570 

palantes  agit  ad  ripas,  miserabile,  Poenus 
impellens  trepidos  fluvioque  immergere  certat. 

Tum  Trebia  infausto  nova  proelia  gurgite  fessis 
inchoat  ac  precibus  lunonis  suscitat  undas. 
haurit  subsidens  fugientum  corpora  tellus  575 

infidaque  soli  frustrata  voragine  sorbet, 
nee  niti  lentoque  datur  convellere  limo 
mersa  pedum  penitus  vestigia  ;  labe  tenaci 
haerent  devincti  gressus,  resolutaque  ripa 
implicat  aut  caeca  prosternit  fraude  paludis.  5S0 

iamque  alius  super  atque  alius  per  lubrica  surgens. 

"  The  high  wooded  promontory  that  runs  out  from  Apulia 
into  the  Adriatic. 


PUNICA,   IV.   555-581 

land  of  Daimus,  and  now  rode  over  the  plain  ;  his 
horse  was  of  Apulian  breed  and  his  weapons  rude  ; 
yet  he  charged  the  centre  of  the  enemy  and  threw 
his  native  darts  with  no  erring  aim.  His  breastplate 
was  the  bristly  hide  of  a  Samnite  bear,  and  his  helmet 
was  protected  by  tusks  taken  from  an  aged  wild  boar. 
He  fought  as  if  he  were  straying  through  the  coverts 
in  some  lonely  wood,  or  pursuing  flying  beasts  on 
Mount  Garganus  °  ;  but  when  Mago  and  fierce 
Maharbal,  each  from  his  own  place,  sighted  him  at 
the  same  moment,  then,  as  two  bears,  driven  by 
hunger,  come  down  from  opposite  cliffs,  to  fall  upon 
a  bull  affrighted  by  his  two  antagonists,  and  their 
rage  will  not  suffer  them  to  divide  the  spoil — even  so 
brave  Allius  was  overthrown  by  the  javelins  that 
came  from  both  his  foes.  The  Moorish  yew-wood 
passed  hissing  through  both  his  sides  ;  the  points 
met  and  clashed  in  the  centre  of  his  heart ;  and  it  was 
doubtful  which  of  the  two  spears  could  claim  his  death. 
By  now  the  Roman  standards  were  scattered  over 
the  battle-field ;  and  Hannibal  drove  the  frightened 
stragglers  towards  the  bank — O  pitiful  sight  ! — push- 
ing them  on  and  striving  to  drown  them  in  the  river. 
Then,  obedient  to  Juno's  petition,  the  Trebia,  that 
river  of  ill  omen,  began  a  fresh  assault  upon  the  weary 
Romans,  and  roused  up  its  waters.  The  bank  fell  in 
and  swallowed  up  the  bodies  of  the  fugitives,  and 
sucked  them  in  by  the  treacherous  quagmire  of  the 
soil.  Nor  could  they  move  on  and  extract  their  feet 
from  the  deep  and  sticky  mud.  For  the  clinging  mire 
held  them  prisoners  ;  the  crumbling  bank  entangled 
them,  or  the  swampy  ground  trapped  them  without 
warning  and  overthrew  them.  One  after  another 
they  struggled  up  the  slippery  sides,  each  trying  to 



dum  sibi  quisque  viam  per  inextricabile  litus 

praeripit  et  putri  luctatur  caespite,  lapsi 

occumbunt  seseque  sua  pressere  ruina. 

ille,  celer  nandi,  iamiamque  apprendere  tuta  585 

dum  parat  et  celso  connisus  corpore  prensat 

gramina  summa  manu  liquidisque  emergit  ab  undis, 

contorta  ripae  pendens  affigitur  hasta. 

hie  hostem,  orbatus  telo,  complectitur  ulnis 

luctantemque  vado  permixta  morte  coercet.  590 

mille  simul  leti  facies.     Ligus  occidit  arvis  ; 

sed  proiecta  viri  lymphis  fluvialibus  ora 

sanguineum  hauserunt  longis  singultibus  amnem. 

enabat  tandem  medio  vix  gurgite  pulcher 

Irpinus  sociumque  manus  clamore  vocabat,  595 

cum  rapidis  illatus  aquis  et  vulnere  multo 

impulit  asper  equus  fessumque  sub  aequora  mersit. 

Accumulat  clades  subito  conspecta  p»r  undas 
vis  elephantorum  turrito  concita  dorso. 
namque  vadis  rapitur  praeceps,  ceu  proruta  cautes  600 
avulsi  mentis,  Trebiamque  insueta  timent-em 
prae  se  pectore  agit  spumantique  incubat  alveo. 
explorant  adversa  viros,  perque  aspera  duro 
nititur  ad  laudem  virtus  interrita  clivo. 
namque  inhonoratam  Fibrenus  perdere  mortem     605 
et  famae  nudam  impatiens  :   "  spectabimur,"  inquit, 
"  nee,  Fortuna,  meum  condes  sub  gurgite  letum. 
experiar,  sitne  in  terris,  domitare  quod  ensis 
non  queat  Ausonius,  Tyrrhenave  permeet  hasta.'* 

**  A  striking  instance  of  the  way  in  which  Silius  uses 
epithets :   English  seems  to  require  that  both  "  Ausonian  '* 
and  "  Tuscan  "  should  here  be  rendered  by  "  Roman." 

PUNICA,   IV.   582-609 

outstrip  the  rest  along  the  pathless  bank,  and  battling 
with  the  crumbling  turf;  but  they  slipped  and  fell, 
buried  under  the  rubbish  that  fell  with  them.  One 
of  them,  a  speedy  swimmer,  struggled  for  a  safe 
hand-hold  and  forced  his  way  upward,  to  grasp  the 
turf  at  the  top  ;  but,  just  as  he  emerged  from  the 
water,  a  spear  was  hurled  and  pinned  him  to  the 
bank  to  which  he  was  clinging.  Another,  having  no 
weapon  left,  clasped  a  foe  in  his  arms  and  held  him 
fast  as  he  tried  to  swim,  till  they  were  drowned  to- 
gether. Death  showed  itself  in  a  thousand  shapes. 
Though  Ligus  fell  on  land,  his  head  hung  over  the 
river  and  drank  in  the  blood-stained  water  with  long 
sobbing  gasps.  After  much  effort  comely  Irpinus  had 
almost  swum  ashore  from  mid-stream  ;  he  was  shout- 
ing to  his  comrades  for  a  helping  hand,  when  a  horse, 
infuriated  by  wounds,  was  carried  down  by  the  swift 
current  and  struck  him  down  and  submerged  the 
weary  swimmer. 

The  crowning  disaster  came  suddenly  in  sight, 
when  a  troop  of  elephants,  with  towers  upon  their 
backs,  were  driven  into  the  river.  For  they  rushed 
headlong  through  the  water,  like  a  cliff  falling  down 
from  a  shattered  mountain.  They  drove  the  Trebia, 
dreading  dangers  unknown  till  now,  before  them  with 
their  forequarters,  and  lay  down  above  the  foaming 
channel.  Manhood  is  tested  by  trial,  and  valour 
climbs  unterrified  the  rocky  path  and  difficult  ascent 
that  leads  to  glory.  So  Fibrenus  disdained  to  die  to 
no  purpose,  unhonoured  and  unsung.  "  The  eyes  of 
men  shall  behold  me,"  he  cried,  "  and  Fortune  shall 
not  hide  my  death  beneath  the  flood.  I  shall  find 
out  whether  there  is  aught  on  earth  which  a  Roman 
sword  cannot  master  or  a  Roman  spear"  cannot 
VOL.  I  H  2  21S 


turn  iacit  assurgens  dextroque  in  lumine  sistit        610 
spicula  saeva  ferae  telumque  in  vulnere  linquit. 
stridore  horrisono  penetrantem  cuspidis  ictum 
belua  prosequitur  laceramque  cruore  profuso 
attollit  frontem  ac  lapso  dat  terga  magistro. 
turn  vero  invadunt  iaculis  crebraque  sagitta,  615 

ausi  iam  sperare  necem,  immensosque  per  armos 
et  laterum  extensus  venit  atra  cuspide  vulnus  ; 
Stat  multa  in  tergo  et  nigranti  lancea  dorso, 
ac  silvam  ingentem,  concusso  corpore,  vibrat, 
donee,  consumptis  longo  certamine  telis,  620 

concidit  et  clausit  magna  vada  pressa  ruina. 

Ecce  per  adversum,  quamquam  tardata  morantur 
vulnere  membra  virum,  subit  implacabilis  amnem 
Scipio  et  innumeris  infestat  caedibus  hostem. 
corporibus  clipeisque  simul  galeisque  cadentum     625     | 
contegitur  Trebia,  et  vix  cernere  linquitur  undas. 
Mazaeus  iaculo,  Gestar  prosternitur  ense  ; 
tum  Pelopeus  avis  Cyrenes  incola  Thelgon. 
huic  torquet  rapido  correptum  e  gurgite  pilum 
et,  quantum  longo  ferri  tenuata  rigor e  630 

procedit  cuspis,  per  hiantia  transigit  ora. 
pulsati  ligno  sonuere  in  vulnere  dentes. 
nee  leto  quaesita  quies  :   turgentia  membra 
Eridano  Trebia,  Eridanus  dedit  aequoris  undis. 
tu  quoque,  Thapse,  cadis,  tumulo  post  fata  negato.  635 

PUNICA,   IV.   610-635 

pierce."  Rising  to  his  full  height  he  threw  his  cruel 
shaft  and  planted  it  in  the  right  eye  of  one  great 
beast ;  and  the  weapon  remained  in  the  wound. 
When  the  point  of  the  spear  went  in,  the  monster 
met  it  with  a  hideous  trumpeting ;  then  it  raised  its 
wounded  and  bleeding  head,  threw  its  rider,  and 
turned  in  flight.  But  now  the  Romans,  daring  at 
last  to  hope  that  they  might  kill  it,  assailed  it  with 
darts  and  showers  of  arrows.  Soon  the  vast  expanse 
of  its  shoulders  and  sides  was  covered  with  wounds 
from  the  cruel  steel ;  many  a  lance  stuck  in  its  dusky 
back  and  rump  ;  and,  when  it  shook  itself,  the  huge 
forest  of  missiles  waved.  At  last,  when  the  long 
contest  had  used  up  all  their  weapons,  it  fell,  and  the 
huge  carcass  blocked  the  stream  beneath  it. 

But  see  !  Scipio  appears  on  the  opposite  bank. 
Though  his  limbs,  hampered  by  his  wound,  cannot 
move  freely,  yet  he  enters  the  river,  and  ruthlessly 
deals  out  death  to  countless  foes.  The  Trebia  was 
covered  over  with  close-packed  bodies,  and  shields 
and  helmets  of  the  fallen,  till  it  was  scarce 
possible  to  see  the  water.  He  overthrew  Mazaeus 
with  a  javelin  and  Gestar  with  his  sword,  and  next 
Thelgon,  a  native  of  Cyrene  whose  ancestors  came 
from  the  Peloponnese.<*  At  him  Scipio  hurled  a 
javelin  which  he  had  caught  up  from  the  running 
stream,  and  drove  the  whole  length  of  the  tapering 
iron  point  through  his  open  mouth  ;  and  the  shaft 
made  the  teeth  rattle  in  the  wound.  Nor  did  death 
bring  him  peace  ;  for  the  Trebia  carried  the  swollen 
corpse  to  the  Po,  and  the  Po  to  the  sea.  Thapsus 
also  fell,  and  a  grave  was  denied  to  him  after  death. 

•  See  note  to  ill.  252. 



quid  domus  Hesperidum  aut  luci  iuvere  dearum, 
fulvos  aurifera  servantes  arbore  ramos  ? 

Intumuit  Trebia  et  stagnis  se  sustulit  imis 
iamque  ferox  totum  propellit  gurgite  fontem 
atque  omnes  torquet  vires  ;  furit  unda  sonoris        640 
verticibus,  sequiturque  novus  cum  murmure  torrens. 
sensit  et  accensa  ductor  violentius  ira  : 
**  magnas,  o  Trebia,  et  meritas  mihi,  perfide,  poenas 
exsolves,"  inquit  :   "  lacerum  per  Gallica  rivis 
dispergam  rura  atque  amnis  tibi  nomina  demam  ;  645 
quoque  aperis  te  fonte,  premam  ;   nee  tangere  ripas 
illabique  Pado  dabitur.     quaenam  ista  repente 
Sidonium,  infelix,  rabies  te  reddidit  amnem  ?  " 

Talia  iactantem  consurgens  agger  aquarum 
impulit  atque  humeros  curvato  gurgite  pressit.       650 
arduus  adversa  mole  incurrentibus  undis 
stat  ductor  clipeoque  ruentem  sustulit  amnem. 
necnon  a  tergo  fluctus  stridente  procella 
spumeus  irrorat  summas  aspergine  cristas, 
ire  vadis  stabilemque  vetat  defigere  gressum  655 

subducta  tellure  deus  ;  percussaque  longe 
raucum  saxa  sonant  ;   undaeque  ad  bella  parentis 
excitae  pugnant,  et  ripas  perdidit  amnis. 
tum  madidos  crines  et  glauca  fronde  revinctum 
attollit  cum  voce  caput  :  "  poenasne  superbas        660 
insuper  et  nomen  Trebiae  delere  minaris, 

<»  Thapsus  came  from  the  far  West,  where  the  Hesperides 
guarded  the  Golden  Apples  :   see  ill.  285. 

"  The  Trebia,  being  an  Italian  river,  was  treacherous  when 
it  helped  the  Carthaginians. 

"  To  the  modern  reader  this  personification  of  a  river 
seems  strange.  But  Silius  is  here  imitating  Homer,  in  whose 
poem  the  river  Scamander  finds  a  voice  and  reproaches 
Achilles  in  just  the  same  terms  as  the  Trebia  uses  here  {Iliad 
xxi.  214  foil.). 

PUNICA,   IV.   636-661 

What  availed  him  the  home  of  the  Hesperides,  or  the 
grove  where  the  goddesses  guard  the  ruddy  branches 
of  their  gold-bearing  tree  ?  " 

And  now  the  Trebia  swelled  high,  and  rose  from  its 
lowest  depths,  driving  all  its  waters  fiercely  forward, 
and  exerting  all  its  might ;  the  stream  raged  with 
noisy  eddies,  and  a  fresh  flood  came  roaring  after. 
When  Scipio  felt  this,  his  rage  grew  fiercer,  and  he 
"  cried  :  "  O  Trebia,  you  shall  suffer  as  you  deserve, 
and  pay  dearly  for  your  treachery  ^  :  I  shall  divide 
your  stream  and  make  it  flow  in  separate  channels 
through  the  land  of  Gaul  ;  and  I  shall  rob  you  of  the 
name  of  river,  and  stop  the  spring  from  which  you 
rise  ;  and  never  shall  you  be  able  to  reach  the  banks 
of  the  Po  and  flow  into  its  stream.  What  sudden 
madness  has  turned  you,  wretched  Trebia,  into  a 
Carthaginian  river  ?  " 

As  Scipio  hurled  these  taunts,  the  rising  wall  of 
water  smote  him  and  weighed  down  his  shoulders 
with  its  arching  flood.  The  general,  standing  erect, 
matched  his  strength  against  the  onset  of  the  waves, 
and  held  up  the  rushing  river  with  his  shield.  But 
behind  him  also  the  foaming  flood  with  roaring  blast 
bedewed  with  its  spray  the  topmost  plume  of  his 
helmet.  The  river-god,  withdrawing  the  soil  from 
beneath  his  feet,  prevented  him  from  wading  through 
the  water  and  finding  firm  footing  ;  the  boulders 
were  smitten  and  sent  afar  a  hollow  sound ;  the  waves, 
called  forth  to  battle  by  their  sire,  joined  the  fray ; 
and  the  banks  of  the  river  were  lost  to  sight.  Then 
the  river-god  raised  his  dripping  locks  and  his  head 
crowned  with  blue-green  weed,  and  spoke  thus  '^  : 
"  Arrogant  man  and  enemy  of  my  realm,  do  you 
threaten  to  punish  me  further  and  to  wipe  out  my 



o  regnis  inimice  meis  ?     quot  corpora  porto 
dextra  fusa  tua  !     clipeis  galeisque  virorum, 
quos  mactas,  artatus  iter  cursumque  reliqui. 
caede,  vides,  stagna  alta  rubent  retroque  feruntur.  665 
addemodumdextraeaut  campis  incumbe  propinquis.* 
Haec,  Venere  adiuncta,  tumulo  spectabat  ab  alto 
Mulciber,  obscurae  tectus  caligine  nubis. 
ingravat  ad  caelum  sublatis  Scipio  palmis  : 
"  di  patrii,  quorum  auspiciis  stat  Dardana  Roma,   670 
talin  me  leto  tanta  inter  proelia  nuper 
servastis  ?     fortine  animam  banc  exscindere  dextra 
indignum  est  visum  ?     redde  o  me,  nate,  periclis, 
redde  hosti  !     liceat  bellanti  accersere  mortem, 
quam  patriae  fratrique  probem."     tum  percita  dictis 
ingemuit  Venus  et  rapidas  direxit  in  amnem  676 

coniugis  invicti  vires,     agit  undique  flammas 
dispersus  ripis  ignis  multosque  per  annos 
nutritas  fluvio  populatur  fervidus  umbras, 
uritur  omne  nemus,  lucosque  efFusus  in  altos  680 

immissis  crepitat  victor  Vulcanus  habenis. 
iamque  ambus ta  comas  abies,  iam  pinus  et  alni ; 
iam,  solo  restans  trunco,  dimisit  in  altum 
populus  assuetas  ramis  habitare  volucres. 
flamma  vorax  imo  penitus  de  gurgite  tractos  685 

absorbet  latices,  saevoque  urgente  vapore 
siccus  inarescit  ripis  cruor.     horrida  late 
scinditur  in  rimas  et  hiatu  rupta  dehiscit 
tellus,  ac  stagnis  altae  sedere  favillae. 

<•  He  regrets  that  his  son  had  saved  his  life. 

*  Gnaeus  Scipio,  consul  in  222  b.c,  who  was  now  fighting 
with  success  in  Spain. 

"  Vulcan,  the  fire-god. 

PUNICA,  IV.   662-689 

name  ?  How  many  corpses  I  carry,  slain  by  your 
arm  !  So  packed  am  I  with  the  shields  and  helmets 
of  your  victims  that  I  have  left  my  proper  channel ; 
you  see  how  my  deep  pools,  red  with  carnage,  are 
flowing  backwards.  Put  a  limit  to  your  deeds  of 
arms,  or  else  attack  the  plains  hard  by." 

Vulcan  was  looking  on  meanwhile  from  a  high 
hill,  hidden  in  the  darkness  of  a  black  cloud,  with 
Venus  at  his  side.  Then  Scipio  raised  his  hands  to 
heaven  with  a  bitter  cry  :  "  Ye  gods  of  our  country, 
by  whose  favour  Dardan  Rome  is  preserved,  did  ye 
save  my  life  just  now  in  the  fierce  battle  for  such  a 
death  as  this  ?  Did  I  seem  unworthy  to  end  my  life 
by  a  soldier's  arm  ?  Give  me  back,  my  son,  to  danger, 
give  me  back  to  the  foe  !  *  Suffer  me  to  fight  and 
to  welcome  such  a  death  as  my  country  and  my 
brother  ^  would  approve."  Then  Venus  groaned, 
moved  by  his  prayer,  and  turned  against  the  river 
the  devouring  strength  of  her  invincible  consort." 
Fire  spread  and  burned  all  over  the  banks  and  fiercely 
devoured  the  trees  that  the  river  had  nourished  for 
many  a  year.  All  the  copses  were  burnt  up,  and  the 
victorious  flame  crackled  as  it  spread  in  full  career  to 
the  high  groves.  Soon  the  foliage  of  the  fir-tree  was 
seared,  and  the  leaves  of  pine  and  alder  ;  soon 
nothing  was  left  of  the  poplar  but  the  trunk,  and 
the  tree  sent  off  into  the  sky  the  birds  that  were 
wont  to  nest  on  its  branches.  The  devouring  flame 
sucked  the  moisture  from  the  very  bottom  of  the 
stream  and  licked  it  up  ;  and  the  blood  upon  the 
banks  was  dried  up  and  caked  by  the  fierce  heat. 
The  rugged  earth  everywhere  split  up  and  cracked, 
showing  yawning  chasms  ;  and  ashes  settled  in  heaps 
in  the  bed  of  the  river. 



Miratur  pater  aeternos  cessare  repente  690 

Eridanus  cursus  ;   Nympharumque  intima  maestus 
implevit  chorus  attonitis  ululatibus  antra, 
ter  caput  ambustum  conantem  attollere  iacta 
lampade  Vulcanus  mersit  fumantibus  undis, 
ter  correpta  dei  crines  nudavit  harundo.  695 

turn  demum  admissae  voces  et  vota  precantis, 
orantique  datum  ripas  servare  priores. 
ac  tandem  a  Trebia  revocavit  Scipio  fessas 
munitum  in  collem,  Graccho  comitante,  cohortes. 
at  Poenus,  multo  fluvium  veneratus  honore,  700 

gramineas  undis  statuit  socialibus  aras, 
nescius  heu,  quanto  superi  maiora  moverent, 
et  quos  Ausoniae  luctus,  Thrasymenne,  parares. 

Boiorum  nuper  populos  turbaverat  armis 
Flaminius,  facilisque  viro  tum  gloria  belli,  705 

corde  levem  atque  astus  inopem  contundere  gentem. 
sed  labor  baud  idem  Tyrio  certasse  tyranno. 
hunc,  laevis  urbi  genitum  ad  fat  alia  damna 
ominibus,  parat  imperio  Saturnia  fesso 
ductorem  dignumque  virum  veniente  ruina.  710 

inde  ubi  prima  dies  iuris,  clavumque  regendae 
invasit  patriae,  ac  sub  nutu  castra  fuere, 
ut  pelagi  rudis  et  pontum  tractare  per  artem 
nescius,  accepit  miserae  si  iura  carinae, 
ventorum  tenet  ipse  vicem  cunctisque  procellis      715 
dat  iactare  ratem  :  fertur  vaga  gurgite  puppis, 
ipsius  in  scopulos  dextra  impellente  magistri. 
ergo  agitur  raptis  praeceps  exercitus  armis 

"  The  Po,  like  all  other  rivers  and  lakes,  had  Nymphs  of 
its  own. 

"  The  Trebia. 

*  C.  Flaminius,  a  popular  leader,  had  been  consul  in 
223  B.C.  and  now  held  the  office  again  in  214  :  in  his  first 

PUNICA,   IV.   690-718 

Father  Eridanus  marvelled  when  his  immemorial 
stream  suddenly  ceased  to  flow  ;  and  the  sorrowing 
company  of  Nymphs  "  filled  their  inmost  caves  with 
anguished  cries.  Thrice  he  strove  to  lift  up  his 
scorched  head,  and  thrice  Vulcan  threw  a  firebrand 
which  sent  him  down  below  the  steaming  water  ;  and 
thrice  the  reeds  caught  fire  and  left  the  god's  head 
bare.  At  last  the  voice  of  his  petition  was  heard, 
and  his  prayer  was  granted — that  he  might  keep  his 
former  banks.  And  at  length  Scipio,  accompanied 
by  Gracchus,  recalled  his  weary  troops  from  the 
Trebia  to  a  fortified  height.  But  Hannibal  paid  high 
honour  to  the  river,^  and  raised  altars  of  turf  to 
the  friendly  stream.  He  knew  not,  alas  !  the  much 
greater  boon  that  Heaven  intended  for  him,  or  the 
mourning  that  Lake  Trasimene  had  in  store  for  Italy. 

The  tribe  of  the  Boii  had  formerly  been  attacked  by 
an  army  under  Flaminius  "  ;  and  then  he  had  gained 
an  easy  triumph  and  crushed  a  fickle  and  guileless 
people  ;  but  to  fight  the  Carthaginian  general  was 
a  far  different  task.  Flaminius  was  born  in  an  evil 
hour  to  inflict  fatal  loss  upon  Rome  ;  and  Juno  now 
chose  him  as  ruler  of  an  exhausted  nation  and  a  fit 
instrument  of  coming  destruction.  When  his  first 
day  of  office  came,  he  seized  the  helm  of  the  state 
and  commanded  the  armies.  So,  if  a  mere  landsman, 
with  no  skill  to  manage  the  sea,  has  got  the  command 
of  a  luckless  vessel,  he  himself  does  the  work  of  foul 
weather,  and  exposes  the  ship  to  be  tossed  by  every 
gale  ;  she  drifts  at  random  over  the  sea,  and  the  hand 
of  her  own  captain  drives  her  upon  the  rocks.  So 
the  army  was  equipped  in  haste  and  led  toward  the 

consulship  he  had  fought  with  success  against  the  Gauls  in 
N.  Italy,  the  Boii  and  Insubres. 



Lydorum  in  populos  sedemque  ab  origine  prisci 
sacratam  Corythi  iunctosque  a  sanguine  avorum    720 
Maeonios  Italis  permixta  stirpe  colonos. 

Nee  regem  Afrorum  noscenda  ad  coepta  moratur 
laude  super  tanta  monitor  deus.     omnia  somni 
condiderant  aegrisque  dabant  oblivia  curis, 
cum  luno,  in  stagni  numen  conversa  propinqui       725 
et  madidae  frontis  crines  circumdata  fronde 
populea,  stimulat  subitis  praecordia  curis 
ac  rumpit  ducis  baud  spernenda  voce  quietem  : 
"  o  felix  famae  et  Latio  lacrimabile  nomen 
Hannibal,  Ausoniae  si  te  Fortuna  creasset,  730 

ad  magnos  venture  deos  !   cur  fata  tenemus  ? 
pelle  moras  :  brevis  est  magni  Fortuna  favoris. 
quantum  vovisti,  cum  Dardana  bella  parenti 
iurares,  fluet  Ausonio  tibi  corpore  tantum 
sanguinis,  et  patrias  satiabis  caedibus  umbras.        735 
nobis  persolves  meritos  securus  honores. 
namque   ego   sum,   celsis   quem   cinctum   montibus 

Tmolo  missa  manus,  stagnis  Thrasymennus  opacis." 

His  agitur  monitis  et  lactam  numine  pubem 
protinus  aerii  praeceps  rapit  aggere  montis.  740 

horrebat  glacie  saxa  inter  lubrica  summo 
piniferum  caelo  miscens  caput  Apenninus. 
condiderat  nix  alt  a  trabes,  et  vertice  celso 

"  The  "  Lydians  "  are  the  Etruscans,  who  came  originally 
from  Asia  and  settled  in  N.  Italy :  Maeonia  is  the  older 
name  of  Lydia.  Cortona,  a  city  of  Etruria  near  Lake 
Trasimene,  was  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Corythus,  a 
son  of  Paris  and  Oenone :  the  city  is  called  "  sacred,'* 
because  Corythus  was  worshipped  there  as  a  "  hero." 

**  Trasimene. 

"  A  mountain  in  Lydia. 

•*  To  reach  the  fertile  country  of  Etruria,  Hannibal  had  to 

PUNICA,   IV.   719-743 

land  of  the  Lydians,  where  stands  the  sacred  city 
founded  of  old  by  Cory  thus,  and  where  Maeonian 
settlers  had  mixed  their  blood  with  that  of  Italians 
in  ancient  times. ** 

A  warning  from  heaven  came  quickly  to  Hannibal, 
that  he  might  learn  the  consul's  design  and  win  great 
glory.  Sleep  had  lulled  all  things  to  rest  and  brought 
to  men  forgetfulness  of  trouble,  when  Juno,  counter- 
feiting the  deity  of  the  neighbouring  lake,^  appeared 
before  him,  the  hair  on  the  dripping  brow  crowned 
with  poplar  leaves.  She  stirred  the  general's  heart 
with  sudden  anxiety,  and  broke  his  sleep  with  a  voice 
he  could  not  disregard.  '  *  Hannibal — a  glorious  name, 
though  a  cause  of  tears  to  Latium — had  Fortune 
made  you  a  Roman,  you  would  have  joined  the  ranks 
of  the  high  gods.  But  why  do  we  arrest  the  course  of 
destiny  ?  Make  haste  !  The  flood-tide  of  Fortune 
soon  ebbs.  Those  rivers  of  blood  that  you  vowed, 
when  you  swore  to  your  father  enmity  against  Rome, 
shall  flow  now  from  the  veins  of  Italy,  and  you  shall 
glut  your  father's  ghost  with  carnage.  When  your 
troubles  are  over,  you  must  pay  me  the  honour  that 
is  my  due.  For  I  am  the  lake  surrounded  by  lofty 
mountains,  round  which  dwell  the  settlers  from 
Tmolus  ^  ;  I  am  Trasimene,  the  lake  of  shady  waters." 

Hannibal  was  encouraged  by  this  prediction,  and 
the  soldiers  rejoiced  in  the  divine  aid.  At  once  he 
led  them  at  speed  over  the  barrier  of  lofty  mountains.** 
The  Apennines  were  frozen  hard  and  lifted  their  pine- 
clad  summits  to  heaven  between  slippery  cliffs.  The 
forests  were  buried  deep  in  snow,  and  the  hoary  peaks 

cross  the  Apennines,  in  severe  winter  weather.  He  lost  the 
sight  of  one  eye  from  ophthalmia ;  and  all  but  one  of  his 
elephants  died. 



canus  apex  structa  surgebat  ad  astra  pruina. 

ire  iubet  :  prior  extingui  labique  videtur  745 

gloria,  post  Alpes  si  stetur  montibus  ullis. 

scandunt  praerupti  nimbosa  cacumina  saxi, 

nee  superasse  iugum  finit  mulcetve  laborem. 

plana  natant,  putrique  gelu  liquentibus  undis 

invia  limosa  restagnant  arva  palude.  750 

iamque  ducis  nudus  tanta  inter  inhospita  vertex 

saevitia  quatitur  caeli,  manante  per  ora 

perque  genas  oculo.     facilis  sprevisse  medentes, 

optatum  bene  credit  emi  quocumque  periclo 

bellandi  tempus.     non  frontis  parcit  honori,  755 

dum  ne  perdat  iter  ;     non  cetera  membra  moratur 

in  pretium  belli  dare,  si  victoria  poscat ; 

satque  putat  lucis,  Capitolia  cernere  victor 

qua  petat  atque  Italum  feriat  qua  comminus  hostem. 

talia  perpessi  tandem  inter  saeva  locorum  760 

optatos  venere  lacus,  ubi  deinde  per  arma 

sumeret  amissi  numerosa  piacula  visus. 

Ecce  autem  patres  aderant  Carthagine  missi ; 
causa  viae  non  parva  viris,  nee  laeta  ferebant. 
mos  fuit  in  populis,  quos  condidit  advena  Dido,     765 
poscere  caede  deos  veniam  ac  flagrantibus  aris, 
infandum  dictu  !  parvos  imponere  natos. 
urna  reducebat  miserandos  annua  casus, 
sacra  Thoanteae  ritusque  imitata  Dianae. 
cui  fato  sortique  deum  de  more  petebat  770 

<•  That  the  Phoenicians  and  their  descendants  offered 
human  sacrifices  to  their  gods  appears  certain  from  modern 
excavations:  a  Carthaginian  goddess,  in  whose  honour 
children  were  burnt,  was  Tanith;  and  Moloch  was  honoured 
in  the  same  horrid  fashion. 

*  Thoas  was  king  of  Tauris  (now  the  Crimea) :   Diana  (or 
Artemis)  had  a  temple  there  where  human  sacrifices  were 


PUNICA,   IV.   744-770 

climbed  high  into  the  sky  over  snow-drifts.  He  bade 
them  march  on.  He  thought  his  past  glory  tarnished 
and  lost,  if  any  mountains  barred  his  way  after  he 
had  crossed  the  Alps.  They  clambered  up  the  storm- 
swept  heights  and  rocky  precipices  ;  but  even  when 
the  mountains  v/ere  crossed,  there  was  no  end  and  no 
alleviation  of  their  toil.  The  plains  were  flooded,  the 
rivers  swollen  with  melted  snow,  and  the  pathless 
fields  covered  with  a  slimy  morass.  And  amid  such 
inhosp  table  surroundings,  Hannibal's  uncovered  head 
felt  the  bufFetings  of  this  savage  clime,  and  from  his  eye 
a  discharge  flowed  over  face  and  cheeks.  Physicians 
he  laughed  to  scorn.  He  thought  no  danger  too  high 
a  price  to  pay  for  the  coveted  opportunity  for  war. 
For  the  beauty  of  his  brow  he  cared  nothing,  provided 
that  his  march  was  not  in  vain  ;  if  victory  demanded 
it,  he  was  willing  to  sacrifice  every  limb  for  the  sake 
of  war  ;  it  seemed  to  him  that  he  had  sight  enough,  if 
he  could  see  his  victorious  path  to  the  Capitol,  and 
a  way  to  strike  home  at  his  foe.  Such  were  their 
sufferings  in  that  unkind  region  ;  but  they  came  at 
last  to  the  lake  they  longed  to  see — the  place  where 
Hannibal  was  to  find  on  the  field  of  battle  many  a 
victim  in  atonement  for  his  lost  sight. 

But  behold  !  senators  came  as  envoys  from  Car- 
thage ;  they  had  good  reason  for  their  voyage,  and 
they  bore  heavy  tidings.  The  nation  which  Dido 
founded  when  she  landed  in  Libya  were  accustomed 
to  appease  the  gods  by  human  sacrifices  °  and  to  offer 
up  their  young  children — horrible  to  tell — upon  fiery 
altars.  Each  year  the  lot  was  cast  and  the  tragedy 
was  repeated,  recalling  the  sacrifices  offered  to  Diana 
in  the  kingdom  of  Thoas.^  And  now  Hanno,  the 
ancient  enemy  of  Hannibal,  demanded  the  general's 



Hannibalis  prolem  discors  antiquitus  Hannon. 

sed  propior  metus  armati  ductoris  ab  ira 

et  magna  ante  oculos  stabat  genitoris  imago. 

Asperat  haec,  foedata  genas  lacerataque  crines, 
atque  urbem  complet  maesti  clamoris  Imilce,         775 
Edonis  ut  Pangaea  super  trieteride  mota 
it  iuga  et  inclusum  suspirat  pectore  Bacchum. 
ergo  inter  Tyrias,  facibus  ceu  subdita,  matres 
clamat  :  "  io  coniux,  quocumque  in  cardine  mundi 
bella  moves,  hue  signa  refer,     violentior  hie  est,    780 
hie  hostis  propior.     tu  nunc  fortasse  sub  ipsis 
urbis  Dardaniae  muris  vibrantia  tela 
excipis  intrepidus  clipeo  saevamque  coruscans 
lampada  Tarpeis  infers  incendia  tectis. 
interea  tibi  prima  domus  atque  unica  proles  785 

heu  gremio  in  patriae  Stygias  raptatur  ad  aras  ! 
i  nunc,  Ausonios  ferro  populare  penates 
et  vetitas  molire  vias  ;  i,  pacta  resigna, 
per  cunctos  iurata  deos  !     sic  praemia  reddit 
Carthago  et  tales  iam  nunc  tibi  solvit  honores  !      790 
quae  porro  haec  pietas,  delubra  aspergere  tabo  ? 
heu  primae  scelerum  causae  mortalibus  aegris, 
naturam  nescire  deum  !     iusta  ite  precari 
ture  pio  caedumque  feros  avertite  ritus. 
mite  et  cognatum  est  homini  deus.     hactenus,  oro, 
sit  satis  ante  aras  caesos  vidisse  iuvencos  ;  796 

aut  si  velle  nefas  superos  fixumque  sedetque, 

<•  Hannibal's  wife. 

^  The  festival  of  Bacchus  recurred  at  an  interval  of  three 
years.     Pangaeus  is  a  mountain  in  Thrace. 

"  The  crossing  of  the  Alps  is  meant. 

PUNICA,   IV.   771-797 

son,  as  the  customary  victim  to  suffer  this  doom 
according  to  the  lot ;  but  the  thought  of  the  armed 
general's  wrath  struck  home  to  men's  hearts,  and  the 
image  of  the  boy's  father  stood  formidable  before 
their  eyes. 

Their  fear  was  heightened  by  Imilee,"  who  tore 
her  cheeks  and  hair  and  filled  the  city  with  woeful 
cries.  As  a  Bacchant  in  Thrace,  maddened  by  the 
recurring  festival,''  speeds  over  the  heights  of  Mount 
Pangaeus  and  breathes  forth  the  wine-god  who  dwells 
in  her  breast,  so  Imilce,  as  if  set  on  fire,  cried 
aloud  among  the  women  of  Carthage  :  "  O  husband, 
hearken  !  whatever  the  region  of  the  world  where  you 
are  fighting  now,  bring  your  army  hither ;  here  is  a 
foe  more  furious  and  more  pressing.  Perhaps  at  this 
moment  you  stand  beneath  the  walls  of  Rome  itself, 
parrying  the  hurtling  missiles  with  dauntless  shield ; 
perhaps  you  are  brandishing  a  dreadful  torch  and 
setting  fire  to  the  Tarpeian  temple.  Meanwhile  your 
first-born  and  only  son  is  seized,  alas,  in  the  heart 
of  his  native  country,  for  a  hellish  sacrifice.  What 
boots  it  to  ravage  the  homes  of  Italy  with  the  sword, 
to  march  by  ways  forbidden  to  man,*'  and  to  break  the 
treaty  which  every  god  was  called  to  witness  ?  Such 
is  the  reward  you  get  from  Carthage,  and  such  the 
honours  she  pays  you  now  !  Again,  what  sort  of 
religion  is  this,  that  sprinkles  the  temples  with  blood  ? 
Alas  !  their  ignorance  of  the  divine  nature  is  the  chief 
cause  that  leads  wretched  mortals  into  crime.  Go  ye 
to  the  temples  and  pray  for  things  lawful,  and  offer 
incense,  but  eschew  bloody  and  cruel  rites.  God  is 
merciful  and  akin  to  man.  Be  content  with  this, 
I  pray  you — to  see  cattle  slaughtered  before  the 
altar.     Or,  if  you  are  sure  beyond  all  doubt  that 



me,  me,  quae  genui,  vestris  absumite  votis. 

cur  spoliare  iuvat  Libycas  hac  indole  terras  ? 

an  flendae  magis  Aegates  et  mersa  profundo  800 

Punica  regna  forent,  olim  si  sorte  cruenta 

esset  tanta  mei  virtus  praerepta  mariti  ?  " 

haec  dubios  vario  divumque  hominisque  timore 

ad  cauta  illexere  patres  ;  ipsique  relictum, 

abnueret  sortem  an  superum  pareret  honori.  805 

turn  vero  trepidare  metu  vix  compos  Imilce, 

magnanimi  metuens  immitia  corda  mariti. 

His  avide  auditis,  ductor  sic  deinde  prof  at  ur  : 
**  quid  tibi  pro  tanto  non  impar  munere  solvat 
Hannibal  aequatus  superis  ?     quae  praemia  digna  810 
inveniam,  Carthago  parens  ?     noctemque  diemque 
arma  feram  ;  templisque  tuis  hinc  plurima  faxo 
hostia  ab  Ausonio  veniat  generosa  Quirino. 
at  puer  armorum  et  belli  servabitur  heres. 
spes,  o  nate,  meae  Tyriarumque  unica  rerum,        815 
Hesperia  minitante,  salus,  terraque  fre toque 
certare  Aeneadis,  dum  stabit  vita,  memento, 
perge — patent  Alpes — nostroque  incumbe  labori. 
vos  quoque,  di  patrii,  quorum  delubra  piantur 
caedibus  atque  coli  gaudent  formidine  matrum,     820 
hue  laetos  vultus  totasque  advertite  mentes. 
namque  paro  sacra  et  maiores  molior  aras. 

"  See  note  to  i.  35. 
''  By  leaving  the  decision  to  him. 

"  Quirinus  is  the  name  given  to  Romulus  when  he  was 
deified  after  death. 

PUNICA,   IV.   798-822 

wickedness  is  pleasing  to  the  gods,  then  slay  me,  me 
the  mother,  and  thus  keep  your  vows.  Why  rob 
the  land  of  Libya  of  the  promise  shown  by  this 
child  ?  If  my  husband's  glorious  career  had  been 
thus  nipped  in  the  bud  long  ago  by  the  fatal  lot, 
would  not  that  have  been  as  lamentable  a  disaster 
as  the  battle  by  the  Aegatian  islands  «  when  the 
power  of  Carthage  was  sunk  beneath  the  waves  ?  " 
The  senators,  hesitating  between  their  fear  of  the 
gods  and  their  fear  of  Hannibal,  were  induced  by 
her  appeal  to  run  no  risks  ;  and  they  left  it  to  Hanni- 
bal himself  to  decide,  whether  he  would  defy  the  lot 
or  comply  with  the  tribute  due  to  the  gods.  Then 
indeed  Imilce  became  half-frantic  with  terror  ;  for 
she  dreaded  the  stern  heart  of  her  high-souled 

Hannibal  listened  eagerly  to  the  message  and  thus 
replied  :  "  O  Mother  Carthage,  you  have  set  me  on 
a  level  with  the  gods,^  and  how  shall  I  repay  you  in 
full  for  such  generosity  ?  What  sufficient  recompense 
can  I  find  ?  I  shall  fight  on,  night  and  day,  and  many 
a  high-born  victim  from  the  people  of  Quirinus  ^  shall 
I  send  from  this  place  to  your  temples.  But  the 
child  must  be  spared,  to  carry  on  my  career  in  arms. 
You,  my  son,  on  whom  rest  my  hopes,  you,  who  are 
the  only  safeguard  of  Carthaginian  power  against 
the  menace  of  Italy,  remember  to  fight  against  the 
Aeneadae  all  your  life  long.  Go  forward — the  Alps 
lie  open  now — and  apply  yourself  to  my  task.  To 
you  also  I  call,  gods  of  my  country,  whose  shrines 
are  propitiated  with  bloodshed,  and  who  rejoice  in 
a  tribute  that  strikes  terror  to  mothers'  hearts,  turn 
hither  joyful  looks  and  your  whole  hearts;  for  I  am 
preparing  a  sacrifice  and  building  for  you  mightier 



tu,  Mago,  adversi  conside  in  vertice  montis, 

tu  laevos  propior  colles  accede,  Choaspe, 

ad  claustra  et  fauces  ducat  per  opaca  Sychaeus.     825 

ast  ego  te,  Thrasymenne,  vago  cum  milite  praeceps 

lustrabo  et  superis  quaeram  libamina  belli. 

namque  baud  parva  deus  promissis  spondet  apertis, 

quae  spectata,  viri,  patriam  referatis  in  urbem." 

*  The  deity  of  the  lake,  whose  semblance  Juno  had  put  on. 



PUNICA,   IV.  823-829 

altars.  You,  Mago,  must  encamp  on  the  top  of  the 
mountain  opposite,  while  Choaspes  keeps  closer  and 
approaches  the  hills  on  our  left  ;  and  let  Sychaeus 
lead  his  men  through  the  woods  to  the  gorge  and 
its  mouth.  I  myself  shall  ride  swiftly  about  Lake 
Trasimene  with  a  flying  force,  and  shall  seek  victims 
of  war  to  offer  to  the  gods.  For  the  express  promise 
of  the  god  "  assures  me  of  a  great  victory.  It  is  for 
you,  ambassadors,  to  witness  it  and  carry  back  the 
tale  to  Carthage." 




Hannibal  lays  a  trap  for  the  enemy.  The  name  of  Lake 
Trasimene  (1-23).      Flaminius  makes  light  of  evil  omens 

Ceperat  Etruscos  occulto  milite  colles 

Sidonius  ductor  perque  alta  silentia  noctis 

silvarum  anfractus  caecis  insiderat  armis. 

at  parte  e  laeva,  restagnans  gurgite  vasto, 

effigiem  in  pelagi  lacus  humectabat  inertis  6 

et  late  multo  foedabat  proxima  limo  ; 

quae  vada,  Faunigenae  regnata  antiquitus  Arno, 

nunc  volvente  die  Thrasymenni  nomina  servant. 

Lydius  huic  genitor,  Tmoli  decus,  aequore  longo 

Maeoniam  quondam  in  Latias  advexerat  oras  10 

Tyrrhenus  pubem  dederatque  vocabula  terris  ; 

isque  insueta  tubae  monstravit  murmura  primus 

gentibus  et  bellis  ignava  silentia  rupit. 

nee  modicus  voti  natum  ad  maiora  fovebat. 

verum  ardens  puero  eastumque  exuta  pudorem       15 

(nam  forma  certare  deis,  Thrasymenne,  valeres) 

litore  correptum  stagnis  demisit  Agylle, 

"  The  river  Arnus  (now  Arno)  feeds  the  lake,  and  we  are 
here  told  that  the  lake  too  was  once  called  Arnus,  before  the 
Lydians  came  to  Italy  and  settled  in  Etruria.  Tmolus  is  a 
mountain  in  Lydia.     Maconia  is  an  older  name  for  Lydia. 

^  See  note  to  iv.  167. 


ARGUMENT  (continued) 

and  the  warning  of  Corvinus,  the  soothsayer,  and  encourages 
his  men  to  fight  (24-185).  The  battle  of  Lake  Trasimene 

The  Carthaginian  leader  had  seized  the  Tuscan 
hills  with  an  unseen  force,  and  in  the  deep  silence  of 
night  had  occupied  the  winding  woods  with  troops 
in  ambush.  But  on  their  left  hand  the  lake,  like  a 
sluggish  sea,  spread  over  all  the  region  round  with 
the  overflow  of  its  mighty  waters  and  marred  the 
prospect  with  its  abundant  slime.  This  lake  was 
ruled  over  in  ancient  times  by  Arnus,  son  of  Faunus, 
and  now,  in  a  later  age,  keeps  green  the  name  of 
Trasimene.  The  father  of  Trasimene  was  Tyrrhenus, 
a  Lydian  and  the  pride  of  Tmolus  ;  he  had  formerly 
brought  men  of  Maeonia  the  long  sea-voyage  to  the 
Latian  land,  and  had  given  his  own  name  to  the 
country,"  and  it  was  he  who  first  revealed  to  men 
the  sound  of  the  trumpet,^  unheard  till  then,  and 
broke  the  spiritless  silence  of  battle.  An  ambitious 
man,  he  bred  up  his  son  for  a  higher  destiny.  But 
the  nymph  Agylle  loved  the  young  Trasimene  ;  and 
indeed  in  beauty  he  could  contend  with  the  gods 
themselves.  Casting  off  maiden  shame,  she  seized 
him  on  the  shore  and  carried  him  down  to  the  depths  ; 



flore  capi  iuvenem  primaevo  lubrica  mentem 
nympha  nee  Idalia  lenta  inealuisse  sagitta. 
solatae  viridi  penitus  fovere  sub  antro  20 

Naides  amplexus  undosaque  regna  trementem. 
hine  dotale  laeus  nomen,  lateque  Hymenaeo 
eonseia  laseivo  Thrasymennus  dieitur  unda. 

Et  iam  eurrieulo  nigram  nox  roscida  metam 
stringebat,  nee  se  thalamis  Tithonia  eoniux  25 

protulerat  stabatque  nitens  in  limine  primo, 
cum  minus  abnuerit  noctem  desisse  viator 
quam  coepisse  diem  :   eonsul  earpebat  iniquas, 
praegrediens  signa  ipsa,  vias,  omnisque  ruebat 
mixtus  eques  ;   nee  diseretis  levia  arma  maniplis    30 
insertique  globo  pedites  et  inutile  Marti 
lixarum  vulgus  praesago  cuncta  tumultu 
implere  et  pugnam  fugientum  more  petebant. 
tum  super  ipse  lacus,  densam  caligine  caeca 
exhalans  nebulam,  late  corruperat  omnem  35 

prospectum  miseris,  atque  atrae  noctis  amictu 
squalebat  pressum  picea  inter  nubila  caelum, 
nee  Poenum  liquere  doli  ;   sedet  ense  reposto 
abditus  et  nullis  properantem  occursibus  arcet. 
ire  datur,  longeque  patet,  ceu  pace  quieta,  40 

incustoditum,  mox  irremeabile,  litus. 
namque  sub  angustas  artato  limite  fauces 
in  fraudem  ducebat  iter,  geminumque  receptis 

"  Venus :   she  had  a  temple  at  IdaHum  in  Cyprus. 
^  Aurora,  the  Dawn. 
•  Flaminius,  one  of  the  consuls. 

PUNICA,  V.    18-43 

for  her  young  heart  was  quick  to  feel  the  spell  of 
youthful  beauty,  nor  was  she  slow  to  catch  fire  from 
the  arrow  of  the  Idalian  goddess."  The  Naiads,  in 
their  green  cave  far  below,  comforted  and  cherished 
the  boy,  when  he  shrank  from  his  bride's  embrace  and 
that  watery  world.  From  him  the  lake,  a  gift  from  the 
bride,  got  its  name  ;  and  the  water,  aware  through 
all  its  extent  of  the  marriage  joy,  still  bears  the  name 
of  Trasimene. 

And  now  the  chariot  of  dewy  night  was  close  to 
its  dusky  goal,  and  the  spouse  of  Tithonus,^  not  yet 
emerged  from  her  marriage-chamber,  stood  shining 
on  the  threshold — a  time  when  the  wayfarer  is  less 
sure  that  day  has  begun  than  that  night  is  ended. 
The  Roman  general  '^  was  marching  over  the  uneven 
ground,  ahead  even  of  his  standards  ;  all  his  cavalry 
hastened  in  confusion  after  him  ;  the  skirmishers 
were  not  arrayed  in  separate  companies  ;  the  foot- 
men were  mixed  up  with  the  body  of  cavalry  ;  and 
the  unwarlike  rabble  of  camp-followers  filled  the 
air  with  ominous  uproar,  and  went  into  battle  like 
fugitives.  Then,  in  addition,  the  lake  itself  breathed 
forth  a  black  and  blinding  mist,  so  that  the  doomed 
army  could  see  nothing  on  any  side  ;  and  the  sky, 
hidden  beneath  night's  dark  robe,  was  gloomy  with 
pitch-black  clouds.  Nor  did  Hannibal  forget  his 
cunning.  He  lay  in  hiding  with  sword  in  rest  ;  no 
advance  of  his  blocked  the  progress  of  the  foe.  Their 
course  was  free  ;  and  far  and  wide,  as  in  the  stillness 
of  peace,  stretched  the  unguarded  shore — the  shore, 
from  which  there  would  soon  be  no  returning  ;  for, 
the  path  narrowing  as  it  passed  into  the  closing 
gorge,  their  route  led  into  the  trap  ;  and  a  double 
doom,  with  the  chffs  on  one  side  and  the  barrier  of 



exitium,  hinc  rupes,  hinc  undae  claustra  premebant. 
at  cura  umbroso  servabat  vertice  mentis  46 

hostilem  ingressum,  refugos  habitura  sub  ictu. 
baud  secus  ac  vitreas  sellers  piscator  ad  undas, 
ore  levem  patulo  texens  de  vimine  nassam, 
cautius  interiora  ligat  mediamque  per  alvum, 
sensim  fastigans,  compressa  cacumina  nectit  50 

ac  fraude  artati  remeare  foraminis  arcet 
introitu  facilem,  quem  traxit  ab  aequore,  piscem. 

Ocius  interea  propelli  signa  iubebat 
excussus  consul  fatorum  turbine  mentem, 
donee  flammiferum  tollentes  aequore  currum  65 

solis  equi  sparsere  diem,     iamque,  orbe  renato, 
diluerat  nebulas  Titan,  sensimque  fluebat 
caligo  in  terras  nitido  resoluta  sereno. 
tunc  ales,  priscum  populis  de  more  Latinis 
auspicium,  cum  bella  parant  mentesque  deorum      60 
explorant  super  eventu,  ceu  praescia  luctus, 
damnavit  vesci  planctuque  alimenta  refugit. 
nee  rauco  taurus  cessavit  flebile  ad  aras 
immugire  sono,  pressamque  ad  colla  bipennem 
incerta  cervice  ferens,  altaria  liquit.  66 

signa  etiam  afFusa  certant  dum  vellere  mole, 
taeter  humo  lacera  nitentum  erupit  in  ora 
exultans  cruor,  et  caedis  documenta  futurae 
ipsa  parens  miseris  gremio  dedit  atra  cruento  ; 
ac  super  haec  divum  genitor,  terrasque  fretumque  70 

**  The  sacred  chickens,  whose  willingness  or  unwilhngness 
to  feed  was  regarded  by  Roman  generals  as  ominous  of 
victory  or  defeat. 

*  See  note  to  iii.  220. 

PUNICA,  V.  44-70 

the  lake  on  the  other,  kept  them  fast  in  the  toils. 
Meanwhile  on  the  wooded  mountain-top  careful  watch 
waited  for  the  entrance  of  the  Romans,  ready 
to  strike  whenever  they  took  to  flight.  Even  so 
beside  a  glassy  stream  a  cunning  angler  weaves 
osiers  to  make  a  light  and  wide-mouthed  weel; 
the  inmost  part  he  frames  with  especial  care,  and 
for  the  centre  he  makes  the  trap  taper  gradually  to 
a  point,  and  fastens  together  the  narrowed  ends ; 
so  by  the  contracting  aperture's  deceit  he  forbids 
return  to  the  fish  which,  free  as  they  were  to  enter, 
he  has  drawn  in  from  the  stream. 

Meanwhile  Flaminius,  bereft  of  his  senses  and 
swept  along  by  destiny,  ordered  the  standards  to  be 
advanced  with  speed  ;  and  then  the  sun's  coursers 
lifted  his  fiery  chariot  from  the  sea  and  scattered  day- 
light abroad.  Soon  the  sun  with  disk  renewed  had 
dispelled  the  vapours  ;  and  the  darkness,  broken  up 
by  the  cloudless  radiance,  floated  down  by  degrees 
to  earth.  But  now  the  birds ,<»  which  the  peoples  of 
Latium  consult  by  ancient  custom,  when  they  go  to 
war  and  inquire  into  the  purpose  of  Heaven  concerning 
the  issue — these  birds  refused  to  eat  as  if  aware  of 
coming  disaster,  and  fled  from  their  food  with  flapping 
wings.  And  the  bull  at  the  altar  never  ceased  to 
bellow  with  hoarse  and  mournful  sound  ;  and  when 
the  axe  was  swung  against  him,  he  met  the  blow 
with  shrinking  neck  and  ran  away  from  the  altar. 
Again,  when  they  tried  to  wrench  the  standards  from 
their  mounds  of  soil,^  noisome  blood  spouted  forth  in 
their  faces  from  the  broken  ground,  and  Mother  Earth 
herself  sent  forth  from  her  bleeding  breast  dreadful 
omens  of  coming  slaughter.  Moreover,  the  Father 
of  the  gods,  who  shakes  earth  and  sea  with  his  thunder, 
VOL.  r  1  237 


concutiens  tonitru,  Cyclopum  rapta  caminis 
fulmina  Tyrrhenas  Thrasymenni  torsit  in  undas  ; 
ictusque  aetheria  per  stagna  patentia  flamma 
fumavit  lacus,  atque  arserunt  fluctibus  igiies. 
heu  vani  monitus  frustraque  morantia  Parcas  75 

prodigia  !     heu  fatis  superi  certare  minores  ! 
atque  hie,  egregius  hnguae  nomenque  superbum, 
Corvinus,  Phoebea  sedet  cui  casside  fulva 
ostentans  ales  proavitae  insignia  pugnae, 
plenus  et  ipse  deum  et  socium  terrente  pavore,       80 
immiscet  precibus  monita  atque  his  vocibus  infit  : 
"  Iliacas  per  te  flammas  Tarpeiaque  saxa, 
per  patrios,  consul,  muros  suspensaque  nostrae 
eventu  pugnae  natorum  pignora,  cedas 
oramus  superis  tempusque  ad  proelia  dextrum         85 
opperiare.      dabunt  idem  camposque  diemque 
pugnandi  ;  tantum  ne  dedignare  secundos 
expectare  deos  :   cum  fulserit  hora,  cruentam 
quae  stragem  Libyae  portet,  tum  signa  sequentur 
nulla  vulsa  manu,  vescique  interritus  ales  90 

gaudebit,  nuUosque  vomet  pia  terra  cruores. 
an  te  praestantem  belli  fugit,  improba  quantum 
hoc  possit  Fortuna  loco  ?     sedet  obvius  hostis 
adversa  fronte  ;   at  circa  nemorosa  minantur 
insidias  iuga,  nee  laeva  stagnantibus  undis  95 

efFugium  patet,  et  tenui  stant  tramite  fauces, 
si  certare  dolis  et  bellum  ducere  cordi  est, 
interea  rapidis  aderit  Servilius  armis, 

"  The  Cyclopes  worked  at  forges  in  the  Lipari  islands  and 
made  thunderbolts  for  Jupiter. 

**  M.  Valerius,  when  serving  against  the  Gauls  in  349  b.c, 
accepted  a  challenge  to  single  combat  from  a  gigantic  Gaul. 
A  raven  perched  on  his  helmet  and  helped  him  to  victory 
by  attacking  his  enemy.  Hence  he  received  the  name  of 
Corvus  (raven)  or  Corvinus. 

PUNICA,  V.   71-98 

seized  thunderbolts  from  the  forges  of  the  Cyclopes,*" 
and  hurled  them  into  the  Tuscan  waters  of  Lake 
Trasimene,  till  the  lake,  struck  by  fire  from  heaven, 
smoked  all  over  its  wide  expanse,  and  fire  burned  on 
the  water.  Alas,  for  fruitless  warnings  and  portents 
that  seek  in  vain  to  hinder  destiny  !  Alas,  for  gods 
who  cannot  contend  against  Fate  !  At  this  point 
Corvinus  spoke,  a  famous  orator  and  a  noble  name  ; 
his  golden  helmet  bore  the  bird  of  Phoebus,  which 
commemorated  the  glorious  combat  of  his  ancestor.^ 
Himself  inspired  by  Heaven  and  alarmed  by  the  fears 
of  the  soldiers,  he  mingled  warning  with  entreaty  and 
thus  began  :  "  By  the  fire  from  Troy  and  by  the 
Tarpeian  rock,  by  the  walls  of  Rome,  by  the  fate  of 
our  sons  that  hangs  on  the  issue  of  this  battle — by 
these  we  entreat  you,  general,  not  to  defy  the  gods 
but  to  await  a  fit  time  for  battle.  They  will  give  us 
place  and  time  for  fighting  ;  only  be  not  too  proud  to 
wait  for  Heaven's  favour.  When  comes  the  happy 
hour  that  shall  bring  death  and  defeat  for  Libya,  then 
the  standards  will  need  no  force  to  make  them 
follow,  the  birds  will  take  their  food  unterrified,  and 
Mother  Earth  will  vomit  no  blood.  Do  you,  so  skilled 
a  soldier,  fail  to  see  how  great  is  the  power  of  cruel 
Fortune  in  our  present  position  ?  The  enemy  is  en- 
camped over  against  us  and  stops  our  way,  and  the 
wooded  heights  all  round  threaten  us  with  ambus- 
cades ;  nor  is  there  a  way  of  escape  on  the  left  where 
the  lake  spreads,  and  the  path  through  the  gorge  is 
narrow.  If  you  are  willing  to  meet  guile  with  guile 
and  to  postpone  battle,  Servilius  '^  will  soon  be  here 

"  Gnaeus  Servilius,  the  other  consul,  was  detained  at  Rome 
for  a  time  by  necessary  duties  :  he  then  started  northwards 
and  made  his  headquarters  at  Ariminum. 



cui  par  imperium  et  vires  legionibus  aequae. 
bellandum  est  astu  :  levior  laus  in  duce  dextrae." 

Talia  Corvinus,  primoresque  addere  passim         101 
orantum  verba,  et  divisus  quisque  timoris 
nunc  superos,  ne  Flaminio,  nunc  deinde  precari 
Flaminium,  ne  caelicolis  contendere  perstet. 
acrius  hoc  accensa  ducis  surrexerat  ira,  105 

auditoque  furens  socias  non  defore  vires  : 
"  sicine  nos,"  inquit,  "  Boiorum  in  bella  ruentes 
spectastis,  cum  tanta  lues  vulgusque  tremendum 
ingrueret,  rupesque  iterum  Tarpeia  paveret  ? 
quas  ego  tunc  animas  dextra,  quae  corpora  fudi,   110 
irata  tellure  sata  et  vix  vulnere  vitam 
reddentes  uno  !     iacuere  ingentia  membra 
per  campos  magnisque  premunt  nunc  ossibus  arva. 
scilicet  has  sera  ad  laudes  Servilius  arma 
adiungat,  nisi  diviso  vicisse  triumpho  115 

ut  nequeam  et  decoris  contentus  parte  quiescam  ? 
quippe  monent  superi.     similes  ne  fingite  vobis, 
classica  qui  tremitis,  divos.     sat  magnus  in  hostem 
augur  adest  ensis,  pulchrumque  et  milite  dignum 
auspicium  Latio,  quod  in  armis  dextera  praestat.  120 
an,  Corvine,  sedet,  clausum  se  consul  inerti 
ut  teneat  vallo  ?     Poenus  nunc  occupet  altos 
Arreti  muros,  Corythi  nunc  diruat  arcem  ? 
hinc  Clusina  petat  ?     postremo  ad  moenia  Romae 
illaesus  contendat  iter  ?     deforme  sub  armis  125 

"  The  army  of  Servilius. 

*  Gauls  had  besieged  the  Capitol  before,  in  390  b.c. 

"  He  compares  the  Gauls,  who  were  very  big  men,  to  the 
Titans,  the  sons  of  Earth. 

**  Cortona  :  see  note  to  iv.  720. 

PUNICA,  V.   99-125 

with  his  hurrying  troops.  He  has  equal  authority 
with  you,  and  his  legions  are  as  strong  as  yours. 
War  calls  for  strategy  :  valour  is  less  praiseworthy 
in  a  commander." 

Thus  Corvinus  spoke  ;  and  all  the  chief  officers 
added  words  of  entreaty  ;  and  each  man,  beset  by 
a  double  fear,  prayed  to  the  gods  not  to  fight  against 
Flaminius,  and  to  Flaminius  not  to  persist  in  fighting 
against  Heaven.  This  roused  the  general's  anger  to 
greater  heat  ;  and,  when  he  heard  that  a  friendly 
force  "  was  near,  he  cried  in  fury  :  "  Was  it  thus  that 
you  saw  me  rushing  to  battle  against  the  Boii,  when 
the  great  peril  of  that  fearsome  horde  came  against 
us,  and  the  Tarpeian  rock  feared  a  second  ^  siege  ? 
How  many  I  then  put  to  death  !  how  many  bodies 
my  right  arm  laid  low  ! — bodies  born  by  Earth  in 
anger,  and  men  whom  a  single  wound  could  hardly 
kill.''  Their  huge  limbs  were  scattered  over  the 
plains,  and  now  their  mighty  bones  cover  the  fields. 
Shall  Servilius,  forsootk,.  claim  a  share  in  my  great 
deeds  for  his  belated  army,  so  that  I  cannot  conquer 
unless  I  share  the  triumph  with  him,  but  must  rest 
content  with  half  the  glory  ?  You  say  that  the  gods 
warn  us.  Think  not  that  the  gods  are  like  yourselves 
— men  who  tremble  at  the  sound  of  the  trumpet. 
The  sword  is  a  sufficient  soothsayer  against  the  foe, 
and  the  work  of  an  armed  right  hand  is  a  glorious 
omen  worthy  of  a  Roman  soldier.  Is  this  your  pur- 
pose, Corvinus,  that  the  consul  should  shut  himself 
up  behind  a  rampart  and  do  nothing  ?  Shall  Hannibal 
first  seize  the  high  walls  of  Arretium,  and  then  destroy 
the  citadel  of  Cory  thus  ,^  and  next  proceed  to  Clusium, 
and  at  last  march  unmolested  to  the  walls  of  Rome  ? 
Groundless  superstition  ill  becomes  an  army  ;  Valour 


vana  superstitio  est  ;   dea  sola  in  pectore  virtus 
bellantum  viget.     unibrarum  me  noctibus  atris 
agmina  circumstant,  Trebiae  qui  gurgite  quique 
Eridani  volvuntur  aquis,  inhumata  iuventus." 

Nee  mora,     iam  medio  coetu  signisque  sub  ipsis 
postrema  aptabat  nulli  exorabilis  arma.  131 

aere  atque  aequorei  tergo  flavente  iuvenci 
cassis  erat  munita  viro  ;  cui  vertiee  surgens 
triplex  crista  iubas  effundit  crine  Suevo  ; 
Scylla  super,  fracti  contorquens  pondera  remi,        135 
instabat  saevosque  canum  pandebat  hiatus, 
nobile  Gargeni  spolium,  quod  rege  superbus 
Boiorum  caeso  capiti  illacerabile  victor 
aptarat  pugnasque  decus  portabat  in  omnes. 
loricam  induitur  ;  tortos  huic  nexilis  hamos  140 

ferro  squama  rudi  permixtoque  asperat  auro. 
turn  clipeum  capit,  aspersum  quem  caedibus  olim 
Celticus  ornarat  cruor  ;  humentique  sub  antro, 
ceu  fetum,  lupa  permulcens  puerilia  membra 
ingentem  Assaraci  caelo  nutribat  alumnum,  145 

hinc  ensem  lateri  dextraeque  accommodat  hastam. 
stat  sonipes  vexatque  ferox  humentia  frena, 
Caucasiam  instratus  virgato  corpore  tigrim. 
inde  exceptus  equo,  qua  dant  angusta  viarum, 
nunc  hos,  nunc  illos  adit  atque  hortatibus  implet :  150 
"  vestrum  opus   est  vestrumque  decus,  suffixa  per 

Poeni  ferre  ducis  spectanda  parentibus  ora. 

"  The  Suevi  were  a  tribe  of  Gauls.  It  seems  that  they 
fought  with  the  Boii  against  Flaminius,  and  that  he  took  their 
scalps  as  trophies. 

^  For  a  similar  breastplate  see  ii.  401  foil. 

"  Romulus,  suckled  by  the  She-wolf.     Assaracus  was  an 
ancient  king  of  Troy. 

PUNICA,  V.   126-152 

is  the  only  deity  that  rules  in  the  warrior's  breast. 
In  the  darkness  of  night  an  army  of  ghosts  stands 
round  my  bed — the  unburied  soldiers,  whose  bodies 
are  rolling  down  Trebia's  stream  and  the  waters  of 
the  Po." 

Straightway,  surrounded  by  his  officers  and  hard 
by  the  standards,  he  put  on  his  armour  for  the  last 
time,  proof  against  all  entreaty.  His  tough  helmet 
was  made  of  bronze  and  the  tawny  hide  of  a  sea-calf; 
and  above  it  rose  a  triple  crest,  with  hair  of  the  Suevi  <* 
hanging  down  like  a  mane  ;  and  on  the  top  stood  a 
Scylla,  brandishing  a  heavy  broken  oar  and  opening 
wide  the  savage  jaws  of  her  dogs.  When  Flaminius 
conquered  and  slew  Gargenus,  king  of  the  Boii,  he 
had  fitted  to  his  own  head  this  famous  trophy  that  no 
hand  could  mutilate,  and  proudly  he  bore  it  in  all  his 
battles.  Then  he  put  on  his  breastplate  ;  its  twisted 
Hnks  were  embossed  with  plates  wrought  of  hard 
steel  mingled  with  gold.^  Next  he  took  up  his  shield, 
formerly  drenched  with  the  slaughter  of  Gauls  and 
adorned  with  their  blood  ;  and  on  it  the  She-wolf, 
in  a  dripping  grotto,  was  licking  the  limbs  of  a  child, 
as  if  he  were  her  cub,  and  suckling  the  mighty  scion 
of  Assaracus  '^  for  his  translation  to  heaven.  Lastly 
he  fitted  the  sword  to  his  side  and  the  spear  to  his 
right  hand.  His  war-horse  stood  by,  proudly  champ- 
ing the  foaming  bit  ;  for  saddle  he  bore  the  striped 
skin  of  a  Caucasian  tiger.  Then  the  general  mounted 
and  rode  from  one  company  to  another,  as  far  as  the 
confined  space  would  allow,  and  filled  their  ears  with 
his  appeals  :  "  Yours  is  the  task,  and  yours  the  glory, 
to  carry  the  head  of  Hannibal  on  a  pike  through  the 
streets  of  Rome,  for  fathers  and  mothers  to  behold. 



unum  hoc  pro  cunctis  sat  erit  caput,     aspera  quisque 
hortamenta  sibi  referat  :  meus,  heu  !  meus  atris 
Ticini  frater  ripis  iacet ;  at  meus  alta  155 

metitur  stagna  Eridani  sine  funere  natus. 
haec  sibi  quisque  ;  sed,  est  vestrum  cui  nulla  doloris 
privati  rabies,  is  vero  urgentia  sumat 
e  medio,  fodiant  quae  magnas  pectus  in  iras, 
perfractas  Alpes  passamque  infanda  Saguntum,     160 
quosque  nefas  vetiti  transcendere  flumen  Hiberi, 
tangere  iam  Thy  brim,     nam  dum  vos  augur  et  extis 
quaesitae  fibrae  vanusque  liioratur  haruspex, 
solum  iam  superest,  Tarpeio  imponere  castra." 

Turbidus  haec,  visoque  artis  in  milibus  atras      165 
bellatore  iubas  aptante  :  "  est,  Orfite,  munus, 
est,"  ait,  "  hoc  cert  are  tuum,  quis  opima  volenti 
dona  lovi  portet  feretro  suspensa  cruento. 
nam  cur  haec  alia  pariatur  gloria  dextra  ?  "  169 

hinc  praevectus  equo,  postquam  inter  proelia  notam 
accepit  vocem  :  "  procul  hinc  te  Martius,"  inquit, 
"  Murrane,  ostendit  clamor,  videoque  furentem 
iam  Tyria  te  caede  ;  venit  laus  quanta  !    sed,  oro, 
haec  angusta  loci  ferro  patefacta  relaxa." 
tum  Soracte  satum,  praestantem  corpore  et  armis,  175 
Aequanum  noscens,  patrio  cui  ritus  in  arvo, 
cum  pius  Arcitenens  accensis  gaudet  acervis, 

"  The  treaty  made  at  the  end  of  the  First  Punic  War  for- 
bade the  Carthaginians  in  Spain  to  advance  beyond  the  river 
Ebro  :  see  i.  480.  »  See  note  to  iii.  587. 

"  A  mountain  in  Etruria,  25  miles  from  Rome,  with  a 
temple  of  Apollo  on  the  summit :  the  priests  were  supposed 
to  have  the  power  of  passing  unharmed  through  fire  and 
treading  on  the  hot  ashes  with  bare  feet.  Aequanus  was  one 
of  these  priests. 

^  Apollo,  who  defended  his  mother  Latona  by  shooting 
the  python. 


PUNICA,  V.    163-177 

That  one  head  will  make  amends  for  all  our  slain.  Let 
each  man  recall  the  griefs  that  urge  him  on  :  '  My 
brother,  alas !  my  own  brother  is  lying  on  the  fatal 
banks  of  the  Ticinus  ' ;  or  *  My  son,  unburied,  is 
measuring  the  depth  of  the  river  Po.'  Let  each  man 
speak  thus  to  himself.  But,  if  any  man  feels  no  rage 
derived  from  private  sorrow,  let  him  find  motives 
in  the  suffering  of  his  country  to  sting  his  heart  to 
fierce  wrath — the  breach  made  in  the  Alps,  the  awful 
fate  of  Saguntum,  and  those  whom  Heaven  forbade 
to  cross  the  Ebro  "  now  so  near  to  the  Tiber.  For, 
while  you  are  held  back  by  augurs  and  soothsayers 
vainly  prying  into  the  entrails  of  victims,  Hannibal 
has  but  one  thing  more  to  do — to  pitch  his  camp  on 
the  Tarpeian  rock." 

Thus  Flaminius  ranted,  and  then  he  spied  in  the 
crowded  ranks  a  warrior  fitting  on  his  black  helmet- 
plume.  "  It  is  your  task,  Orfitus,"  he  cried,  "  to 
contend  for  this  prize — who  shall  bear  the  spoils  of 
honour  ^  to  Jupiter,  a  welcome  offering  borne  aloft 
on  a  blood-stained  litter.  For  why  should  this  glory 
be  won  by  the  hand  of  another  }  "  He  rode  on  ; 
and  when  he  heard  in  the  ranks  a  familiar  voice, 
"  Murranus,"  he  cried,  "  your  war-cry  reveals  your 
presence  from  afar,  and  I  see  you  already  frenzied 
as  you  slaughter  the  foe.  How  great  the  glory  that 
awaits  you  !  But  this  is  my  prayer :  set  us  free 
from  this  confinement,  making  a  way  with  the 
sword."  Next  he  recognized  Aequanus,  a  son 
of  Mount  Soracte,^  a  splendid  figure  in  splendid 
armour  :  in  his  native  land  it  was  his  task  to  carry 
the  offerings  thrice  in  triumph  over  harmless  fires,  at 
the  time  when  the  Archer,  the  loving  son,**  takes 

VOL.  I  1 2  24i5 



exta  ter  innocuos  laetum  portare  per  ignes  : 

"  sic  in  ApoUinea  semper  vestigia  pruna 

inviolata  teras  victorque  vaporis  ad  aras  180 

dona  serenato  referas  sollemnia  Phoebo  : 

concipe,"  ait,  "  dignum  factis,  Aequane,  furorem 

vulneribusque  tuis.     socio  te  caedis  et  irae 

non  ego  Marmaridum  mediam  penetrare  phalangem 

Cinyphiaeque  globos  dubitarim  irrumpere  turmae." 

Nee  iam  ultra  monitus  et  verba  morantia  Martem 
ferre  valet,  longo  Aeneadis  quod  flebitur  aevo.       187 
increpuere  simul  feralia  classica  signum, 
ac  tuba  terrificis  fregit  stridoribus  auras, 
heu  dolor,  heu  lacrimae,  nee  post  tot  saecula  serae  ! 
horresco  ut  pendente  malo,  ceu  ductor  ad  arma     191 
exciret  Tyrius.     latebrosis  collibus  Astur 
et  Libys  et  torta  Baliaris  saevus  habena 
erumpunt  multusque  Maces  Garamasque  Nomasque; 
turn,  quo  non  alius  venalem  in  proelia  dextram      195 
ocior  attulerit  conductaque  bella  probarit, 
Cantaber  et  galeae  contempto  tegmine  Vasco. 
hinc  pariter  rupes,  lacus  hinc,  hinc  arma  simulque 
consona  vox  urget,  signum  clamore  vicissim 
per  colles  Tyria  circumfundente  corona.  200 

Avertere  dei  vultus  fatoque  dederunt 
maiori  non  sponte  locum  ;  stupet  ipse  tyranni 
fortunam  Libyci  Mavors,  disiectaque  crinem 
illacrimat  Venus,  et  Delum  pervectus  Apollo 
tristem  maerenti  solatur  pectine  luctum.  205 

*•  See  note  to  iii.  687  :  for  Cinyphian  see  note  to  1.  288. 

^  The  name  of  this  Spanish  people  is  perhaps  preserved 
by  the  Basques. 

PUNICA,  V.  178-206 

pleasure  in  the  blazing  piles.  "  Aequanus,"  cried  the 
general,  "  fill  your  heart  with  wrath  that  suits  your 
prowess  and  your  wounds  ;  and  then  may  you  ever 
tread  unhurt  over  Apollo's  fire,  and  conquer  the  flame, 
and  carry  the  customary  offering  to  the  altar,  while 
Phoebus  smiles.  With  you  as  my  partner  in  the 
rage  of  battle,  I  should  not  hesitate  to  pierce  a 
phalanx  of  the  Marmaridae  ^  in  their  centre,  or  to 
rush  upon  the  squares  of  the  Cinyphian  horsemen." 

Flaminius  no  longer  could  endure  appeals  and 
speeches  that  postponed  the  battle.  Long  shall  the 
Aeneadae  lament  what  followed.  The  fatal  trumpets 
rang  forth  the  signal  all  together  ;  and  the  bugle 
rent  the  air  with  its  awesome  din.  O  grief !  O  tears, 
which  even  after  so  many  centuries  are  not  belated  ! 
I  shudder,  as  if  calamity  were  imminent,  as  if 
Hannibal  were  even  now  calling  to  arms.  From  the 
hills  that  hid  them  they  rushed  forth — Asturians 
and  Libyans,  fierce  Balearic  slingers,  and  swarms  of 
Macae,  Garamantians,  and  Numidians  ;  Cantabrians 
also,  eager  beyond  others  to  hire  out  their  swords 
and  approve  mercenary  warfare  ;  and  Vascones  ^  who 
scorn  the  protection  of  a  helmet.  On  this  side  rocks, 
on  this  the  lake,  on  this  armed  men  with  their 
united  cries,  hem  the  Romans  in,  while  the  ring  of 
Carthaginians  spread  the  battle-cry  from  man  to  man 
through  the  hills. 

The  gods  turned  away  their  faces  and  gave  way 
reluctantly  to  over  -  ruling  Fate.  Mars  himself 
wondered  at  the  good  fortune  of  the  Carthaginian 
leader ;  Venus  wept  with  dishevelled  hair  ;  and 
Apollo  was  wafted  to  Delos,*'  where  he  soothed  his 
grief  with  plaintive  lyre.  Juno  alone  remained,  sit- 
•  His  birthplace. 



sola,  Apennini  residens  in  vertice,  diras 
expectat  caedes  immiti  pectore  luno. 

Primae  Picentum,  rupto  ceu  turbine  fusa 
agmina  et  Hannibalem  ruere  ut  videre,  cohortes 
invadunt  ultro,  et  poenas  pro  morte  futura,  210 

turbato  victore,  petunt  accensa  iuventus  ; 
et,  velut  erepto  metuendi  libera  caelo, 
manibus  ipsa  suis  praesumpta  piacula  mittit. 
funditur  unanimo  nisu  et  concordibus  ausis 
pilorum  in  Poenos  nimbus,  fixosque  repulsi  215 

summittunt  clipeos  curvato  pondere  teli. 
acrius  hoc  rursum  Libys — et  praesentia  saevi 
extimulat  ducis — hortantes  se  quisque  vicissim 
incumbunt  pressoque  impellunt  pectore  pectus. 

Ipsa,  facem  quatiens  ac  flavam  sanguine  multo 
sparsa  comam,  medias  acies  Bellona  pererrat.         221 
stridit  Tartareae  nigro  sub  pectore  divae 
letiferum  murmur,  feralique  horrida  cantu 
bucina  lymphatas  agit  in  certamina  mentes. 
his  iras  adversa  fovent  crudusque  ruente  225 

fortuna  stimulus  spem  proiecisse  salutis  ; 
hos  dexter  deus  et  laeto  Victoria  vultu 
arridens  acuit,  Martisque  favore  fruuntur. 

Abreptus  pulchro  caedum  Lateranus  amore, 
dum  sequitur  dextram,  in  medios  penetraverat  hostes. 
quem  postquam  florens  aequali  Lentulus  aevo       231 

"  This  weapon  was  the  pilum,  the  characteristic  weapon  of 
the  Roman  legionary  ;  it  was  over  six  feet  long,  and  the  iron 
head  was  the  same  length  as  the  wooden  shaft.  The  soldier 
threw  it  at  the  beginning  of  an  attack  ;  if  it  missed  the 
corslet,  it  stuck  in  the  shield  and  made  it  useless. 

*  The  goddess  of  war. 

PUNICA,  V.   206-231 

ting  on  a  peak  of  the  Apennines,  and  her  cruel  heart 
looked  forward  to  the  dreadful  slaughter. 

First  of  all,  the  men  of  Picenum,  when  they  saw 
the  enemy  pouring  forth  like  a  cloudburst  from  the 
sky,  and  Hannibal  in  full  career,  anticipate  the  attack ; 
the  soldiers  in  their  ardour  seek  a  recompense  for 
their  imminent  death  in  harassing  their  conqueror  ; 
and  free  from  fear  as  if  life  was  lost  already,  they 
send  down  before  them  victims  to  make  atonement 
to  their  own  ghosts.  With  combined  effort  and  simul- 
taneous action  they  hurled  a  cloud  of  javelins  against 
the  Carthaginians  ;  and  the  foe  were  beaten  back 
and  lowered  their  shields  in  which  the  heavy  curved 
weapons"  stuck  fast.  The  fiercer  on  that  account 
did  the  Libyans  press  on — and  the  presence  of  their 
stern  commander  increased  their  efforts — while  man 
encouraged  man,  till  breast  clashed  hard  against 

Bellona  ^  herself  moved  through  the  centre  of  the 
battle,  brandishing  her  torch,  and  her  fair  hair  was 
spattered  with  abundant  gore.  The  hoarse  cry  that 
came  from  the  dark  breast  of  the  hellish  goddess  was 
fraught  with  death  ;  and  the  dreadful  trumpet  with 
its  mournful  music  drove  maddened  hearts  into  the 
fray.  The  ardour  of  the  Romans  was  kindled  by 
defeat,  and  despair  proved  a  strong  incentive  in  the 
hour  of  disaster  ;  but  the  foe  were  encouraged  by 
the  favour  of  Heaven  and  the  smiling  face  of  Victory, 
and  they  enjoyed  the  favour  of  Mars. 

Lateranus,  carried  away  by  noble  love  of  slaughter, 
had  gone  on  slaying  till  he  pierced  to  the  centre  of 
the  foe.  While  he,  too  eager  for  battle  and  blood- 
shed, defied  Fortune  on  unequal  terms  among  the 
hordes  of  the  enemy,  Lentulus,  a  youth  of  the  same 



conspexit,  nimium  pugnae  nimiumque  cruoris 
infestas  inter  non  aequo  Marte  catervas 
fata  irritantem,  nisu  se  concitat  acri 
immitemque  Bagam,  qui  iam  vicina  ferebat  235 

vulnera  pugnantis  tergo,  velocior  hasta 
oecupat  et  socium  duris  se  casibus  addit. 
tunc  alacres  arma  agglomerant  geminaque  corusci 
fronte  micant,  paribus  fulgent  capita  ardua  cristis. 
actus  in  adversos  casu  (namque  obvia  ferre  240 

arma  quis  auderet,  nisi  quern  deus  ima  colentum 
damnasset  Stygiae  nocti  ?)  praefracta  gerebat 
Syrticus  excelso  decurrens  robora  monte 
et,  quatiens  acer  nodosi  pondera  rami, 
flagrabat  geminae  nequiquam  caedis  amore  :  245 

"  non  hie  Aegates  infidaque  litora  nautis, 
o  iuvenes,  motumque  novis  sine  Marte  procellis 
fortunam  bello  pelagus  dabit ;  aequoris  olim 
victores,  media  sit  qualis,  discite,  terra 
bellator  Libys,  et  meliori  cedite  regnis."  250 

ac  simul  infesto  Lateranum  pondere  truncae 
arboris  urgebat,  iungens  convicia  pugnae. 
Lentulus  huic  frendens  ira  :  "  Thrasymennus  in  altos 
ascendet  citius  colles,  quam  sanguine  roret 
iste  pio  ramus,"  subsidensque  ilia  nisu  255 

conantis  suspensa  fodit ;  turn  fervidus  atro 
pulmone  exundat  per  hiantia  viscera  sanguis. 
Nee  minus  accensis  in  mutua  funera  dextris 
parte  alia  campi  saevit  furor,     altus  lertes 
obtruncat  Nerium  ;   Rullo  ditissimus  arvi  260 

occumbis,  generose  Volunx,  nee  clausa  repostis 

"  See  note  to  i.  35. 


PUNICA,  V.   232-261 

age,  saw  his  plight  and  ran  forward  with  a  hasty  effort 
against  fierce  Bagas,  whose  spear-point  was  close  to 
the  back  of  Lateranus  as  he  fought.  But  Lentulus 
was  quicker  and  drove  his  spear  in  first,  and  proved 
himself  a  friend  in  adversity.  Then  the  pair  eagerly 
joined  forces  ;  the  brows  of  both  shone  with  equal 
light,  and  their  heads,  held  high,  were  adorned  with 
twin  plumes.  It  was  by  chance  that  Syrticus,  a 
Carthaginian,  was  driven  to  face  the  pair — for  who 
would  have  dared  to  meet  them  in  fight,  unless  he 
were  condemned  to  nether  darkness  by  the  deity  of 
the  shades  below  ?  He  hastened  down  from  the 
heights,  carrying  a  branch  broken  off  from  an  oak- 
tree  ;  and,  as  he  fiercely  brandished  the  heavy 
j  knotted  bough,  he  burned  with  vain  desire  to  slay 
the  pair :  "Ye  Romans,  here  are  no  Aegatian 
islands,**  no  shore  that  betrays  the  seaman  ;  no  sea, 
stirred  by  sudden  storms  and  not  by  war,  shall  decide  ^ 
the  issue  of  battle  ;  at  sea  ye  conquered  in  the  past ;  J 
learn  now,  how  a  Libyan  can  fight  on  dry  land,  and 
resign  your  power  to  your  betters."  At  the  same 
time  he  pressed  Lateranus  hard  with  the  heavy 
branch,  and  reviled  him  while  he  attacked.  But 
Lentulus  ground  his  teeth  with  rage  :  "  Lake  Trasi- 
mene  shall  climb  up  these  hills,"  he  cried,  "  before 
his  noble  blood  shall  wet  your  bough."  Then  crouch- 
ing down,  he  stabbed  the  other  in  the  groin  which 
the  effort  of  his  blow  had  lifted  up,  till  the  hot  blood 
poured  out  from  the  black  lung  through  the  gaping 

In  other  parts  of  the  field  the  same  frenzy  raged, 
and  the  fighters  were  eager  to  slay  and  be  slain. 
Tall  lertes  slew  Nerius  ;  and  high-born  Vohmx,  the 
owner  of  broad  lands,  was  overthrown  by  Rullus. 




pondera  thesauris  patrio  nee  regia  quondam 
praefulgens  ebore  et  possessa  mapalia  soli 
profuerunt.     quid  rapta  iuvant  ?     quid  gentibus  auri 
numquam  extinctasitis  ?  modo  quern  Fortuna  fovendo 
congestis  opibus  donisque  refersit  opimis,  266 

nudum  Tartarea  portabit  navita  eymba. 

luxta  bellator  iuvenilibus  Appius  ausis 
pandebat  campum  caede  atque,  ubi  plurima  virtus 
nullique  aspirare  vigor,  decus  inde  petebat.  270 

obvius  huic  Atlans,  Atlans  a  litore  Hibero, 
nequiequam  extremae  longinquus  cultor  harenae, 
impetit  os  hasta,  leviterque  e  corpore  summo 
degustat  cuspis  generosum  extrema  cruorem. 
intonuere  minae,  violentaque  lumina  flammis         276 
exarsere  novis  ;  furit  et  difFulminat  omnem 
obstantum  turbam  ;  clausum  sub  casside  vulnus 
Martia  commendat  mananti  sanguine  membra, 
tum  vero  aspiceres  pavitantem  et  condere  semet 
nitentem  sociis  iuvenem,  ceu  tigride  cerva  280 

Hyrcana  cum  pressa  tremit,  vel  territa  pennas 
colligit  accipitrem  cernens  in  nube  columba, 
aut  dumis  subit,  albenti  si  sensit  in  aethra 
librantem  nisus  aquilam,  lepus.     ora  citato 
ense  ferit,  tum  coUa  viri  dextramque  micantem     285 
demetit  ac  mutat  successu  saevior  hostem. 

Stabat  fulgentem  portans  in  bella  bipennem 
Cinyphius  socerique  miser  Magonis  inire 
optabat  pugnam  ante  oculos  spe  laudis  Isalcas, 

"  Charon. 

"  The  Cinyps  is  a  river  of  N.  Africa  between  the  two 
Syrtes  :  at  its  mouth  there  was  a  town  of  the  same  name. 

PUNICA,  V.  262-289 

What  availed  him  now  all  his  treasure  locked  up  in 
secret  chambers,  or  his  kingly  palace,  once  shining 
with  African  ivory,  or  whole  villages  belonging  to  him 
alone  ?  The  wealth  he  seized  could  not  help  him,  or 
the  thirst  for  gold  that  men  can  never  slake.  The 
man  whom  Fortune  favoured  once  and  crammed  with 
piled-up  wealth  and  rich  gifts — him  now  shall  the 
Ferryman's  ^  boat  convey  naked  to  Tartarus. 

Near  them  fought  the  young  warrior  Appius,  cut- 
ting a  path  with  his  sword,  and  seeking  glory  where 
utmost  valour  was  needed  and  none  else  had  strength 
to  seek  it.  He  was  confronted  by  Atlas — Atlas  from 
the  Spanish  shore  ;  but  his  distant  home  by  the  out- 
most sea  did  not  save  him.  When  he  aimed  his  spear 
at  the  head  of  Appius,  the  point  alone  lightly  grazed 
the  skin  and  just  tasted  that  noble  blood.  Like  a 
thunder-peal  were  the  threats  of  Appius  ;  his  furious 
eyeballs  burned  with  fresh  fire  ;  the  lightning  of  his 
rage  scattered  all  in  his  path  ;  his  wound  was  hidden 
by  the  helmet,  and  the  flowing  blood  made  his  war- 
like figure  more  splendid.  Then  one  might  have 
seen  his  enemy  striving  in  terror  to  hide  behind  his 
comrades,  like  a  trembling  hind  pursued  by  a 
Hyrcanian  tigress,  or  like  a  pigeon  that  checks  her 
flight  when  she  sees  a  hawk  in  the  sky,  or  like  a 
hare  that  dives  into  the  thicket  at  sight  of  the  eagle 
hovering  with  outstretched  wings  in  the  cloudless  sky. 
He  was  wounded  in  the  face  by  the  furious  sword  ; 
then  Appius  cut  off  his  head  and  quivering  right 
hand,  and  sought  a  fresh  victim,  made  fiercer  by 
his  victory, 

Isalcas  stood  near ;  he  came  from  Cinyps,*  and  his 
weapon  was  a  shining  axe  ;  his  ambition,  poor  wretch, 
was  to  fight  and  win  glory  under  the  eyes  of  Mago, 



Sidonia  tumidus  sponsa  vanoque  superbus  290 

foedere  promissae  post  Dardana  proelia  taedae. 

huic  immittit  atrox  violentas  Appius  iras 

conantique  gravem  fronti  librare  securim, 

altior  insurgens,  galeam  super  exigit  ictum. 

at  fragilis  valido  conamine  solvitur  ensis  295 

aere  in  Cinyphio  ;  nee  dispar  sortis  Isalcas 

umbonem  incerto  detersit  futilis  ictu. 

turn  quod  humo  baud  umquani  valuisset  tollere  saxum, 

ni  vires  trux  ira  daret,  contorquet  anhelans 

Appius  et  lapsu  resupino  in  terga  cadentem  300 

mole  premit  scopuli  perfractisque  ossibus  urget. 

vidit  coniuncto  miscens  certamina  campo 

labentem  socer,  et  lacrimae  sub  casside  fusae 

cum  gemitu,  rapidusque  ruit  ;   data  foedera  nuper 

accendunt  animos  expectatique  nepotes.  305 

iamqueaderat  clipeumque  viri  atque  immania membra 

lustrabat  visu,  propiorque  a  fronte  coruscae 

lux  galeae  saevas  paulum  tardaverat  iras. 

baud  secus,  e  specula  praeceps  delatus  opaca, 

subsidens  campo  summissos  contrahit  artus,  310 

cum  vicina  trucis  conspexit  cornua  tauri, 

quamvis  longa  fames  stimulet,  leo  ;  nunc  ferus  alta 

surgentes  cervice  toros,  nunc  torva  sub  hirta 

lumina  miratur  fronte  ac  iam  signa  moventem 

et  sparsa  pugnas  meditantem  spectat  harena.         315 

hie  prior  intorquens  telum  sic  Appius  infit : 

"  si  qua  tibi  pietas,  ictum  ne  desere  foedus 

"  That    is,   his   prospective  father-in-law.      Mago  was 
Hannibal's  brother  and  one  of  his  chief  officers. 

PUNICA,  V.   290-317 

his  father-in-law  "  ;  for  he  was  proud  of  his  Cartha- 
ginian bride-to-be,  and  flattered  by  the  vain  promise 
that,  when  war  with  Rome  was  over,  they  should  be 
wedded.  HFieree  Appius  turned  his  furious  rage 
against  Isalcas,  and,  rising  to  his  full  height,  delivered 
his  stroke  at  the  helmet,  while  the  other  sought  to 
aim  his  heavy  axe  at  the  forehead.  But  the  brittle 
sword  broke  against  the  helmet  of  the  Cinyphian, 
so  sturdy  was  the  stroke.  Nor  was  Isalcas  more 
fortunate  :  he  missed  his  mark  and  only  cut  off  the 
boss  of  the  Roman's  shield.  Then  Appius,  breathing 
hard,  swung  aloft  a  stone,  which  he  could  never  have 
lifted  from  the  ground  but  for  the  strength  that  anger 
gave  him,  and  crushed  his  foe  as  he  fell  backwards 
with  the  heavy  boulder,  and  rammed  it  down  upon 
the  shattered  bones.  ,  Mago,  who  was  fighting  not 
far  away,  groaned  when  he  saw  his  son-in-law  fall, 
and  the  tears  fell  behind  his  helmet.  Then  he  rushed 
up  in  haste  ;  the  marriage  he  had  lately  approved, 
and  his  hope  of  grandchildren,  stirred  his  rage.  On 
he  came  and  surveyed  the  shield  and  the  huge  limbs 
of  Appius  ;  and  the  light  that  shone  from  the  front 
of  the  gleaming  helmet,  seen  at  close  quarters,  cooled 
his  fierce  wrath  for  a  space.  So  a  lion,  that  has  rushed 
down  from  a  wooded  height,  crouches  down  upon  the 
plain  and  gathers  his  limbs  under  him,  when  he  sees 
hard  by  the  horns  of  a  fierce  bull,  even  though  long 
fasting  urges  him  on  ;  the  beast  stares  now  at  the 
starting  muscles  on  the  great  neck,  and  now  at  the 
savage  eyes  beneath  the  shaggy  forehead,  and 
watches  the  bull  preparing  for  action  and  pawing 
the  dust  in  readiness  for  fight.  And  now  Appius 
was  first  to  brandish  his  spear,  and  thus  he  spoke  : 
*'  If  you  feel  the  ties  of  kindred,  then  be  true  to  the 



et  generum  comitare  socer."     per  tegmina  velox 

tunc  aerisque  moras  laevo  stetit  hasta  lacerto. 

at  contra  non  dicta  Libys,  sed  fervidus  hast  am       320 

perlibrat,  magni  donum  memorabile  fratris, 

caeso  quam  victor  sub  moenibus  ille  Sagunti 

abstulerat  Durio  ac  spectatae  nobile  pugnae 

germano  dederat  portare  in  proelia  pignus. 

telum  ingens  perque  arma  viri  perque  ora,  doloris  325 

adiutum  nisu,  letalem  pertulit  ictum  ; 

exsanguesque  viri  conantis  vellere  ferrum 

in  vulnus  cecidere  manus.     iacet  aequore  nomen 

clarum  Maeonio  atque  Italae  pars  magna  ruinae 

Appius  ;  intremuere  lacus,  corpusque  refugit         330 

contractis  Thrasymennus  aquis  ;  telum  ore  cruento 

expirans  premit  atque  admorsae  immurmurat  hastae. 

Nee  fati  melior  Mamercus  corpore  toto 
exsolvit  poenas,  nulli  non  saucius  hosti. 
namque  per  adversos,  qua  Lusitana  ciebat  335 

pugnas  dira  manus,  raptum  cum  sanguine  caesi 
signiferi  magna  vexillum  mole  ferebat 
et  trepida  infelix  revocabat  signa  suorum. 
sed  furiata  cohors  ausisque  accensa  superbis, 
quodcumque  ipsa  manu  gestabat  missile,  quicquid 
praebebat  tellus,  sparsis  vix  pervia  telis,  341 

iniecit  pariter,  pluresque  in  corpore  nullum 
invenere  locum  perfossis  ossibus  hastae. 

Advolat  interea,  fraterni  vulneris  ira 
turbatus,  Libyae  ductor  ;  visoque  cruore,  345 

"  Maeonian  =  Lydian=  Etruscan  :   see  note  to  iv.  721. 
''  Portuguese. 

PUNICA,  V.   318-345 

alliance  you  have  formed,  and  go  where  your  son- 
in-law  has  gone."  The  weapon  flew  through  the 
shield  and  the  brazen  armour,  and  stuck  fast  in  the 
left  shoulder.  Mago  made  no  reply,  but  fiercely 
levelled  his  spear,  the  famous  gift  that  his  great 
brother  gave  him  ;  for  beneath  the  walls  of  Saguntum 
Hannibal  had  taken  it  from  Durius  whom  he  had 
conquered  and  slain,  and  had  given  it  to  his  brother 
to  bear  in  battle,  the  glorious  token  of  a  famous 
contest.  The  huge  weapon,  made  more  formidable 
by  the  rage  of  the  thrower,  passed  through  the  helmet 
and  the  head  of  Appius,  dealing  a  fatal  wound.  His 
bloodless  hands,  seeking  to  pluck  forth  the  weapon, 
fell  helpless  upon  the  wound.  Low  on  the  Maeonian  ** 
plain  lies  Appius,  that  famous  name  ;  and  much  of 
Italy's  might  fell  with  him.  The  lake  shivered,  and 
Trasimene  withdrew  its  waters  from  contact  with  the 
body.  The  bleeding  mouth  of  the  dying  man  closed 
on  the  weapon  and  muttered  as  it  bit  the  spear. 

Nor  was  Mamercus  more  fortunate  :  he  suffered  in 
every  limb  and  was  wounded  by  every  foe.  He  had 
killed  a  standard-bearer  and  seized  the  heavy  stan- 
dard ;  and  now  he  was  carrying  it  through  the  enemy's 
ranks,  where  a  fierce  company  of  Lusitanians  ^  were 
fighting.  He  was  rallying  the  wavering  eagles  of  the 
Romans,  when  the  Lusitanians,  maddened  to  fury  by 
his  bold  action,  hurled  at  the  unhappy  man  every 
weapon  they  carried  themselves  or  that  they  could 
pick  up  from  the  ground,  covered  so  thick  with  missiles 
that  movement  was  scarce  possible.  Even  his  bones 
were  pierced  ;  and  scarce  could  half  of  the  spears 
find  room  in  his  body. 

Meanwhile  Hannibal  came  up  in  haste,  stirred  to 
anger  by  his  brother's  wound.     Distracted  at  sight 



num  lateri  cuspis,  num  toto  pondere  telum 

sedisset,  fratremque  amens  sociosque  rogabat. 

utque  metum  leti  procul  et  leviora  pavore 

cognovit,  proprio  tectum  gestamine  praeceps 

ex  acie  rapit  et  tutis  a  turbine  pugnae  350 

constituit  castris.     medicas  hinc  ocius  artes 

et  senioris  opem  Synhali  vocat ;  unguere  vulnus 

herbarum  hie  sucis  ferrumque  e  corpore  cantu 

exigere  et  somnum  tacto  misisse  chelydro, 

anteibat  cunctos,  nomenque  erat  inde  per  urbes    355 

perque  Paraetoniae  celebratum  litora  Syrtis. 

ipse  olim  antique  primum  Garamanticus  Hammon 

scire  pater  dederat  Synhalo,  morsusque  ferarum 

telorumque  graves  ictus  sedare  medendo. 

atque  is  deinde  suo  moriens  caelestia  dona  360 

monstravit  nato,  natusque  heredis  honori 

tramisit  patrias  artes  ;  quern  deinde  secutus 

baud  levior  fama  Synhalus  Garamantica  sollers 

monstrata  augebat  studio  multaque  vetustum 

Hammonis  comitem  numerabat  imagine  patrem.   365 

turn,  proavita  ferens  leni  medicamina  dextra, 

ocius,  intortos  de  more  astrictus  amictus, 

mulcebat  lympha  purgatum  sanguine  vulnus. 

at  Mago,  exuvias  secum  caesique  volutans 

hostis  mente  necem,  fraternas  pectore  curas  370 

pellebat  dictis  et  casum  laude  levabat  : 

**  parce  metu,  germane,    meis  medicamina  nulla 

adversis  maiora  feres  ;  iacet  Appius  hasta 

«  See  i.  412. 

*  See  note  to  ill.  225. 
"  See  note  to  i.  415. 

**  The  first  Synhalus  was  so  famous  that  busts  of  him  were 
often  to  be  seen. 

*  The  object  was  presumably  to  leave  their  hands  free. 

PUNICA,  V.   346-373 

of  the  blood,  he  kept  asking  Mago  and  his  companions 
whether  the  wound  was  in  the  body,  and  whether 
the  spear  had  struck  home  with  all  its  weight.  When 
he  heard  better  news  than  he  dreaded,  and  that 
danger  of  death  was  remote,  he  covered  Mago  with 
his  own  shield,  and  hurried  him  off  the  field,  and 
lodged  him  in  the  camp,  safe  from  the  storm  of  battle. 
Next  he  made  haste  to  summon  the  skill  of  the  healer 
and  the  aid  of  ancient  Synhalus.  Synhalus  surpassed 
all  men  in  anointing  a  wound  with  the  juices  of 
simples  ;  he  could  draw  a  weapon  forth  from  the  body 
by  incantation  and  send  snakes  to  sleep  by  stroking 
them.**  Hence  his  fame  was  great  through  the  cities 
of  Libya  and  the  shores  of  Egyptian  ^  Syrtis.  In 
ancient  days  the  first  Synhalus  had  learnt  from  his 
father,  Ammon*'  himself,  the  deity  of  the  Garaman- 
tes,  how  to  give  relief  and  healing  to  men  bitten 
by  wild  beasts  or  sore  wounded  in  battle  ;  and  he, 
when  dying,  revealed  the  divine  gift  to  his  son  ; 
and  the  son  bequeathed  his  father's  skill,  to  make 
his  heir  glorious  ;  and  next  in  succession  came 
this  Synhalus,  no  less  famous  than  his  sires.  By 
his  sagacity  and  by  study  he  added  to  the  lore  of 
Ammon,  and  could  point  to  his  ancestor,  the  ancient 
comrade  of  Ammon,  on  many  a  bust.**  Now  with 
healing  hand  he  brought  the  remedies  his  ancestors 
had  used  ;  his  garments  were  wound  tightly  about 
his  loins,  as  the  custom  of  physicians  is  ^ ;  and  quickly 
he  cleansed  the  wound  of  blood  and  soothed  it  by 
washing.  But  Mago,  reflecting  on  the  death  and 
spoiling  of  his  foe,  comforted  his  brother  by  his  words, 
and  made  light  of  a  mishap  so  glorious  :  **  Fear  no- 
thing, brother,"  he  said.  "  You  can  apply  no  more 
potent  remedy  to  my  suffering  than  this — that  Appius 



ad  manes  pulsus  nostra,     si  vita  relinquat, 

sat  nobis  actum  est,  sequar  hostem  laetus  ad  umbras." 

Quae  dum  turbatos  avertunt  aequore  campi       376 
ductores  valloque  tenent,  ex  agmine  Poenum 
cedentem  consul  tumulo  speculatus  ab  alto 
atque  atram  belli  castris  se  condere  nubem, 
turbidus  extemplo  trepidantes  milite  lecto^  380 

invadit  cuneos  subitoque  pavore  relaxat 
lam  rarescentes  acies  ;  turn  voce  feroci 
poscit  equum  ac  mediae  ruit  in  certamina  vallis. 
sic  ubi  torrentem  crepitanti  grandine  nimbum 
illidit  terris  molitus  lupiter  altas  385 

fulmine  nunc  Alpes,  nunc  mixta  Ceraunia  caelo, 
intremuere  simul  tellus  et  pontus  et  aether, 
ipsaque  commoto  quatiuntur  Tartara  mundo. 
incidit  attonitis  inopino  turbine  Poenis 
haud  secus  improvisa  lues,  gelidusque  sub  ossa       390 
pervasit  miseris  conspecti  consulis  horror, 
it  medius  ferroque  ruens  densissima  latum 
pandit  iter,     clamor  vario  discrimine  vocum 
fert  belli  rabiem  ad  superos  et  sidera  pulsat. 
ceu  pater  Oceanus  cum  saeva  Tethye  Calpen         395 
Herculeam  ferit  atque  exesa  in  viscera  montis 
contortum  pelagus  latrantibus  ingerit  undis  : 
dant  gemitum  scopuli,  fractasque  in  rupibus  undas 
audit  Tartessus  latis  distermina  terris, 
audit  non  parvo  divisus  gurgite  Lixus.  400 

Ante  omnes  iaculo  tacitas  fallente  per  auras 

^  lecto  Heinsius :  laeto  edd. 

"  Hannibal  is  the  cloud. 

*  A  mountain-range  on  the  west  coast  of  Epirus. 

"  Calpe  (Gibraltar)  is  one  of  the  Pillars  of  Hercules. 

•*  See  note  to  vi.  1 


PUNICA,  V.   374-401 

lies  low,  sent  to  the  nether  world  by  my  spear.  Even 
if  I  lose  my  life,  I  have  done  enough  and  shall  gladly 
follow  my  foe  to  the  shades." 

While  this  mischance  disturbed  the  leaders,  taking 
them  from  the  battle-field  and  penning  them  in  the 
camp,  Flaminius,  watching  from  a  high  mound,  saw 
Hannibal  leave  the  fighting-line  and  the  black  cloud 
of  war  «  disappear  within  the  camp.  At  once  in  fury 
he  attacked  the  wavering  enemy  with  a  picked  force, 
and  the  sudden  alarm  opened  up  the  ranks  that  were 
already  growing  thin  ;  then  he  called  fiercely  for  his 
horse,  and  rushed  into  the  conflict  in  the  centre  of 
the  valley.  So,  when  Jupiter  smites  the  earth  with 
pouring  rain  and  crackling  hail,  and  stirs  with  his 
thunderbolt  now  the  Alpine  heights  and  now  the 
Ceraunian  ^  mountains  that  reach  to  heaven,  earth 
and  sea  and  sky  all  quake  together,  and  Tartarus 
itself  is  shaken  in  the  convulsion  of  the  universe. 
Even  so  the  sudden  storm  of  unforeseen  destruction 
fell  upon  the  startled  Carthaginians,  and  cold  terror 
made  its  way  into  their  bones,  when  they  saw  the 
consul.  He  rode  through  their  midst,  making  a  wide 
passage  and  hewing  down  with  his  sword  the  ranks 
where  they  were  thickest.  The  shouting  with  all  its 
discordant  cries  carried  the  madness  of  war  to  heaven, 
and  struck  the  stars.  So  Father  Ocean  together  with 
raging  Tethys  beats  on  Calpe,*'  a  Pillar  of  Hercules, 
and  drives  the  churned-up  sea  with  its  roaring  waves 
into  the  hollow  interior  of  the  mountain ;  the  cliffs 
bellow ;  and  the  crash  of  the  breakers  on  the  rocks 
is  heard  by  Tartessus^  far-parted  by  broad  lands,  and 
heard  by  Lixus  *  across  a  great  space  of  sea. 

Bogus  /  was  the  first  to  fall,  by  a  javelin  that  came 

•  A  river  and  town  in  Morocco.  '  See  iv.  131. 



occumbit  Bogus,  infaustum  qui  primus  ad  amnem 
Ticini  rapidam  in  Rutulos  contorserat  hastam. 
ille  sibi  longam  Clotho  turbamque  nepotum 
crediderat,  vanis  deceptus  in  alite  signis.  405 

sed  non  augurio  Parcarum  impellere  metas 
concessum  cuiquam  :  ruit  inter  tela  cruentis 
suspiciens  oculis  caelum  superosque  reposcit 
tempora  promissae  media  iam  morte  senectae. 
nee  Bagaso  exultare  daturve  impune  relictum,       410 
consulis  ante  oculos  vita  spoliasse  Libonem. 
laurigeris  decus  illud  avis  navaque  iuventa 
florebat ;  sed  Massylus  succiderat  ensis 
pubescente  caput  mala,  properoque  virentes 
delerat  leto  bellator  barbarus  annos.  415 

Flaminium  implorasse  tamen  iam  morte  suprema 
baud  frustra  fuit  ;  avulsa  est  nam  protinus  hosti 
ore  simul  cervix  ;  iuvit  punire  feroci 
victorem  exemplo  et  monstratum  reddere  letum. 

Quis  deus,  o  Musae,  paribus  tot  funera  verbis    420 
evolvat  ?     tantisque  umbris  in  carmine  digna 
quis  lamenta  ferat  ?     certantes  laude  cadendi 
primaevos  iuvenes  mortisque  in  limine  cruda 
facta  virum  et  fixis  rabiem  sub  pectore  telis  ? 
sternitur  alternus  vastis  concursibus  hostis,  425 

nee  spoliare  vacat  praedaeque  advertere  mentem. 
urget  amor  caedum,  clausis  dum  detinet  hostem 
fraternum  castris  vulnus,  fundi tque  ruitque 
nunc  iaculis,  nunc  ense,  modo  inter  milia  consul 
bellantum  conspectus  equo,  modo  Marte  feroci      430 
ante  aquilas  et  signa  pedes,     fluit  impia  rivis 


PUNICA,   V.   402-431 

stealing  noiselessly  through  the  sky.  He  had  launched 
the  first  flying  spear  against  the  Romans  by  the  ill- 
omened  river  of  Ticinus.  Beguiled  by  deceitful 
omens  from  birds,  he  had  believed  that  he  would 
live  long  and  see  many  children  of  his  children. 
But  no  man  may  postpone  by  augury  the  date  that 
Fate  has  fixed.  He  fell  in  the  battle,  looking  up 
to  heaven  with  blood-shot  eyes,  and  calling  upon 
the  gods,  even  as  he  died,  to  redeem  their  promise 
of  old  age.  Nor  might  Bagasus  triumph  or  escape 
unpunished,  when  he  had  slain  Libo  in  the  consul's 
sight.  Libo's  ancestors  had  won  laurels,  and  he  was 
glorious  in  his  vigorous  youth  ;  but  the  sword  of  the 
Massylian  cut  off  the  head  on  which  the  beard  was 
just  growing,  and  the  savage  warrior  cut  down  by  an 
early  death  the  blossom  of  youth.  But  he  cried  to 
Flaminius,  even  as  life  left  him,  and  his  cry  was  not 
vain ;  for,  head  and  all,  the  foeman's  neck  was  instantly 
shorn  away  :  glad  was  he  to  imitate  the  conqueror's 
cruelty  and  to  slay  him  even  as  he  had  slain. 

Ye  Muses,  what  god  could  narrate  so  many  deaths 
in  fitting  language  ?  What  poet  could  utter  a  dirge 
worthy  of  the  mighty  dead  ?  Who  could  tell  of  the 
striplings  contending  with  one  another  for  the  prize 
of  death  ;  of  the  brave  deeds  done  on  the  brink  of 
the  grave  ;  of  the  fury  that  filled  breasts  pierced 
with  wounds  ?  Foe  clashed  furiously  against  foe  and 
fell ;  and  none  found  time  to  spoil  his  victim  or  think 
of  plunder.  They  were  driven  on  by  thirst  for  blood, 
while  Hannibal  was  kept  close  in  camp  by  his  brother's 
wound.  Among  the  myriad  warriors  Flaminius, 
spreading  destruction  with  javelin  or  sword,  was  now 
conspicuous  on  horseback,  and  now  fought  fiercely 
on  foot,  in  front  of  the  eagles  and  standards.     The 



sanguineis  vallis,  tumulique  et  concava  saxa 
armorum  sonitus  flatusque  imitantur  equorum. 

Miscebat  campum,  membrorum  in  proelia  portans 
Celsius  humano  robur,  visaque  paventes  435 

mole  gigantei  vertebat  corporis  alas 
Othrys  Marmarides  ;  lati  super  agmen  utrumque 
ingens  tollebant  humeri  caput,  hirtaque  torvae 
frontis  caesaries  et  crinibus  aemula  barba 
umbrabat  rictus  ;  squalore  hie  hispida  diro  440 

et  villosa  feris  horrebat  pectora  saetis. 
aspirare  viro  propioremque  addere  Martem 
haud  ausum  cuiquam  :  laxo  ceu  belua  campo 
incessebatur  tutis  ex  agmine  telis. 
tandem  vesanos  palantum  in  terga  ferenti  445 

cum  fremitu  vultus  tacita  per  nubila  penna 
intravit  torvum  Gortynia  lumen  harundo 
avertitque  virum.      fugientis  ad  agmina  consul 
intorquet  tergo  iaculum,  quod  tegmine  nudas 
irrupit  costas  hirtoque  a  pectore  primum  450 

mucronem  ostendit.     rapidus  convellere  tentat, 
qua  nasci  ferrum  fulgenti  cuspide  cernit, 
donee,  abundanter  defuso  sanguine,  late 
procubuit  moriens  et  telum  vulnere  pressit. 
spiritus  exundans  vicinum  pulvere  moto  455 

perflavit  campum  et  nubem  dispersit  in  auras. 

Nee  minor  interea  tumulis  silvisque  fremebat 
diversis  Mavors,  variaque  per  ardua  pugna 
et  saxa  et  dumi  rorantes  caede  nitebant, 
exitium  trepidis  letique  et  stragis  acerbae  460 

«  See  note  to  ii.  90. 

PUNICA,  V.   432-460 

accursed  valley  ran  with  blood  ;  and  the  hills  and 
hollow  rocks  echoed  the  clashing  of  arms  and  the 
snorting  of  horses. 

The  combatants  were  scattered  by  Othrys  of  Mar- 
marica,  who  brought  to  battle  superhuman  strength 
and  stature  ;  and  the  mere  sight  of  his  huge  frame 
turned  the  Roman  troops  to  flight.  His  giant  head 
rose  on  broad  shoulders  high  over  both  armies,  and 
his  mouth  was  hidden  by  the  shaggy  locks  that  grew 
on  his  grim  forehead,  and  by  a  beard  that  rivalled 
his  hair  ;  a  matted  growth  of  bristles,  like  a  wild 
beast's  fell,  covered  his  hairy  chest.  None  dared  to 
challenge  him  or  fight  him  at  close  quarters  :  like  a 
wild  beast  in  the  open  plain,  he  was  assailed  by 
missiles  thrown  from  a  safe  distance  by  the  host.  At 
last  as,  shouting  loud,  he  rushed  with  furioiis  face 
against  the  backs  of  the  straggling  Romans,  a 
Cretan  °  arrow,  flying  noiselessly  through  the  air, 
pierced  his  threatening  eye  and  stopped  his  course. 
As  he  fled  to  the  main  body,  Flaminius  cast  a  javelin 
at  his  back ;  and  it  pierced  the  undefended  ribs  and  re- 
vealed its  point  sticking  out  beyond  the  shaggy  breast. 
Quickly  he  strove  to  pluck  it  forth,  where  he  saw  the 
bright  steel  point  protrude.  At  last,  after  losing  much 
blood,  he  fell  forward  in  death,  covering  much  ground, 
and  hid  the  weapon  with  his  wounded  breast.  His 
breath,  as  it  poured  forth,  stirred  the  dust,  blowing 
over  the  plain  beside  him  and  raising  a  cloud  into 
the  sky. 

Meanwhile,  fighting  as  fierce  went  raging  on, 
over  the  scattered  hills  and  woods  ;  and  rocks  and 
thickets  were  wet  and  red  with  manifold  encounters 
fought  over  the  rough  ground.  Sychaeus  was  the 
destroyer  of  the  fugitives,  bringing  death  upon  them 



causa  Sychaeus  erat ;   Murranum  ille  eminus  hasta 
perculerat,  quo  non  alius,  cum  bella  silerent, 
dulcius  Oeagrios  pulsabat  pectine  nervos. 
occubuit  silva  in  magna  patriosque  sub  ipso 
quaesivit  montes  leto  ac  felicia  Baccho  465 

Aequana  et  Zephyro  Surrentum  molle  salubri. 
addiderat  misero  comitem  pugnaeque  ferocis 
gaudebat  tristi  victor  novitate  Sychaeus. 
palantes  nam  dum  sequitur,  pervaserat  altam 
in  silvam  et  priscae  reclinis  ab  ictibus  ulmi  470 

terga  tuebatur  trunco  frustraque  relictos 
Tauranus  comites  suprema  voce  ciebat. 
transegit  iuvenem,  ac  perfossis  incita  membris 
haesit  in  opposito  cuspis  Sidonia  ligno. 

Quid  vobis  ?  quaenam  ira  deum,  vel  mente  sinistra 
quae  sedit  formido,  viri  ?   qui,  Marte  relicto,  476 

ramorum  quaesistis  opem.     non  aequus  in  artis 
nimirum  rebus  suasor  metus  ;  arguit  asper 
exitus  eventu  pravi  consulta  timoris. 
annosa  excelsos  tendebat  in  aethera  ramos  480 

aesculus,  umbrosum  magnas  super  ardua  silvas 
nubibus  insertans  altis  caput,  instar,  aperto 
si  staret  campo,  nemoris  lateque  tenebat 
frondosi  nigra  tellurem  roboris  umbra, 
par  iuxta  quercus,  longum  molita  per  aevum  485 

vertice  canenti  proferre  sub  astra  cacumen, 
difFusas  patulo  laxabat  stipite  frondes 
umbrabatque  coma  summi  fastigia  mentis, 
hue  Hennaea  cohors,  Triquetris  quam  miserat  oris 

*•  Oeagrus,  a  Thracian,  was  father  of  Orpheus. 

"  Now  Sorrento,  on  the  coast  of  Campania. 

"  Hiero  II.,  king  of  Syracuse,  a  staunch  ally  of  Rome: 
Arethusa  is  a  fountain  in  Syracuse.  For  Henna  see  note  to 
i.  93. 


PUNICA,  V.   461-489 

and  untimely  slaughter.  His  spear  struck  down  from 
afar  Murranus,  who,  in  times  of  peace,  was  surpassed 
by  none  in  drawing  sweet  strains  from  the  lyre  of 
Orpheus."  He  fell  in  a  great  forest  and  even  in  death 
recalled  the  mountains  of  his  home,  the  vine-clad 
Aequan  hills  and  soft  Surrentum  ^  with  its  healthful 
breezes.  Then  Sychaeus  sent  another  to  keep  com- 
pany with  Murranus  ;  and  the  conqueror  rejoiced  in 
the  strange  manner  of  that  cruel  death.  For  Tau- 
ranus,  while  following  the  stragglers,  had  found  his 
way  to  a  high  wood,  where  he  leant  his  back  against 
an  ancient  elm-tree  and  tried  to  shield  himself  with 
its  trunk  against  attack  ;  and  there  with  his  last 
words  he  summoned  the  comrades  he  had  left  behind. 
In  vain  ;  for  the  spear  of  Sychaeus  pierced  him,  and, 
after  swiftly  passing  through  his  body,  lodged  in  the 
tree  that  stood  in  its  path. 

What  ailed  ye,  O  men  ?  Was  it  divine  wrath  or 
disastrous  panic  that  possessed  your  minds,  when  you 
gave  up  fighting  and  sought  help  in  trees  ?  Fear  is 
indeed  an  evil  counsellor  in  danger  :  the  stern  issue 
proved  that  cowardice  gives  bad  advice.  An  ancient 
oak  grew  there,  which  shot  its  tall  branches  to  the 
sky,  thrusting  its  shady  top  into  the  clouds  and 
towering  over  the  forest  ;  had  it  grown  on  the  open 
plain,  it  would  have  looked  like  a  whole  grove  ;  and 
it  covered  a  wide  space  of  ground  with  the  dark  shade 
of  its  foliage.  Beside  it  grew  another  oak  of  equal 
size,  that  had  striven  for  centuries  to  exalt  its  hoary 
head  to  the  sky  ;  the  spreading  trunk  was  crowned 
with  a  vast  circle  of  leafage  that  overshadowed  the 
top  of  the  mountain.  Hither  flew  in  haste  men  of 
Henna,  whom  the  king  of  Arethusa  ^  had  sent  from 



rex,  Arethusa,  tuus,  defendere  nescia  morti  490 

dedecus  et  mentem  nimio  mutata  pavore, 

certatim  sese  tulit  ascendensque  vicissim 

pressit  nutantes  incerto  pondere  ramos. 

mox  alius  super  atque  alius  consistere  tuto 

dum  certant,  pars  excussi  (nam  fragmine  putri       495 

ramorum  et  senio  male  fida  fefellerat  arbor) 

pars  trepidi  celso  inter  tela  cacumine  pendent. 

turbatos  una  properans  consumere  peste, 

corripit  aeratam  iam  dudum  in  bella  bipennem, 

deposito  clipeo  mutatus  tela,  Sychaeus.  600 

incumbunt  sociae  dextrae,  magnoque  fragore 

pulsa  gemit,  crebris  suceumbens  ictibus,  arbos. 

fluctuat  infelix  concusso  stipite  turba, 

ceu  Zephyrus  quatit  antiques  ubi  flamine  lucos, 

fronde  super  tremuli  vix  tota  cacuminis  haerens    505 

iactatur,  nido  pariter  nutante,  volucris. 

procubuit  tandem  multa  devicta  securi 

sufFugium  infelix  miseris  et  inhospita  quercus 

elisitque  virum  spatiosa  membra  ruina. 

Inde  aliae  cladum  facies.     contermina  caedis     510 
collucet  rapidoque  involvitur  aesculus  igni. 
iamque  inter  frondes,  arenti  robore  gliscens 
verticibus  saevis,  torquet  Vulcanus  anhelos 
cum  fervore  globos  flammarum  et  culmina  torret. 
nee  tela  interea  cessant.     semusta  gementum        515 
atque  amplexa  cadunt  ardentes  corpora  ramos. 

Haec  inter  miseranda  virum  certamina  consul 
ecce  aderat,  volvens  iram  exitiumque  Sychaeo. 
at  iuvenis  dubio  tantae  discrimine  pugnae 
occupat  eventum  telo  tentare  priorem  ;  520 

"  The  fire-god  is  represented  as  doing  the  work  of  fire 
see  iv.  681. 


PUNICA,  V.   490-520 

Sicily  ;  they  knew  not  how  to  preserve  death  from 
disgrace,  and  they  were  mad  with  terror.  One  after 
another  they  cHmbed  aloft  and  bent  the  swaying 
branches  with  their  shifting  weight.  Then,  as  one 
climbed  above  another  in  his  eagerness  to  reach  a 
place  of  safety,  some  fell  to  the  ground,  deceived  by 
the  rotten  boughs  and  decay  of  the  treacherous  tree, 
while  others  hung  in  terror  in  the  lofty  tree-top,  a 
mark  for  missiles.  Eager  to  destroy  them  all  in 
their  distress  by  the  same  death,  Sychaeus  changed 
his  weapon  :  he  laid  down  his  shield  and  caught  up  at 
once  his  brazen  battle-axe.  His  comrades  lent  a  hand, 
and  the  tree,  yielding  to  repeated  blows,  creaked  with 
a  crashing  sound.  The  wretched  fugitives  toss  to 
and  fro  when  the  trunk  is  smitten  ;  as,  when  the 
blast  of  the  West- wind  rocks  ancient  groves,  the  bird 
and  her  nest  also  are  tossed  about,  and  she  can 
scarce  find  foothold  on  the  swaying  tree-top.  At 
last  the  unfriendly  oak,  a  sorry  refuge  in  trouble, 
fell  under  the  blows  of  many  axes,  and  crushed  the 
men's  limbs  in  its  far-spreading  downfall. 

Other  forms  of  disaster  followed.  The  other  oak, 
close  to  the  scene  of  slaughter,  took  fire  and  was  soon 
wrapped  in  flames.  And  now  among  the  leaves,  spread- 
ing with  fierce  eddies  over  the  dry  wood,  Vulcan  « 
brandished  tongues  of  fire  with  panting  heat  and 
scorched  the  topmost  branches.  And  all  the  time 
the  shooting  went  on ;  and  half-burnt  bodies, 
clutching  at  blazing  branches,  fell  shrieking  to  the 

In  the  midst  of  these  pitiful  conflicts,  see  !  Fla- 
minius  arrives,  with  wrath  in  his  heart  and  destruction 
for  Sychaeus.  The  young  man,  fearing  the  danger  of 
so  mighty  a  duel,  was  first  to  try  his  fortune  with  his 


cui  medio  leviter  clipeo  stetit  aeris  in  ora 
cuspis  et  oppositas  vetita  est  tramittere  crates, 
sed  non  et  consul  misso  concredere  telo 
fortunam  optatae  caedis  parat  ac  latus  ense 
haurit ;  nee  crudae  tardarunt  tegmina  parmae.      525 
labitur  infelix  atque  appetit  ore  cruento 
tellurem  expirans.     turn,  difFundente  per  artus 
frigore  se  Stygio,  manantem  in  viscera  mortem 
accipit  et  longo  componit  lumina  somno. 

Atque  ea  dum  variis  permixtus  tristia  Mavors    530 
casibus  alternat,  iam  castris  Mago  relictis, 
iam  Libyae  ductor  properantia  signa  citato 
raptabant  cursu  et  cessata  reponere  avebant 
tempora  caede  virum  ac  multo  pensare  cruore. 
it  globus  intorquens  nigranti  turbine  nubem  535 

pulveris,  et  surgit  sublatis  campus  harenis  ; 
quaque  ferens  gressum  flectit  vestigia  ductor, 
undanti  circum  tempestas  acta  procella 
volvitur  atque  altos  operit  caligine  montes. 
occubuere  femur  Fontanus,  Buta  canorum  540 

transfixi  guttur,  pressoque  e  vulnere  cuspis 
prospexit  terga  :   hunc  tristes  luxere  Fregellae 
multiplicem  proavis,  hunc  mater  Anagnia  flevit. 
baud  dispar  fortuna  tibi,  Laevine,  sed  auso 
non  eadem  ;  neque  enim  Tyrio  concurrere  regi      545 
tentas,  sed  lectus  par  ad  certamen  Ithemon, 
Autololum  moderator,  erat  ;   quem  poplite  caeso 
dum  spoliat,  gravis  immiti  cum  turbine  costas 
fraxinus  irrupit,  collapsaque  membra  sub  ictu 
hoste  super  fuso  subita  cecidere  ruina.  550 

•*  Fregellae  was  an  ancient  Volscian  town  :    Anagnia  was 
the  chief  town  of  the  Hernici :   both  were  near  Rome. 


PUNICA,  V.   521-550 

spear ;  but  the  weapon  lodged  lightly  on  the  brazen 
plate  in  the  centre  of  the  shield,  unable  to  pierce 
the  wicker-work  in  its  path.  The  consul,  unlike  his 
rival,  was  not  willing  to  trust  to  his  spear  for  success 
in  the  victory  he  desired :  he  stabbed  Sychaeus  in 
the  body  with  his  sword  ;  and  the  round  shield  of 
raw  leather  failed  to  stop  it.  The  victim  fell  and,  as 
he  died,  bit  the  earth  with  bleeding  mouth.  Then, 
as  the  fatal  chill  spread  through  his  frame,  and  death 
made  its  way  to  his  vital  parts,  he  suffered  it,  and 
closed  his  eyes  in  eternal  sleep. 

While  the  battle  went  on  thus,  with  varying  fortune 
and  such  scenes  of  horror,  Mago  and  Hannibal  had 
already  left  the  camp,  and  were  hurrying  their  troops 
on  with  speedy  march,  eager  to  make  up  for  lost  time 
by  slaying  Romans,  and  to  make  it  good  by  much 
bloodshed.  On  came  their  troops,  raising  a  black 
cloud  of  whirling  dust ;  the  sand  rose  and  lifted 
the  soil  with  it ;  and,  wherever  Hannibal  moved  and 
turned  his  steps,  the  storm  of  war,  driven  by  a  billowy 
tempest,  rolled  in  all  directions  and  veiled  the  high 
mountains  with  darkness.  Fontanus  fell,  pierced 
in  the  thigh  ;  pierced  was  the  throat  of  Buta,  the 
minstrel,  and  the  spear-point  stuck  out  beyond  the 
sore  wound  and  beheld  his  back.  The  first,  a  man  of 
long  descent,  was  mourned  by  Fregellae  ° ;  and  his 
native  Anagnia  wept  for  the  other.  Laevinus  fared  no 
better,  though  he  had  been  less  bold  ;  not  daring  to 
challenge  Hannibal,  he  had  chosen  Ithemon,  a  captain 
of  Autololes,  as  a  fitting  rival.  Him  he  had  ham- 
strung and  was  stripping  him,  when  the  heavy 
ashen  spear  with  furious  force  broke  in  his  ribs  : 
and  he  collapsed  under  the  blow  and  fell  instantly 
on  the  corpse  of  his  prostrate  foe. 



Nee  Sidieina  eohors  defit.     Viriasius  armat 
mille  viros,  nulli  vietus  vel  ponere  eastra, 
vel  iunxisse  ratem  duroque  resolvere  muros 
ariete  et  in  turrim  subitos  immittere  pontes, 
quern  postquam  Libyae  duetor  virtute  feroci  655 

exultare  videt  (namque  illi  vulnere  praeeeps 
terga  dabat  levibus  diffisus  Araurieus  armis) 
acrius  hoc,  pulehro  Mavorte  aeeensus  in  iram 
et  dignum  sese  ratus  in  certamina  saevo 
comminus  ire  viro,  referenti  e  corpore  telum  660 

advolat  et  fodiens  pectus  :   "  laudande  laborum, 
quisquis  es,  haud  alia  decuit  te  occumbere  dextra. 
ad  manes  leti  perfer  decus.     Itala  gentis 
ni  tibi  origo  foret,  vita  donatus  abires." 
hinc  Fadum  petit  et  veterem  bellare  Labicum,      565 
cui  Siculis  quondam  terris  congressus  Hamilcar 
clarum  spectato  dederat  certamine  nomen. 
immemor  annorum  seniumque  oblitus,  in  arma 
ille  quidem  cruda  mente  et  viridissimus  irae 
ibat,  sed  vani  frigentem  in  Marte  senectam  570 

prodebant  ictus  ;  stipula  crepitabat  inani 
ignis  iners  cassamque  dabat  sine  robore  flammam. 
quem  postquam  accepit  patrio  monstrante  superbus 
armigero  Poenum  duetor  :   "  certamina  primae 
hie  lue  nunc,"  inquit,  "  pugnae  ;  te  notus  Hamilcar 
hactrahit  ad  manes  dextra."    turn  librat  ab  aure    576 
intorquens  iaculum  et  versantem  in  vulnere  sese 
transigit.     extracta  foedavit  cuspide  sanguis 
canitiem  et  longos  finivit  morte  labores. 

"  Teanum  Sidicinum  is  the  full  name  of  this  Campanian 

^  This  must  have  been  in  the  First  Punic  War. 

PUNICA,  V.  551-579 

Nor  were  the  men  of  Sidicinum  «  backward.  A 
thousand  of  them  served  under  Viriasius,  who  had  no 
superior  in  pitching  a  camp  or  building  a  raft  or 
battering  walls  with  the  tough  ram  or  planting  im- 
provised gangways  against  a  tower.  But  Hannibal 
saw  him  exulting  in  his  prowess,  because  Arauricus, 
distrusting  his  light  armour,  fled  wounded  before  him 
in  hot  haste  ;  and  his  ardour  was  kindled  by  the 
prospect  of  a  glorious  combat ;  and  he  thought  it  not 
beneath  him  to  close  in  conflict  with  the  fierce  warrior. 
As  Viriasius  drew  his  spear  forth  from  the  body  of 
Arauricus,  Hannibal  rushed  up  and  stabbed  him  in 
the  breast,  crying  :  "  Famous  fighter,  whoever  you 
are,  you  deserved  to  fall  by  no  hand  but  mine  ;  carry 
down  to  the  shades  the  glory  of  your  death  ;  had  not 
the  land  of  Italy  given  you  birth,  I  should  have 
suffered  you  to  depart  alive."  Next  he  attacked 
Fadus  and  the  veteran  Labicus,  whom  Hamilcar  had 
once  fought  in  Sicily  ^  and  made  famous  by  a  memor- 
able contest.  Unmindful  of  his  years  and  forgetting 
his  age,  he  came  forth  now  to  battle.  He  kept  his 
youthful  ardour  and  all  the  passion  of  youth  ;  but 
his  feeble  blows  betrayed  the  weakness  of  the  aged 
warrior  :  so  a  fire  of  straw  crackles  to  no  purpose 
and  blazes  up  with  no  strength  and  no  effect.  When 
Hannibal  learnt  his  name  from  Hamilcar 's  armour- 
bearer,  he  cried  exultingly  :  **  Here  and  now  you 
shall  pay  the  penalty  for  the  first  battle  in  which  you 
fought :  the  famous  Hamilcar  uses  my  arm  to  send 
you  down  to  the  shades."  Then  he  raised  a  javelin 
to  his  ear  and  threw  it,  and  then  ran  him  through  as 
he  lay  writhing  upon  his  wound.  When  the  weapon 
was  drawn  forth,  the  blood  defiled  his  grey  hairs,  and 
death  ended  his  long  service.    Herminius  likewise  was 



nee  minus  Herminium  primis  obtruneat  in  armis,  580 
assuetum,  Thrasymenne,  tuos  praedantibus  hamis 
exhaurire  laeus  patriaeque  alimenta  senectae 
ducere  suspense  per  stagna  iacentia  lino. 

Interea  exanimum  maesti  super  arma  Sychaeum 
portabant  Poeni  corpusque  in  castra  ferebant.        585 
quos  ubi  conspexit  tristi  clamore  ruentes 
ductor,  praesago  percussus  pectora  luctu  : 
"  quinam,"  inquit,  "  dolor,  o  socii,  quemve  ira  deorum 
eripuit  nobis  ?     num  te,  dulcedine  laudis 
flagrantem  et  nimio  primi  Mavortis  amore,  590 

atra,  Sychaee,  dies  properato  funere  carpsit  ?  " 
utque  dato  gemitu  lacrimae  assensere  ferentum, 
et  dictus  pariter  caedis  maerentibus  auctor  : 
**  cerno,"  ait,  "  adverso  pulchrum  sub  pectore  vulnus 
cuspidis  Iliacae.     dignus  Carthagine,  dignus  595 

Hasdrubale  ad  manes  ibis  ;  nee  te  optima  mater 
dissimilem  lugebit  avis,  Stygiave  sub  umbra 
degenerem  cernens  noster  vitabit  Hamilcar. 
at  mihi  Flaminius,  tam  maesti  causa  deloris, 
morte  sua  minuat  luctus.     haec  pompa  sequetur  600 
exequias,  seroque  emptum  volet  impia  Roma, 
non  violasse  mei  corpus  mucrone  Sychaei." 

Sic  memorans  torquet  fumantem  ex  ore  vaporem, 
iraque  anhelatum  proturbat  pectore  murmur, 
ut  multo  accensis  fervore  exuberat  undis,  605 

clausus  ubi  exusto  liquor  indignatur  aeno. 
tum  praeceps  ruit  in  medios  solumque  fatigat 
Flaminium  incessens  ;  nee  dicto  segnius  ille 


PUNICA,  V.   580-608 

slain  in  his  first  battle  by  Hannibal — Herminius  who 
was  wont  to  pillage  Lake  Trasimene  and  draw  forth 
the  fish  with  his  hook,  pulling  out  food  for  his  ancient 
father  with  a  line  that  hung  over  the  motionless  pools. 

Meanwhile  the  sorrowing  Carthaginians  raised  the 
Hfeless  body  of  Sychaeus  upon  his  shield  and  bore  it 
to  the  camp.  When  Hannibal  saw  them  hasting  with 
loud  lament,  his  heart  was  stricken  with  foreboding 
grief.  "  Why  mourn  ye  thus,  comrades  ?  "  he  asked  : 
*'  Whom  have  the  angry  gods  taken  from  us  ?  Is  it 
you,  Sychaeus,  burning  with  desire  of  glory  and  too 
eager  in  your  first  battle,  whom  the  black  death-day 
has  cut  off  before  your  time  ?  "  When  the  tears  of 
the  mourners  answered  his  question,  and  when  they 
told  at  the  same  time  the  name  of  the  slayer,  Hanni- 
bal spoke  thus  :  "I  see  the  glorious  wound  of  the 
Roman  spear  on  the  front  of  your  body.  You  will 
go  down  to  the  shades,  worthy  of  Carthage,  worthy 
of  Hasdrubal ;  your  good  mother  will  mourn  you  as 
a  true  descendant  of  your  ancestors  ;  and,  when  my 
father  Hamilcar  meets  you  in  the  darkness  of  Hades, 
he  will  not  shun  you  as  degenerate.  My  own  grief 
shall  be  lessened  by  the  death  of  Flaminius,  the 
author  of  our  sorrow.  He  shall  be  the  escort  that 
follows  you  to  the  grave  ;  and  wicked  Rome  shall 
dearly  repent  too  late  the  stroke  that  robbed  my 
beloved  Sychaeus  of  life." 

While  he  spoke  thus,  a  reeking  steam  issued  from 
his  mouth,  and  a  hoarse  inarticulate  sound  came  forth 
from  his  furious  breast,  as  water  overflows  with  fire- 
heated  waves,  when  it  rages  angrily,  confined  in  the 
burnt  cauldron.  Then  he  rushed  headlong  into  the 
fray,  and  singled  out  Flaminius  for  attack,  taunt- 
ing  him  ;   and    Flaminius   was   ready  for  battle  on 



bella  capessebat ;  propiorque  insurgere  Mavors 
coeperat,  et  campo  iunctus  iam  stabat  uterque,     610 
cum  subitus  per  saxa  fragor,  motique  repente, 
horrendum,  colles  et  summa  cacumina  totis 
intremuere  iugis  ;  nutant  in  vertice  silvae 
pinifero,  fractaeque  ruunt  super  agmina  rupes. 
immugit  penitus  convulsis  ima  cavernis  615 

dissiliens  tellus  nee  parvos  rumpit  hiatus, 
atque  umbras  late  Stygias  immensa  vorago 
faucibus  ostendit  patulis  ;  manesque  profundi 
antiquum  expavere  diem,     lacus  ater,  in  altos 
sublatus  montes  et  sede  excussus  avita,  620 

lavit  Tyrrhenas  ignota  aspergine  silvas. 
iamque  eadem  populos  magnorumque  oppida  regum 
tempestas  et  dira  lues  stravitque  tulitque. 
ac  super  haec  reflui  pugnarunt  fontibus  amnes, 
et  retro  fluctus  torsit  mare  ;  monte  relicto  625 

Apenninicolae  fugere  ad  litora  Fauni. 

Pugnabat  tamen  (heu  belli  vecordia  !)  miles, 
iactatus  titubante  solo,  tremebundaque  tela, 
subducta  tellure  ruens,  torquebat  in  hostem, 
donee  pulsa  vagos  cursus  ad  litora  vertit  630 

mentis  inops  stagnisque  illata  est  Daunia  pubes. 
quis  consul  terga  increpitans,  nam  turbine  motae 
ablatus  terrae  inciderat  :  "  quid  deinde,  quid,  oro, 
restat,  io,  profugis  ?     vos  en  ad  moenia  Romae 
ducitis  Hannibalem  ;  vos  in  Tarpeia  Tonantis         635 
tecta  faces  ferrumque  datis.     sta,  miles,  et  acres 

"  This  earthquake  is  not  a  poetic  fiction  :    the  historian 
Livy  vouches  for  it  (xxii.  c.  5)  and  assures  his  readers  that 
not  one  of  the  combatants  was  aware  of  it ;    so  taken  up 
were  they  with  the  business  in  hand. 

PUNICA,  V.   609-636 

the  instant.  The  War-god  towered  up  closer,  and 
now  the  pair  stood  face  to  face  on  the  field,  when 
suddenly  there  came  an  awful  crash  along  the  cliffs, 
and  the  heights  were  shaken  and  the  high  peaks 
rocked  all  along  the  range  ;  on  the  pine-clad  summit 
the  trees  swayed,  and  fragments  of  rock  rushed  down 
upon  the  armies.  Splitting  asunder  in  its  lowest 
depths,  the  earth  rumbled  in  its  tortured  hollows  and 
opened  up  great  chasms  ;  and  the  vast  gulf,  yawn- 
ing wide,  revealed  the  shades  below ;  and  the  dead 
in  the  depths  were  terrified  by  the  daylight  they  once 
had  known.  The  dark  lake,  forced  from  its  ancient 
seat,  rose  to  the  height  of  the  mountains,  and  bathed 
the  Tuscan  woods  with  moisture  unfelt  before.  And 
now  that  same  storm  and  dire  catastrophe  overthrew 
and  destroyed  nations  and  the  cities  of  mighty  kings. 
And  rivers  also  flowed  backwards  and  fought  against 
their  sources  ;  the  sea-waves  reversed  their  course  ; 
and  the  Fauns  who  dwell  on  the  Apennines  left  the 
hills  and  fled  towards  the  coast." 

Yet — alas  for  the  frenzy  of  war  ! — the  battle  still 
went  on  ;  and  the  soldiers,  though  staggering  on  the 
unsteady  ground  and  falling  when  the  earth  with- 
drew beneath  them,  kept  hurling  their  uncertain 
missiles  against  the  foe.  At  last  the  Romans  were 
defeated  and  turned  their  random  flight  to  the  lake- 
shore,  and  were  driven  distracted  into  the  water. 
The  consul  had  been  separated  from  them  by  the 
earthquake  ;  but  now  he  overtook  them  and  re- 
proached them  from  behind  :  "  What  still  remains, 
if  you  fly  now  }  what,  I  beseech  you  ?  You  are  lead- 
ing Hannibal  against  the  walls  of  Rome  ;  you  are 
giving  him  fire  and  sword,  to  use  against  the  Tarpeian 
shrine  of  the  Thunderer.  Stand  firm,  soldiers,  and 
VOL.  I  K  3  277 


disce  ex  me  pugnas  ;  vel,  si  pugnare  negatum, 
disce  mori.     dabit  exemplum  non  vile  futuris 
Flaminius  ;  ne  terga  Libys,  ne  Cantaber  umquam 
consulis  aspiciat.     solus,  si  tanta  libido  640 

est  vobis  rabiesque  fugae,  tela  omnia  solus 
pectore  consumo  et  moriens,  fugiente  per  auras 
hac  anima,  vestras  revocabo  ad  proelia  dextras." 
Dumque  ea  commemorat  densosque  obit  obvius 
advolat  ora  ferus  mentemque  Ducarius.     acri        645 
nomen  erat  gentile  viro,  fusisque  catervis 
Boiorum  quondam  patriis  antiqua  gerebat 
vulnera  barbaricae  mentis  ;  noscensque  superbi 
victoris  vultus  :  **  tune,"  inquit,  "  maximus  ille 
Boiorum  terror  ?     libet  hoc  cognoscere  telo,  650 

corporis  an  tanti  manet  de  vulnere  sanguis. 
nee  vos  paeniteat,  populares,  fortibus  umbris 
hoc  mactare  caput :  nostros  hie  curribus  egit 
insistens  victos  alta  ad  Capitolia  patres. 
ultrix  hora  vocat."     pariter  tunc  undique  fusis      655 
obruitur  telis,  nimboque  ruente  per  auras 
contectus,  nulli  dextra  iactare  reliquit 
Flaminium  cecidisse  sua.     nee  pugna  perempto 
ulterior  ductore  fuit ;  namque  agmine  denso 
primores  iuvenum,  laeva  ob  discrimina  Martis        660 
infensi  superis  dextrisque  et  cernere  Poenum 
victorem  plus  morte  rati,  super  ocius  omnes 
membra  ducis  stratosque  artus  certamine  magno 

"  See  iv.  704  foil.  Livy  says  that  Ducarius,  belonging  to 
the  Gallic  tribe  of  the  Insubres,  himself  killed  Flaminius. 

''  He  suggests  in  mockery  that  the  general  is  not,  after  all, 

"  When  he  celebrated  a  triumph  over  the  Boii :  the  captives 

PUNICA,  V.   G37-663 

learn  from  me  to  fight  bravely  ;  or,  if  fight  is  impos- 
sible, learn  how  to  die.  Flaminius  shall  set  a  worthy 
example  to  coming  generations.  No  Libyan,  no 
Spaniard,  shall  ever  behold  the  back  of  a  consul.  If 
you  are  possessed  by  such  a  mad  passion  for  flight, 
then  single-handed  I  shall  intercept  every  weapon 
with  my  own  breast ;  and,  dying,  as  my  soul  departs 
through  the  sky,  I  shall  call  your  swords  back  to  the 

While  Flaminius  spoke  thus  and  plunged  into  the 
thickest  of  the  enemy,  Ducarius  rode  up,  savage  in 
mind  as  in  aspect.  That  fierce  warrior  bore  a  name 
familiar  in  his  tribe,  and  his  savage  heart  had  long 
cherished  resentment  for  the  defeat  suffered  in  time 
past  by  his  countrymen,  the  Boii."  Recognizing  the 
face  of  their  proud  conqueror,  he  cried :  "  Art  thou 
he  whom  the  Boii  so  much  dreaded  ?  I  intend  this 
weapon  to  decide  whether  blood  will  flow,  when  such 
a  hero  is  wounded.^  And  you,  my  countrymen,  shrink 
not  from  offering  up  this  victim  to  our  noble  dead. 
This  is  the  man  who  stood  in  the  chariot  ^  and  drove 
our  defeated  sires  to  the  Capitol.  Now  the  hour  of 
vengeance  summons  him. ' '  Then  the  consul  was  over- 
whelmed with  missiles  that  rained  from  all  sides  alike; 
and,  covered  by  the  shower  that  hurtled  through  the 
sky,  he  left  to  none  the  power  of  boasting  that  his 
hand  had  slain  Flaminius.  When  the  leader  was  slain, 
the  fighting  ceased.  For  the  foremost  soldiers  closed 
their  ranks  ;  and  then,  enraged  against  Heaven  and 
themselves  for  their  defeat,  and  thinking  it  worse 
than  death  to  see  the  Carthaginians  conquer,  they 
hastened  eagerly  to  pile  over  the  body  of  Flaminius  and 

walked  in  front  of  their  conqueror's  chariot  to  the  temple 
of  Jupiter. 



telaque  corporaque  et  non  fausto  Marte  cruentas 
iniecere  manus.     sic  densae  caedis  acervo,  665 

ceu  tumulo,  texere  virum.     turn,  strage  per  undas, 
per  silvas  sparsa  perque  altam  sanguine  vallem, 
in  medias  fratre  invectus  comitante  catervas 
caesorum  iuvenum  Poenus  :   "  quae  vulnera  cernis  ! 
quas    mortes  !  "    inquit.     '*  premit    omnis    dextera 
ferrum,  670 

armatusque  iacet  servans  certamina  miles, 
hos,  en,  hos  obitus  nostrae  spectate  cohort es  ! 
fronte  minae  durant,  et  stant  in  vultibus  irae. 
et  vereor,  ne,  quae  tanta  creat  indole  tellus 
magnanimos  fecunda  viros,  huic  fata  dicarint  676 

imperium,  atque  ipsis  devincat  cladibus  orbem." 

Sic  fatus  cessit  nocti  ;  finemque  dedere 
caedibus  infusae,  subducto  sole,  tenebrae. 


PUNICA,  V.   664-678 

his  prostrate  limbs  their  weapons,  their  bodies,  and 
their  hands  red  with  the  blood  of  defeat.  Thus  they 
covered  him  with  a  close-packed  heap  of  corpses  for 
a  tomb.  The  dead  lay  scattered  in  the  water,  in  the 
woods,  and  in  the  valley  where  the  blood  ran  deep, 
when  Hannibal  rode  up  with  his  brother  to  the  centre 
of  the  carnage  :  "  Do  you  see  these  wounds,  these 
deaths  ?  "  he  said  to  Mago  :  **  each  hand  grasps  its 
sword,  and  the  warrior  lies  in  his  armour,  and  still 
maintains  the  strife.  Let  our  soldiers  look  and  see 
how  these  men  died  !  Their  brows  still  frown,  and 
martial  ardour  is  fixed  upon  their  faces.  It  mis- 
gives me  that  this  land,  the  fertile  mother  of  such 
noble  heroes,  may  be  destined  to  hold  empire,  and 
may,  even  by  its  lost  battles,  conquer  the  world." 

Thus  Hannibal  spoke  and  then  gave  way  to  night ; 
for  the  sun  had  vanished,  and  the  coming  on  of  dark- 
ness ended  the  slaughter. 




Scenes  on  the  field  of  the  lost  battle.  Flight  of  the  Romans 
(1-61).  Serranus,  a  son  of  the  famous  Regulus,  is  one  of  the 
fugitives  :  he  reaches  the  dwelling  of  Marus,  who  had  been 
his  father's  squire  in  Africa  :  Marus  dresses  his  wounds 
(62-100),  and  tells  the  story  of  Regulus  as  conqueror  and 
as  captive  (101-551).  Mourning  and  consternation  at  Rome 
after  the  defeat.     Serranus  returns  to  his  mother,  Marcia 

lam,  Tartessiaco  quos  solverat  aequore  Titan 
in  noctem  difFusus,  equos  iungebat  Eois 
litoribus,  primique  novo  Phaethonte  retecti 
Seres  lanigeris  repetebant  vellera  lucis, 
et  foeda  ante  oculos  strages,  propiusque  patebat       5 
insani  Mavortis  opus  :  simul  arma  virique 
ac  mixtus  sonipes  dextraeque  in  vulnere  caesi 
haerentes  hostis  ;  passim  clipeique  iubaeque 
atque  artus  trunci  capitum  fractusque  iacebat 
ossibus  in  duris  ensis  ;  nee  cernere  deerat  10 

frustra  seminecum  quaerentia  lumina  caelum, 
tum  spumans  sanie  lacus  et  fluitantia  summo 
aeternum  tumulis  orbata  cadavera  ponto. 
Nee  tamen  adversis  ruerat  tota  Itala  virtus. 

"  Tartessus,  identified  by  some  scholars  with  the  Tarshish 
of  Scripture,  was  a  town  on  the  west  coast  of  wSpain  :    the 
name  is  often  used  by  the  Roman  poets  to  denote  the  Far 
West  and  the  setting  sun :   see  iii.  399. 


ARGUMENT  (continued) 

(552-589).  The  Senate  discuss  plans  of  campaign.  Jupiter 
prevents  Hannibal  from  marching  on  Rome.  Q.  Fabius  is 
chosen  Dictator  (590-618).  His  wisdom  (619-640).  Hanni- 
bal marches  through  Umbria  and  Picenum  to  Campania  :  at 
Liternum  he  sees  on  the  temple-walls  pictures  of  scenes  in  the 
First  Punic  War,  and  orders  them  all  to  he  burnt  (641-716). 

Now  on  Eastern  shores  the  Sun  was  yoking  the 
steeds  that  he  had  freed  in  the  sea  of  Tartessus  " 
when  he  scattered  his  fires  for  the  night ;  and  the 
Seres,  first  disclosed  by  the  sunrise,  began  again  to 
pluck  fleeces  from  their  wool-bearing  trees. ^  Then 
hideous  havoc  was  revealed,  and  the  work  of  War's 
madness  was  seen  clearer — a  medley  of  arms  and  men 
and  horses,  and  hands  that  still  clung  to  the  wound 
of  a  slain  enemy.  The  ground  was  littered  with 
shields  and  helmet-plumes,  with  headless  corpses  and 
swords  that  had  broken  against  tough  bones  ;  and 
one  might  see  the  eyes  of  half-dead  men  looking  in 
vain  for  the  light.  Then  there  was  the  lake  foaming 
with  gore,  and  the  corpses  floating  on  its  surface,  for 
ever  deprived  of  a  grave. 
Yet  Roman  courage  had  not  utterly  collapsed  in 

^  The  Seres  (Chinese)  were  regarded  by  the  ancients  as  an 
Indian  people  ;  and  it  was  long  believed  that  silk,  like  cotton, 
was  a  vegetable  product  and  grew  on  trees. 



Bruttius  ingenti  miserandae  caedis  acervo,  15 

non  aequum  ostentans  confosso  corpora  Martem, 

extulerat  vix  triste  caput  truncosque  trahebat 

per  stragem,  nervis  interlabentibus,  artus  ; 

tenuis  opum,  non  patre  nitens  linguave,  sed  asper 

ense  ;  nee  e  Volsca  quisquam  vir  gente  redemit      20 

plus  aevi  nece  magnanima.     puer  addere  sese 

pubescente  gena  castris  optarat  et  acri 

Flaminio  spectatus  erat,  cum  Celtica  victor 

obrueret  bello  divis  melioribus  arma. 

inde  honor  ac  sacrae  custodia  Marte  sub  omni         25 

alitis  ;  hinc  causam  nutrivit  gloria  leti. 

namque  necis  certus,  captae  prohibere  nequiret 

cum  Poenos  aquilae,  postquam  subsidere  fata 

viderat  et  magna  pugnam  inclinare  ruina, 

occulere  interdum  et  terrae  mandare  parabat.         30 

sed,  subitis  victus  telis,  labentia  membra 

prostravit  super  atque  iniecta  morte  tegebat. 

verum  ubi  lux  nocte  e  Stygia  miseroque  sopore 

reddita,  vicini  de  strage  cadaveris  hast  a 

erigitur,  soloque  vigens  conamine,  late  35 

stagnantem  caede  et  facilem  discedere  terram 

ense  fodit,  clausamque  aquilae  infelicis  adorans 

effigiem,  palmis  languentibus  aequat  harenas. 

supremus  fessi  tenues  tum  cessit  in  auras 

halitus  et  magnam  misit  sub  Tartara  mentem.         40 

luxta  cernere  erat  meritae  sibi  poscere  carmen 
virtu tis  sacram  rabiem.     Laevinus,  ab  alto 
Priverno,  vitis  Latiae  praesignis  honor e, 

"  The  eagle,  the  principal  ensign  of  the  Roman  legion. 
"  "  Death  "  must  here  mean  "  a  dying  man." 

PUNICA,  VI.  15-43 

the  hour  of  defeat.  Bruttius,  whose  wounded  body 
showed  his  ill-fortune  in  the  battle,  slowly  raised  his 
head  from  a  huge  pile  of  hapless  corpses,  and  dragged 
his  mutilated  limbs  through  the  carnage  with  muscles 
that  failed  him  from  time  to  time.  He  had  not  wealth 
or  noble  birth  or  eloquence  ;  but  his  sword  was  keen, 
and  none  of  the  Volscian  people  gained  more  glory 
than  he  by  a  heroic  death.  As  a  boy,  before  his 
beard  grew,  he  had  chosen  to  join  the  army,  and 
his  prowess  had  been  witnessed  by  brave  Flaminius, 
when  with  better  fortune  he  fought  the  Celtic 
armies  and  crushed  them.  Thus  Bruttius  won  honour 
and  guarded  the  sacred  bird  "  in  every  battle  ;  and 
this  distinction  was  the  cause  of  his  death.  He  was 
sure  to  die  ;  and,  when  he  could  not  prevent  the 
Carthaginians  from  taking  the  eagle,  he  tried  to  bury 
it  in  the  ground  for  the  time  ;  for  he  saw  that  fate 
was  adverse  and  the  battle  was  turning  into  a  great 
disaster.  But  a  sudden  wound  made  him  throw  his 
failing  limbs  over  his  charge  ;  and  death  ^  lay  over 
it  to  hide  it.  But,  when  day  returned  after  a  dread- 
ful night  of  distressful  slumber,  he  raised  himself  on 
a  spear  taken  from  the  nearest  corpse  ;  then,  exerting 
all  his  strength  for  the  effort,  he  dug  a  hole  in  the 
earth  with  his  sword  ;  and  the  ground,  drenched 
in  blood  all  round,  parted  easily.  Next  he  bowed 
before  the  buried  effigy  of  the  luckless  eagle,  and 
smoothed  the  sand  over  it  with  strengthless  palms. 
Then  his  last  feeble  breath  went  forth  into  thin  air, 
and  sent  a  brave  heart  to  Tartarus. 

Near  by  one  might  see  an  awful  frenzy  of  valour 
that  deserves  to  claim  the  poet's  verse.    Laevinus,  a 
native  of  Privernum  '^  on  the  hill,  who  had  earned 
*  A  town  of  Latium. 



exanimum  Nasamona  Tyren  super  ipse  iacebat 
exanimis  ;  non  hasta  viro,  non  ensis  ;  in  artis  45 

abstulerat  Fors  arma  ;  tamen  certamine  nudo 
invenit  Marti  telum  dolor,     ore  cruento 
pugnatum,  ferrique  vicem  dens  praebuit  irae. 
iam  lacerae  nares  foedataque  lumina  morsu, 
iam  truncum  raptis  caput  auribus,  ipsaque  diris       50 
frons  depasta  modis,  et  sanguine  abundat  hiatus  ; 
nee  satias,  donee  mandentia  linqueret  ora 
spiritus,  et  plenos  rictus  mors  atra  teneret. 

Talia  dum  praebet  tristis  miracula  virtus, 
diverso  interea  fugientes  saucia  turba  55 

iactantur  casu  silvisque  per  avia  caecis 
ablati  furtim  multo  cum  vulnere  solos 
per  noctem  metantur  agros  :  sonus  omnis  et  aura 
exterrent  pennaque  levi  commota  volucris. 
non  sopor  aut  menti  requies  :  agit  asper  acerba      60 
nunc  Mago  attonitos,  nunc  arduus  Hannibal  hasta. 

Serranus,  clarum  nomen,  tua,  Regule,  proles, 
qui,  longum  semper  fama  gliscente  per  aevum, 
infidis  servasse  fidem  memorabere  Poenis, 
flore  nitens  primo,  patriis  heu  Punica  bella  65 

auspiciis  ingressus  erat ;  miseramque  parentem 
et  dulces  tristi  repetebat  sorte  penates 
saucius.     haud  illi  comitum  super  ullus,  et  atris 

"  Each  centurion  carried  a  rattan  made  of  vine-wood  and 
applied  it  to  the  backs  of  soldiers  who  were  negligent  in 
performing  their  military  duties. 

''  Serranus  was  a  name  borne  by  many  members  of  the 
Atilian  genSy  to  which  Regulus  belonged.  Here  Silius  begins 
a  digression  of  nearly  500  lines  (it  ends  at  1.  551),  in  which  he 
describes  the  doings  and  sufferings  of  Regulus  in  the  First 
Punic  War.  Regulus  was  taken  prisoner  in  Africa  in  255 
B.C.,  thirty-eight  years  before  the  battle  of  Lake  Trasimene. 

PUNICA,  VI.   44-68 

the  distinction  of  the  Roman  vine-staff,'*  lay  there 
on  the  top  of  Tyres,  a  Nasamonian  ;  and  both  were 
dead.  He  had  neither  spear  nor  sword  :  Fortune 
had  robbed  him  of  his  weapons  in  the  hard  fight ; 
yet  in  the  unarmed  contest  rage  found  a  weapon  to 
fight  with.  He  had  fought  with  savage  mouth,  and 
his  teeth  did  the  work  of  steel,  to  gratify  his  rage. 
Already  the  nose  of  Tyres  was  torn  and  the  eyes 
marred  by  the  cruel  jaws  ;  the  ears  were  bitten  off 
and  the  head  mutilated  ;  the  forehead  itself  was 
horribly  gnawed,  and  blood  streamed  from  the  open 
lips  ;  nor  was  Laevinus  satisfied,  until  the  breath  left 
those  champing  jaws  and  dark  death  arrested  the 
crammed  mouth. 

While  hideous  valour  displayed  such  portentous 
deeds,  the  stricken  mob  of  fugitives  were  harassed 
meanwhile  by  a  different  fate.  Covered  with  wounds, 
they  slunk  away  along  pathless  tracks  in  the  dark 
forests,  and  traversed  the  deserted  fields  all  night. 
They  were  terrified  by  every  sound,  by  the  breeze, 
and  by  the  stirring  of  a  bird  on  its  light  wings. 
Sleep  or  peace  of  mind  was  impossible.  Panic- 
stricken,  they  were  driven  on  now  by  fierce  Mago, 
and  now  by  Hannibal  prancing  on  with  relentless 

Serranus  ^  bore  a  glorious  name  :  he  was  the  son 
of  Regulus,  whose  fame  ever  increases  with  the  pass- 
age of  time,  and  of  whom  it  will  never  be  forgotten, 
that  he  kept  faith  with  the  faithless  Carthaginians. 
Serranus  was  in  the  flower  of  his  youth  ;  but,  alas, 
he  had  begun  the  war  against  Carthage  with  his 
fiither's  ill-fortune,  and  now,  sore-wounded,  he  sought 
in  sad  plight  to  return  to  his  unhappy  mother  and 
the  home  he  loved.     Of  his  comrades  none  was  left, 



vulneribus  qui  ferret  opem  ;  per  devia,  fractae 
innitens  hastae  furtoque  ereptus  opacae  70 

noctis,  iter  taciturn  Perusina  ferebat  in  arva. 
ac  fessus  parvi,  quaecumque  ibi  fata  darentur, 
limina  pulsabat  tecti,  cum  membra  cubili 
evolvens  non  tarda  Marus  (vetus  ille  parentis 
miles  et  baud  surda  tractarat  proelia  fama)  75 

procedit,  renovata  focis  et  paupere  Vesta 
lumina  praetendens.     utque  ora  agnovit  et  aegrum 
vulneribus  diris  ac,  lamentabile  visu, 
lapsantes  fultum  truncata  cuspide  gressus, 
funesti  rumore  mali  iam  saucius  aures  :  80 

"  quod  scelus,  o  nimius  vitae  nimiumque  ferendis 
adversis  genitus,  cerno  ?     te,  maxime,  vidi, 
ductorum,  cum  captivo  Carthaginis  arcem 
terreres  vultu,  crimen  culpamque  Tonantis, 
occidere  atque  hausi,  quem  non  Sidonia  tecta  86 

expulerint  eversa  meo  de  corde,  dolorem. 
estis  ubi  en  iterum,  superi  ?  dat  pectora  ferro 
Regulus,  ac  tantae  stirpem  periura  recidit 
surgentem  Carthago  domus."     inde  aegra  reponit 
membra  toro  ;  nee  ferre  rudis  medicamina  (quippe  90 
callebat  bellis)  nunc  purgat  vulnera  lympha, 
nunc  mulcet  sucis  :  ligat  inde  ac  vellera  molli 
circumdat  tactu  et  torpentes  mitigat  artus. 
exin  cura  seni,  tristem  depellere  fesso 
ore  sitim  et  parca  vires  accersere  mensa.  95 

quae  postquam  properata,  sopor  sua  munera  tandem 

"  A  city  of  Etruria,  now  Perugia. 

^  In  humble  households  an  image  of  Vesta  generally  stood 
on  or  near  the  hearth. 

"  Regulus. 

**  Jupiter  ought  to  have  defended  such  a  Roman  as  Regulus 
from  such  a  dreadful  fate. 

PUNICA,  VI.  69-96 

and  there  was  none  to  dress  his  grievous  wounds. 
Leaning  on  a  broken  spear,  and  rescued  from  doom 
by  the  connivance  of  dark  night,  he  crept  silently 
through  bypaths  towards  the  fields  of  Perusia." 
Worn  out,  he  knocked  at  the  door  of  a  humble  dwell- 
ing, whatever  fate  might  meet  him  there  ;  and 
Marus  was  not  slow  to  rise  from  his  bed.  Long 
ago  Marus  had  served  under  Regulus,  and  the  ear  of 
Fame  had  heard  of  his  prowess.  Now  he  came  forth, 
holding  up  a  light  he  had  kindled  at  the  poor  hearth 
where  he  worshipped  Vesta.  ^  He  recognized  Ser- 
ranus  and  saw  him  suffering  from  dreadful  wounds, 
and  supporting  himself  on  his  halting  feet  by  the 
broken  spear — a  piteous  sight  to  behold.  Rumour  of 
the  fatal  disaster  had  already  wounded  his  ears; 
and  now  he  cried  :  "  What  horror  is  this  I  see  ! — 
I  have  lived  too  long  and  was  born  to  suffer  too 
much  adversity.  I  saw  you,*'  greatest  of  generals, 
when,  though  you  were  a  prisoner,  your  aspect  terri- 
fied the  citadel  of  Carthage  ;  I  witnessed  your  death, 
a  scandal  and  a  shame  to  the  Thunderer  ** ;  and  even 
the  destruction  of  Carthage  could  never  expel  from 
my  heart  the  grief  I  suffered  then.  And  now  once 
more,  where  are  ye,  ye  gods  ?  A  Regulus  offers  his 
breast  to  the  sword,  and  perjured  Carthage  lops  off 
the  hopeful  scion  of  that  mighty  house."  Next  he 
laid  the  sick  man  on  the  bed,  and,  with  the  skill  in 
medicine  which  he  had  learnt  in  war,  now  cleansed 
the  wounds  with  water  and  now  applied  healing 
simples,  binding  them  up  and  wrapping  them  in 
wool  with  gentle  hand,  and  warming  the  stiffened 
limbs.  The  old  man's  next  care  was  to  slake  the  sick 
man's  grievous  thirst,  and  to  recall  his  strength  by  a 
sparing  meal.    When  all  this  was  quickly  done,  sleep 



applicat  et  mitem  fundit  per  membra  quietem. 
necdum  exorta  dies,  Marus  instat  vulneris  aestus 
expertis  medicare  modis  gratumque  teporem, 
exutus  senium,  trepida  pietate  ministrat.  100 

Hie  iuvenis,  maestos  tollens  ad  sidera  vultus, 
cum  gemitu  lacrimisque  simul :  "  si  culmina  nondum 
Tarpeia  exosus  damnasti  sceptra  Quirini, 
extremas  Italum  res  Ausoniamque  ruentem 
aspice,"  ait,  "  genitor  ;  tandemque  adverte  procellis 
aequos  Iliacis  oculos.     amisimus  Alpes,  106 

nee  deinde  adversis  modus  est :  Ticinus  et  ater 
stragibus  Eridanus.  tuque  insignite  tropaeis 
Sidoniis  Trebia,  et  tellus  lacrimabilis  Arni. 
sed  quid  ego  haec  ?   gravior  quanto  vis  ecce  malorum  ! 
vidi  crescentes  Thrasymenni  caedibus  undas  111 

prostrataque  virum  mole  ;  inter  tela  cadentem 
vidi  Flaminium.     testor,  mea  numina,  manes 
dignam  me  poenae  tum  nobilitate  paternae 
strage  hostis  quaesisse  necem,  ni  tristia  letum,       116 
ut  quondam  patri,  nobis  quoque  fata  negassent." 

Cetera  acervantem  questu  lenire  laborans 
efFatur  senior  :  "  patrio,  fortissimo,  ritu, 
quicquid  adest  duri,  et  rerum  inclinata  feramus. 
talis  lege  deum  clivoso  tramite  vitae  120 

per  varios  praeceps  casus  rota  volvitur  aevi ; 
sat  tibi,  sat  magna  et  totum  vulgata  per  orbem 
stant  documenta  domus  :   sacer  ille  et  numine  nullo 
inferior,  tuus  ille  parens  decora  alta  paravit 
restando  adversis  nee  virtutem  exuit  ullam  125 

"  Jupiter,  ^  See  note  to  iv.  813. 

"  Etruria  :   see  note  to  v.  11. 

<*  Regulus,  his  famous  father,  is  meant. 


PUNICA,  VI.   97-125 

at  last  did  its  kindly  office  and  diffused  gentle  rest 
through  all  his  limbs.  Before  day  dawned  Marus, 
forgetful  of  his  years,  made  haste  to  treat  the  fever 
of  the  wound  with  tried  remedies,  and  provided  a 
pleasant  coolness  with  eager  loyalty. 

Now  Serranus,  raising  his  sorrowful  eyes  to  heaven, 
cried  out  amid  groans  and  tears  :  '*  O  Father,"  if 
thou  hast  not  yet  condemned  the  realm  of  Quirinus,^ 
and  dost  not  hate  the  Tarpeian  citadel,  then  look 
down  on  the  desperate  plight  of  Italy  and  the  ruin  of 
Rome  ;  turn  at  last  a  merciful  eye  upon  our  troubles. 
We  lost  the  Alps  ;  nor  is  there  any  limit  to  our 
sufferings  since  then — the  Ticinus,  the  river  Po  dark 
with  our  dead,  the  Trebia  made  famous  by  Punic 
triumph,  and  the  lamentable  country  of  the  Arnus.'' 
But  why  speak  of  all  this  when,  behold  !  a  far  heavier 
weight  of  calamity  is  ours  ?  I  saw  the  level  of 
Lake  Trasimene  raised  by  the  multitude  of  the 
slain  ;  I  saw  Flaminius  fall  amid  the  missiles.  I  swear 
by  the  dead,*^  whom  I  worship,  that  I  sought  death 
then  in  striking  down  the  foe — a  death  befitting  the 
famous  sufferings  of  my  father ;  but  cruel  fate,  which 
denied  him  a  soldier's  death,  denied  it  to  me  also." 

As  he  still  heaped  complaint  upon  complaint,  the 
old  man  strove  to  comfort  him,  saying  :  "In  your 
father's  fashion,  brave  youth,  let  us  bear  reverses  of 
fortune  and  all  the  troubles  that  beset  us.  Such  is 
the  law  of  Heaven  :  the  wheel  of  our  existence,  as 
it  moves  on  along  the  steep  track  of  life,  is  subject 
to  many  a  slip.  Great  enough  and  famous  through- 
out the  world  are  the  title-deeds  of  your  house  ;  your 
father,  that  sacred  figure  whom  no  deity  excels, 
gained  his  high  renown  by  defying  ill-fortune  ;  and 
he  discarded  none  of  the  virtues  until  the  time  when 


ante  reluctantes  liquit  quam  spiritus  artus. 
vix  puerile  mihi  tempus  confecerat  aetas, 
cum  primo  malas  signabat  Regulus  aevo. 
access!  comes,  atque  omnes  sociavimus  annos, 
donee  dis  Italae  visum  est  extinguere  lumen  130 

gentis,  in  egregio  cuius  sibi  pectore  sedem 
ceperat  alma  Fides  mentemque  amplexa  tenebat. 
ille  ensem  nobis  magnorum  hunc  instar  honorum 
virtutisque  ergo  dedit  et,  sordentia  fumo 
quae  cernis  nunc,  frena,  sed  est  argenteus  ollis      135 
fulgor  ;  nee  cuiquam  Marus  est  post  talia  dona 
non  praelatus  eques.     verum  superavit  honores 
omnes  hasta  meos.     cui  me  libare  Lyaei 
quod  cernis  latices,  dignum  cognoscere  causam. 

"  Turbidus  arentes  lento  pede  sulcat  harenas      140 
Bagrada,  non  ullo  Libycis  in  finibus  amne 
victus  limosas  extendere  latius  undas 
et  stagnante  vado  patulos  involvere  campos. 
hie  studio  laticum,  quorum  est  baud  prodiga  tellus, 
per  ripas  laeti  saevis  consedimus  arvis.  145 

lucus  iners  iuxta  Stygium  pallentibus  umbris 
servabat  sine  sole  nemus,  crassusque  per  auras 
halitus  erumpens  taetrum  expirabat  odorem. 
intus  dira  domus  curvoque  immanis  in  antro 
sub  terra  specus  et  tristes  sine  luce  tenebrae.         150 
horror  mente  redit.     monstrum  exitiabile  et  ira 
telluris  genitum,  cui  par  vix  viderit  aetas 
ulla  virum,  serpens  centum  porrectus  in  ulnas 

"  The  warrior  treats  his  weapon  as  a  sacred  thing. 
"  This  river  flows  into  the  Mediterranean  not  far  from 
Carthage  and  Utica. 

"  This  monstrous  serpent  was  not  invented  by  Silius: 

PUNICA,  VI.    126-153 

his  spirit  fled  from  the  unwilling  body.  I  had  hardly 
outgrown  the  years  of  boyhood,  when  the  first  beard 
was  growing  on  the  face  of  Regulus.  I  became  his 
comrade,  and  we  spent  all  our  years  together,  till 
Heaven  saw  fit  to  put  out  the  light  of  the  Roman 
people — the  man  in  whose  noble  breast  kindly 
Loyalty  had  fixed  her  seat  and  remained  the  tenant 
of  his  heart.  He  gave  me  this  sword  for  valour — an 
honour  second  to  none — and  the  bridle  which  you  see 
now  blackened  by  smoke,  though  the  sheen  of  the 
silver  still  remains  ;  and,  when  Marus  had  received 
such  gifts,  there  was  no  horseman  who  took  preced- 
ence of  him.  But  the  chief  of  all  my  distinctions  was 
my  lance.  You  see  me  pour  wine  in  its  honour  ° ; 
and  it  is  worth  your  while  to  learn  the  reason. 

"  The  turbid  stream  of  Bagrada  ^  furrows  the  sandy 
desert  with  sluggish  course  ;  and  no  river  in  the  land 
of  Libya  can  boast  that  it  spreads  its  muddy  waters 
further,  or  covers  the  wide  plains  with  greater  floods. 
Here,  in  that  savage  land,  we  were  glad  to  encamp 
upon  its  banks  ;  for  we  needed  water,  which  is  scarce 
in  that  country.  Hard  by  stood  a  grove  whose  trees 
were  ever  motionless  and  sunless,  with  shade  dark  as 
Erebus  ;  and  from  it  burst  thick  fumes  that  spread 
a  noisome  stench  through  the  air.  Within  it  was 
a  dreadful  dwelling,  a  vast  subterranean  hollow 
in  a  winding  cavern,  where  the  dismal  darkness 
let  in  no  light.  I  shudder  still  to  think  of  it.  A 
deadly  monster  '^  lived  there,  spawned  by  Earth  in 
her  wrath,  whose  like  scarce  any  generation  of  men 
can  see  again  ;   a  serpent,  a  hundred  ells  in  length, 

Livy  described  the  battle  of  the  army  against  the  reptile, 
and  says  that  its  skin,  120  feet  long,  was  sent  to  Rome. 


letalem  ripam  et  lucos  habitabat  Avernos. 
ingluviem  immensi  ventris  gravidamque  venenis    155 
alvum  deprensi  satiabant  fonte  leones, 
aut  acta  ad  fluvium  torrenti  lampade  solis 
armenta  et  tractae  foeda  gravitate  per  auras 
ac  tabe  afflatus  volucres.     semesa  iacebant 
ossa  solo,  informi  dape  quae  repletus  et  asper        160 
vastatis  gregibus  nigro  ructarat  in  antro. 
isque  ubi  ferventi  concepta  incendia  pastu 
gurgite  mulcebat  rapido  et  spumantibus  undis, 
nondum  etiam  toto  demersus  corpore  in  amnem 
iam  caput  adversae  ponebat  margine  ripae.  165 

imprudens  tantae  pestis  gradiebar,  Aquino 
Apenninicola  atque  Umbro  comitatus  Avente  ; 
scire  nemus  pacemque  loci  explorare  libebat. 
iamque  propinquantum  tacitus  penetravit  in  artus 
horror,  et  occulto  riguerunt  frigore  membra.  170 

intramus  tamen  et  Nymphas  numenque  precamur 
gurgitis  ignoti  trepidosque  et  multa  paventes 
arcano  gressus  audemus  credere  luco. 
ecce  e  vestibule  primisque  e  faucibus  antri 
Tartareus  turbo  atque  insano  saevior  Euro  175 

spiritus  erumpit,  vastoque  e  gurgite  fusa 
tempestas  oritur,  mixtam  stridore  procellam 
Cerbereo  torquens.     pavefacti  clade  vicissim 
aspicimus  :  resonare  solum,  tellusque  moveri, 
atque  antrum  ruere,  et  visi  procedere  manes.         180 
quantis  armati  caelum  petiere  Gigantes 

"  The  word  has  here,  and  often,  the  sense  of  "  deadly." 
**  The  mention  of  Cerberus  implies  that  a  passage  to  the 

nether  world  was  opened  up. 


PUNICA,  VI.  154-181 

haunted  that  fatal  bank  and  the  Avernian  <»  grove. 
He  filled  his  vast  maw  and  poison-breeding  belly 
with  lions  caught  when  they  came  for  water,  or  with 
cattle  driven  to  the  river  when  the  sun  was  hot,  and 
with  birds  brought  down  from  the  sky  by  the  foul 
stench  and  corruption  of  the  atmosphere.  On  the 
floor  lay  half-eaten  bones,  which  he  had  belched  up 
in  the  darkness  of  his  cave  after  filling  his  maw  with 
a  hideous  meal  on  the  flocks  he  had  laid  low.  And, 
wlien  he  was  fain  to  bathe  in  the  foaming  waters  of 
the  running  stream  and  cool  the  heat  engendered 
by  his  fiery  food,  before  he  had  plunged  his  whole 
body  in  the  river,  his  head  was  already  resting  on 
the  opposite  bank.  Unwitting  of  such  a  danger  I 
went  forth  ;  and  with  me  went  Aquinus,  a  native  of 
the  Apennines,  and  Avens,  an  Umbrian.  We  sought 
to  examine  the  grove  and  find  out  whether  the  place 
was  friendly.  But  as  we  drew  near,  an  unspoken 
dread  came  over  us,  and  a  mysterious  chill  paralysed 
our  limbs.  Yet  we  went  on  and  prayed  to  the 
Nymphs  and  the  deity  of  the  unknown  river,  and 
then  ventured,  though  anxious  and  full  of  fears, 
to  trust  our  feet  to  the  secret  grove.  Suddenly 
from  the  threshold  and  outer  entrance  of  the  cave 
there  burst  forth  a  hellish  whirlwind  and  a  blast 
fiercer  than  the  frantic  East-wind ;  and  a  storm 
poured  forth  from  the  vast  hollow,  a  hurricane  in 
which  the  baying  of  Cerberus  ^  was  heard.  Horror- 
struck  we  gazed  at  one  another.  A  noise  came  from 
the  ground,  the  earth  was  shaken,  the  cave  fell  in 
ruins,  and  the  dead  seemed  to  come  forth.  Huge 
as  the  snakes  that  armed  the  Giants  '^  when  they 

"  The  Giants  who  tried  to  storm  heaven  are  often  repre- 
sented in  later  Greek  art  as  having  serpents  for  feet. 


anguibus,  aut  quantus  Lernae  lassavit  in  undis 

Amphitryoniaden  serpens,  qualisque  comantes 

auro  servavit  ramos  lunonius  anguis  : 

tantus  disiecta  tellure  sub  astra  coruscum  186 

extulit  assurgens  caput  atque  in  nubila  primam 

dispersit  saniem  et  caelum  foedavit  hiatu. 

difFugimus  tenuemque  metu  conamur  anheli 

tollere  clamorem  frustra  ;  nam  sibila  totum 

implebant  nemus.     ac  subita  formidine  caecus       190 

et  facti  damnandus  Avens  (sed  fata  trahebant) 

antiquae  quercus  ingenti  robore  sese 

occulit,  infandum  si  posset  fallere  monstrum. 

vix  egomet  credo  ;  spiris  ingentibus  altae 

arboris  abstraxit  molem  penitusque  revulsam         195 

evertit  fundo  et  radicibus  eruit  imis. 

turn  trepidum  ac  socios  extrema  voce  cientem 

corripit  atque  haustu  sorbens  et  faucibus  atris 

(vidi  respiciens)  obscaena  condidit  alvo. 

infelix  fluvio  sese  et  torrentibus  undis  200 

crediderat  celerique'  fuga  iam  nabat  Aquinus. 

hunc  medio  invasit  fluctu  ripaeque  relatos 

(heu  genus  infandum  leti)  depascitur  artus. 

"  Sic  dirum  nobis  et  lamentabile  monstrum 

effugisse  datur.     quantum  mens  aegra  sinebat,      205 

appropero  gressum  et  ductori  singula  pando. 

ingemuit,  casus  iuvenum  miseratus  acerbos. 

utque  erat  in  pugnas  et  Martem  et  proelia  et  hostem 

igneus  et  magna  audendi  flagrabat  amore, 

ocius  arma  rapi  et  spectatum  Marte  sub  omni        210 

"  The    dragon    that  guarded   the  golden    apples   in   the 
Garden  of  the  Hesperides  :   see  note  to  iii.  282. 


PUNICA,  VI.  182-210 

stormed  heaven,  or  as  the  hydra  that  wearied  Her- 
cules by  the  waters  of  Lerna,  or  as  Juno's  snake" 
that  guarded  the  boughs  with  golden  foliage — even 
so  huge  he  rose  up  from  the  cloven  earth  and  raised 
his  glittering  head  to  heaven,  and  first  scattered  his 
slaver  into  the  clouds  and  marred  the  face  of  heaven 
with  his  open  jaws.  Hither  and  thither  we  fled 
and  tried  to  raise  a  feeble  shout,  though  breathless 
with  terror  ;  but  in  vain  ;  for  the  sound  of  his  hissing 
filled  all  the  grove.  Then  Avens,  blind  with  sudden 
fear — blameworthy  was  his  act,  but  Fate  had  him 
in  the  toils — hid  in  the  huge  trunk  of  an  ancient  oak, 
hoping  that  the  horrible  monster  might  not  see  him. 
I  can  scarce  believe  it  myself;  but  the  serpent, 
clinging  wdth  its  huge  coils,  removed  the  great  tree 
bodily,  tearing  it  from  the  ground,  and  wrenching  it 
up  from  the  roots.  Then,  as  the  trembling  wretch 
called  on  his  companions  with  his  latest  utterance, 
the  serpent  seized  him  and  swallowed  him  down  with 
a  gulp  of  its  black  throat — I  looked  back  and  saw 
it — and  buried  him  in  its  beastly  maw.  Unhappy 
Aquinus  had  entrusted  himself  to  the  running  stream 
of  the  river,  and  was  swimming  fast  away.  But  the 
serpent  attacked  him  in  midstream,  carried  his  body 
to  the  bank,  and  there  devoured  it — a  dreadful  form 
of  death  ! 

"  Thus  I  alone  was  suffered  to  escape  from  the 
monster  so  terrible  and  deadly.  I  ran  as  fast  as 
grief  would  let  me,  and  told  all  to  the  general.  He 
groaned  aloud,  in  pity  for  the  cruel  fate  of  his  men. 
Then,  eager  as  he  ever  was  for  war  and  battle  and 
conflict  with  the  foe,  and  burning  with  a  passion  for 
great  achievements,  he  ordered  his  men  to  arm  in- 
stantly, and  his  cavalry,  well  tried  in  many  a  fight,  to 



ire  iubet  campis  equitem.     ruit  ipse,  citatum 
quadrupedem  planta  fodiens,  scutataque  raptim 
consequitur  iusso  manus  et  muralia  portat 
ballistas  tormenta  graves  suetamque  movere 
excelsas  turres  immensae  cuspidis  hastam.  215 

iamque  ubi  feralem  strepitu  circumtonat  aulam 
cornea  gramineum  persultans  ungula  campum, 
percitus  hinnitu  serpens  evolvitur  antro 
et  Stygios  aestus  fumanti  exsibilat  ore. 
terribilis  gemino  de  lumine  fulgurat  ignis  ;  220 

at  nemus  arrectae  et  procera  cacumina  saltus 
exsuperant  cristae  ;  trifido  vibrata  per  auras 
lingua  micat  motu  atque  assultans  aethera  lambit. 
ut  vero  strepuere  tubae,  conterritus  alte 
immensum  attollit  corpus  tergoque  residens  225 

cetera  sinuatis  glomerat  sub  pectore  gyris. 
dira  dehinc  in  bella  ruit  rapideque  resolvens 
contortos  orbes  derecto  corpore  totam 
extendit  molem  subitoque  propinquus  in  ora 
lato  distantum  spatio  venit ;  omnis  anhelat  230 

attonitus  serpentis  equus,  frenoque  teneri 
impatiens  crebros  expirat  naribus  ignes. 
arduus  ille  super  tumidis  cervicibus  altum 
nutat  utroque  caput ;  trepidos  inde  incitus  ira 
nunc  sublime  rapit,  nunc  vasto  pondere  gaudet      235 
elisisse  premens.     tunc  fractis  ossibus  atram 
absorbet  saniem  et,  tabo  manante  per  ora, 
mutat  hians  hostem  semesaque  membra  relinquit. 
cedebant  iam  signa  retro,  victorque  catervas 
longius  avectas  afflatus  peste  premebat,  240 

cum  ductor,  propere  revocatam  in  proelia  turmam 
vocibus  impellens  :  *  serpentine  Itala  pubes 

**  This  engine  was  the  f alar ica,  for  which  see  note  to  i.  351.    j 

PUNICA,   VI.   211-242 

take  the  field.  He  galloped  forward  himself,  srpurring 
his  flying  steed  ;  and  at  his  command  there  followed 
a  body  of  shieldsmen,  bringing  the  heavy  catapults 
used  in  sieges  and  the  weapon  «  whose  huge  point 
can  batter  down  high  towers.  And  now,  when  the 
horses  speeding  over  the  grassy  plain  surrounded  the 
fatal  spot  with  the  thunder  of  their  hoofs,  the  serpent, 
aroused  by  the  neighing,  glided  forth  from  his  cave 
and  hissed  forth  a  hellish  blast  from  his  reeking  jaws. 
Both  his  eyes  flashed  horrible  fire  ;  his  erected  crest 
towered  over  the  tall  tree-tops  ;  and  his  three-forked 
tongue  darted  and  flickered  through  the  air  and  rose 
up  till  it  licked  the  sky.  But,  when  the  trumpets 
sounded,  he  was  startled  and  reared  aloft  his  huge 
bulk  ;  then,  couching  on  his  rear,  he  gathered  the 
rest  of  his  body  beneath  his  front  in  circling  coils. 
Then  he  began  a  fearsome  conflict,  quickly  un- 
winding his  coils  and  stretching  his  body  out  to  its  full 
length,  till  he  reached  in  a  moment  the  faces  of  men 
far  away.  All  the  horses  snorted,  in  their  terror  of 
the  serpent,  refusing  to  obey  the  rein  and  breathing 
frequent  fire  from  their  nostrils.  The  monster,  tower- 
ing above  the  frightened  men  with  swollen  neck, 
waved  his  high  head  to  right  and  left  and,  in  his  rage, 
now  hoisted  them  on  high,  and  now  delighted  in 
crushing  them  beneath  his  huge  weight.  Then  he 
breaks  their  bones  and  gulps  down  the  black  gore  ; 
with  his  open  jaws  wet  with  blood,  he  leaves  the 
half-eaten  body  and  seeks  a  fresh  foe.  The  soldiers 
fell  back,  and  the  victorious  serpent  attacked  the 
squadrons  from  a  distance  with  his  pestilential  breath. 
But  then  Regulus  speedily  recalled  the  troops  to 
battle  and  encouraged  them  thus  :  '  Shall  we,  the 
men  of  Italy,  retreat  before  a  serpent,  and  admit 



terga  damus  Libycisque  parem  non  esse  fatemur 
anguibus  Ausoniam  ?     si  debellavit  inertes 
halitus,  ac  viso  mens  aegra  effluxit  hiatu,  245 

ibo  alacer  solusque  manus  componere  monstro 
sufRciam.'     clamans  haec  atque  interritus  hastam 
fulmineo  volucrem  torquet  per  inane  lacerto. 
venit  in  adversam  non  vano  turbine  frontem 
cuspis  et,  baud  paulum  vires  adiuta  mentis  250 

contra  ardore  ferae,  capiti  tremebunda  resedit. 
clamor  ad  astra  datur,  vocesque  repente  profusae 
aetherias  adiere  domos.     furit  ilicet  ira 
terrigena,  impatiens  dare  terga  novusque  dolori 
et  chalybem  longo  turn  primum  passus  in  aevo.     255 
nee  frustra  rapidi,  stimulante  dolore,  fuisset 
impetus,  ablato  ni  Regulus  arte  regendi 
instantem  elusisset  equo  rursusque  secutum 
cornipedis  gyros  flexi  curvamine  tergi 
detortis  laeva  celer  efFugisset  habenis.  260 

"  At  non  spectator  Marus  inter  talia  segni 
torpebat  dextra.     mea  tanto  in  corpore  monstri 
hasta  secunda  fuit.     iam  iamque  extrema  trisulca 
lambebat  lingua  fessi  certamine  terga 
quadrupedis  ;  torsi  telum  atque  urgentia  velox      265 
in  memet  saevi  serpentis  proelia  verto. 
hinc  imitata  cohors  certatim  spicula  dextris 
congerit  alternasque  ferum  diducit  in  iras, 
donee  murali  balista  coercuit  ictu. 
turn  fractus  demum  vires,  non  iam  amplius  aegra  270 
consuetum  ad  nisus  spina  praestante  rigorem 
et  solitum  in  nubes  toUi  caput,     acrius  instant, 


PUNICA,  VI.   243-272 

that  Rome  is  no  match  for  the  snakes  of  Libya  ?  If 
his  breath  has  conquered  your  feeble  strength,  and 
your  courage  has  oozed  away  at  sight  of  his  open 
mouth,  then  I  will  go  boldly  forward  and  cope  with 
the  monster  single-handed.'  Thus  he  shouted  and 
undismayed  hurled  his  flying  spear  through  the  air 
with  lightning  speed.  The  weapon  rushed  on  and 
did  its  work  :  it  struck  the  serpent  fairly  on  the 
head,  gaining  not  a  little  force  from  the  fierceness  of 
the  creature's  charge,  and  stuck  there  quivering.  A 
shout  of  triumph  rose,  and  the  sudden  noise  of  it 
went  up  to  Heaven.  At  once  the  earth-born  monster 
went  mad  with  rage  :  he  spurned  defeat  and  was  a 
stranger  to  pain  ;  for  never  before  in  his  long  life 
had  he  felt  the  steel.  Nor  would  the  swift  charge, 
prompted  by  his  pain,  have  failed,  had  not  Regulus, 
skilled  horseman  that  he  was,  eluded  the  onset  with 
wheeling  steed,  and  then,  when  the  serpent,  with  a 
bend  of  its  supple  back,  once  again  followed  the 
turning  horse,  pulled  the  rein  with  his  left  hand  and 
soon  got  out  of  reach. 

"  But  Marus  did  not  merely  look  on  at  such  a  scene 
and  take  no  part  :  my  spear  was  the  second  to  transfix 
the  great  body  of  the  monster.  His  three-forked 
tongue  was  now  licking  the  rump  of  the  general's 
tired  horse  ;  I  threw  my  weapon  and  quickly  turned 
on  myself  the  serpent's  fierce  assault.  The  men 
followed  my  example  and  hurled  their  darts  together 
with  a  will,  making  the  creature  shift  its  rage  from 
one  foe  to  another ;  and  at  length  he  was  restrained  by 
a  blow  from  a  catapult  that  would  level  a  wall.  Then 
at  last  his  strength  was  broken  ;  for  his  injured 
spine  could  no  longer  stand  up  stiff  for  attack,  and 
the  head  had  no  strength  to  rear  up  to  the  sky.    We 

VOL.  I  L  301 


iamque  alvo  penitus  demersa  falarica  sedit, 
et  geminum  volucres  lumen  rapuere  sagittae. 
iam  patulis  vasto  sub  vulnere  faucibus  ater  275 

tabificam  expirat  saniem  specus  ;  ultima  iamque 
ingestis  cauda  et  iaculis  et  pondere  conti 
haeret  humi  ;  lassoque  tamen  minitatur  hiatu  ; 
donee  tormentis  stridens  magnoque  fragore 
discussit  trabs  acta  caput,  longoque  resolvens         280 
aggere  se  ripae  tandem  exhalavit  in  auras 
liventem  nebulam  fugientis  ab  ore  veneni. 
erupit  tristi  fluvio  mugitus  et  imis 
murmura  fusa  vadis  ;  subitoque  et  lucus  et  antrum 
et  resonae  silvis  ulularunt  flebile  ripae.  285 

heu  quantis  luimus  mox  tristia  proelia  damnis  ! 
quantaque  supplicia  et  quales  exhausimus  iras  ! 
nee  tacuere  pii  vates  famulumque  sororum 
Naiadum,  tepida  quas  Bagrada  nutrit  in  unda, 
nos  violasse  manu  seris  monuere  periclis. —  290 

haec  tunc  hasta  decus  nobis  pretiumque  secundi 
vulneris  a  vestro,  Serrane,  tributa  parente, 
princeps  quae  sacro  bibit  e  serpente  cruorem." 

lamdudum  vultus  lacrimis  atque  ora  rigabat 
Serranus  medioque  viri  sermone  profatur  :  295 

"  huic  si  vita  duci  nostrum  durasset  in  aevum, 
non  Trebia  infaustas  superasset  sanguine  ripas, 
nee,  Thrasymenne,  tuus  premeret  tot  nomina  gurges." 

Turn    senior  :    "  magnas,"  inquit,   "  de   sanguine 

"  This  refers  to  the  defeat  and  capture  of  Regulus,  which 
soon  followed. 

*  The  spear  which  Marus  showed  to  Serranus  was  not  the 
spear  which  he  himself  threw :  it  had  belonged  to  Regulus 
and  was  given  by  him  to  Marus  as  a  reward  for  valour. 

PUNICA,  VI.   273-299 

attacked  more  fiercely  ;  and  soon  a  huge  missile  was 
lodged  deep  in  the  monster's  belly,  and  the  sight  of 
both  his  eyes  was  destroyed  by  flying  arrows.  Now 
the  dark  pit  of  the  gaping  wound  sent  forth  a 
poisonous  slaver  from  the  open  jaws  ;  and  now  the 
end  of  the  tail  was  held  fast  to  the  ground  by  showers 
of  darts  and  heavy  poles  ;  and  still  he  threatened 
feebly  with  open  mouth.  At  last  a  beam,  discharged 
from  an  engine  with  a  loud  hissing  sound,  shattered 
his  head  ;  and  the  body  lay  at  last  relaxed  far  along 
the  raised  bank,  and  discharged  into  the  air  a  dark 
vapour  of  poison  that  escaped  from  its  mouth.  Then 
a  cry  of  sorrow  burst  from  the  river,  and  the  sound 
spread  through  the  depths  ;  and  suddenly  both  grove 
and  cave  sent  forth  a  noise  of  wailing,  and  the  banks 
replied  to  the  trees.  Alas,  how  great  were  our  losses, 
and  how  dearly  we  paid  in  the  end  for  our  luckless 
battle  !  "  How  much  we  suffered,  and  what  a  cup  of 
retribution  we  had  to  drink  !  Our  soothsayers  were 
not  silent :  they  warned  us  that  we  had  laid  profane 
hands  on  the  servant  of  the  Naiads,  the  sisters  who 
dwell  in  the  warm  stream  of  the  Bagrada,  and  that 
we  should  suffer  for  it  later. — Then  it  was,  Serranus, 
that  your  father  gave  me  this  spear  as  my  reward 
and  prize  for  dealing  the  second  wound  ;  this  was 
the  first  weapon  to  draw  blood  from  the  sacred 
serpent."  ^ 

The  eyes  and  cheeks  of  Serranus  had  long  been  wet 
with  tears,  and  now  he  interrupted  Marus  and  said  : 
**  Had  Regulus  lived  on  to  our  time,  the  Trebia  would 
never  have  overflowed  its  fatal  banks  with  blood,  nor 
would  the  waters  of  Lake  Trasimene  hide  so  many 
famous  dead." 

The  older  man  replied  ;  **  The  Carthaginians  paid 



percepit  Tyrio  et  praesumpta  piacula  mortis.  300 

nam,  defecta  viris  et  opes  attrita,  supinas 
Africa  tendebat  palmas,  cum  sidere  diro 
misit  Agenoreis  ductorem  animosa  Therapne. 
nulla  viro  species  decorisque  et  frontis  egenum 
corpus  ;  in  exiguis  vigor,  admirabile,  membris        305 
vividus,  et  nisu  magnos  qui  vinceret  artus. 
iam  Martem  regere  atque  astus  adiungere  ferro 
et  duris  facilem  per  inhospita  ducere  vitam 
haud  isti,  quern  nunc  penes  est  sollertia  belli, 
ccderet  Hannibali.     vellem  hunc,  o  tristia  nobis    310 
Taygeta,  hunc  unum  non  durassetis  opacis 
Eurotae  ripis  !     vidissem  moenia  flammis 
Phoenissae  ruere,  aut  certe  non  horrida  fata 
flevissem  ducis  et,  nulla  quos  morte  nee  igni 
exutos  servans  portabo  in  Tartara,  luctus.  315 

consertae  campis  acies,  multusque  per  arva 
fervebat  Mavors  ;  nee  mens  erat  ulla  sine  ira. 
hie  inter  medios  memorandis  Regulus  ausis 
laxabat  ferro  campum  inque  pericla  ruebat 
nee  repetenda  dabat  letali  vulnera  dextra.  320 

sic  ubi  nigrantem  torquens  stridentibus  austris 
portat  turbo  globum  piceaque  e  nube  ruinam 
pendentem  terris  pariter  pontoque  minatur, 
omnis  et  agricola  et  nemoroso  vertice  pastor 
et  pelago  trepidat  subductis  navita  velis.  325 

at  fraudem  nectens,  socios  ubi  concava  saxa 
claudebant,  vertit  subito  certamina  Graius 

"  Xanthippus  :  see  note  to  ii.  305.  "  Therapne  "  is  here 
and  often  used  as  equivalent  to  "  Sparta  "  :  it  was  close  to 
that  city:  it  is  called  "brave"  because  of  the  military 
training  which  Spartans  underwent.  Taygetus  and  Eurotas 
mentioned  below  are  the  mountain  and  river  of  Sparta. 

*  Carthage. 

PUNICA,  VI.  300-327 

dearly  with  their  blood,  and  he,  while  he  yet  lived, 
took  vengeance  for  his  death.  For  Africa,  with  her 
armies  thinned  and  her  treasure  exhausted,  was  holding 
out  her  hands  in  supplication,  when  brave  Therapne 
in  an  evil  hour  sent  a  leader  "  to  the  Carthaginians. 
His  aspect  was  mean  :  no  beauty  or  noble  brow  was 
his  ;  but  with  his  low  stature  there  went  a  tireless 
activity  to  marvel  at — an  activity  whose  effort  could 
conquer  giants.  In  the  art  of  war,  in  combining  the 
sword  with  stratagem,  in  enduring  hardship  and  con- 
triving to  exist  in  an  unfriendly  country,  he  was  not 
inferior  to  yonder  Hannibal,  who  is  now  supreme  for 
skill  in  war.  Glad  had  I  been  if  Taygeta,  so  cruel 
to  us,  had  made  an  exception  of  Xanthippus,  and 
not  hardened  him  on  the  shady  banks  of  the  Eurotas. 
Then  I  should  have  seen  the  walls  of  Dido  ^  over- 
thrown in  flames  ;  or  at  least  I  should  not  have 
mourned  the  dreadful  doom  of  Regulus — a  sorrow 
which  no  death  or  funeral  fire  can  ever  take  from  me, 
but  I  shall  keep  it  and  carry  it  with  me  to  Tartarus. 
The  armies  met  in  the  field  ;  war  raged  fiercely 
throughout  the  land  ;  and  every  heart  was  full  of 
martial  ardour.  Here,  in  the  midst  of  his  men, 
Regulus  did  memorable  deeds,  opening  a  path  in  the 
field  with  his  sword,  dashing  into  danger,  and  dealing 
out  with  his  deadly  arm  strokes  that  needed  not  to 
be  struck  again.  So,  when  a  hurricane  sweeps  along 
a  whirling  mass  of  dark  cloud  with  shrieking  south- 
winds,  and  the  pitch-dark  heaven  threatens  earth  and 
sea  alike  with  destruction  from  above,  all  tillers  of 
the  soil  and  herdsmen  on  their  wooded  heights  are 
terrified,  and  every  seaman  on  the  deep  furls  his  sails. 
But  the  Greek  general  devised  a  trick  :  hiding  a  force 
behind  rocky  hollows,  he  suddenly  ceased   lighting 



et  dat  terga  celer  ficta  formidine  ductor. 

baud  secus  ac  stabulis  procurans  otia  pastor 

In  foveam  parco  tectam  velamine  frondis  330 

ducit  nocte  lupos  positae  balatibus  agnae. 

abripuit  traxitque  virum  fax  mentis  honestae 

gloria  et  incerti  fallax  fiducia  Martis. 

non  socios  comitumve  manus,  non  arma  sequentum 

respicere,  insano  pugnae  tendebat  amore  335 

iam  solus,  nubes  subito  cum  densa  Laconum 

saxosis  latebris  intento  ad  proelia  circum 

funditur,  et  pone  insurgit  vis  saeva  virorum. 

o  diram  Latio  lucem  fastisque  notandam  ! 

dedecus  o,  Gradive,  tuum  !    tibi  dextera  et  urbi   340 

nata  tuae  tristi  damnatur  sorte  catenae. 

baud  umquam  absistam  gemitu.     te,  Regule,  vidit 

Sidonius  career  !     tuque  buic  sat  magna  triumpbo 

visa  es,  Cartbago,  superis  !   quae  poena  sequetur 

digna  satis  tali  pollutos  Marte  Laconas  ?  345 

"  At  nova  Elissaei  iurato  foedera  patres 
consultant  mandare  duci  pacisque  sequestrem 
mittere,  poscentes  vinctam  inter  proelia  pubem 
captivamque  manum  ductore  rependere  nostro. 
nee  mora,  iam  stabat  primis  in  litoris  undis  350 

navali  propulsa  ratis,  iam  nautica  pubes 
aut  silvis  stringunt  remos,  aut  abiete  secta 
transtra  novant ;  bis  intortas  aptare  rudentes, 
bis  studium  erecto  componere  carbasa  malo. 
unca  locant  prora  curvati  pondera  ferri.  355 

ante  omnes  doctus  pelagi  rectorque  carinae 

"  Rome. 

PUNICA,  VI.   328-356 

and  beat  a  hasty  retreat  in  pretended  fear.  Even  so 
a  shepherd,  seeking  safety  for  his  flock,  lures  the 
wolves  at  night  by  the  bleating  of  a  tethered  lamb 
into  the  pitfall  masked  by  a  slender  covering  of 
leafage.  Regulus  was  caught  and  carried  away 
by  the  desire  of  fame  that  fires  the  noble  heart, 
and  by  mistaken  trust  in  the  fickle  god  of  war. 
To  no  companions  or  helpers  or  troops  did  he  look 
back  but  was  pressing  on  alone  in  his  wild  desire 
for  battle,  when  suddenly  a  cloud  of  Spartans  issued 
from  their  ambush  in  the  rocks  and  surrounded  the 
eager  warrior,  while  behind  him  rose  up  a  great 
army.  O  fearful  day  for  Rome,  that  she  must  mark 
with  black  on  her  calendar  !  What  disgrace  to  Mars, 
that  a  warrior  born  to  serve  the  god  and  the  god's 
city  "  was  doomed  to  the  sad  lot  of  a  captive  !  Never 
shall  I  cease  to  mourn  over  it.  Did  Carthage  behold 
Regulus  a  prisoner  ?  Did  Carthage  seem  to  Heaven 
to  deserve  so  great  a  triumph  ?  What  fitting  punish- 
ment shall  attend  the  Spartans  for  their  foul  manner 
of  warfare  ? 

*'  But  now  the  senate  of  Carthage  resolved  to  take 
an  oath  of  Regulus  and  send  him  to  Rome  as  mediator 
with  new  conditions  of  peace  ;  they  sought  to  ex- 
change Regulus  for  their  own  soldiers  who  had  been 
taken  prisoners  in  the  course  of  the  war.  With  no 
delay,  a  ship  was  launched  from  the  arsenal  and  rode 
already  on  the  waters  close  to  the  shore  ;  and  already 
the  crew  were  shaping  oars  in  the  woods  or  felling 
pines  to  make  new  thwarts  ;  some  were  busily  en- 
gaged in  fitting  the  twisted  cordage,  and  others  in 
fixing  the  canvas  upon  the  high  mast.  They  laid 
upon  the  prow  the  heavy  iron  anchor  with  its  curved 
flukes.     Chief  of  all   Cothon,  a    skilful  seaman  and 



puppim  aptat  clavumque  Cothon.     micat  aereus  alta 
fulgor  aqua  trifidi  splendentis  in  aequore  rostri. 
tela  simul  variamque  ferunt  contra  aspera  ponti 
rerum  ad  tempus  opem.    mediae  stat  margine  puppis, 
qui  voce  alternos  nautarum  temperet  ictus  361 

et  remis  dictet  sonitum  pariterque  relatis 
ad  numerum  plaudat  resonantia  caerula  tonsis. 

"  Postquam  confectum  nautis  opus,horaque  cursus, 
atque  armata  ratis  ventique  dedere  profundum,    365 
omnis  turba  ruit,  matres  puerique  senesque. 
per  medios  coetus  trahit  atque  inimica  per  ora 
spectandum  Fortuna  ducem.     fert  lumina  contra 
pacatus  frontem,  qualis  cum  litora  primum 
attigit  appulsa  rector  Sidonia  classe.  370 

accessi  comes,  haud  ipso  renuente,  ratique 
impositus  maestus  socium  me  casibus  addo. 
illuviem  atque  inopes  mensas  durumque  cubile 
et  certare  malis  urgentibus  hoste  putabat 
devicto  mains  ;  nee  tam  fugisse  cavendo  375 

adversa  egregium,  quam  perdomuisse  ferendo. 
spes  tamen  una  mihi  (quamquam  bene  cognita  et 

atrox  ilia  fides)  urbem  murosque  domumque 
tangere  si  miseris  licuisset,  corda  moveri 
posse  viri  et  vestro  certe  mitescere  fletu.  380 

claudebam  sub  corde  metus  lacrimasque  putabam 
esse  viro  et  nostrae  similem  inter  tristia  mentem. 
cum  tandem  patriae  Tiberino  allabimur  amni, 


PUNICA,  VI.   357-383 

steersman  of  the  ship,  saw  to  the  vessel  and  its 
rudder  ;  the  shining  brass  of  the  triple  beak  was 
reflected  on  the  deep  and  glittered  over  the  sea. 
Weapons  also  were  brought  on  board,  and  much  else 
to  help  them  against  the  dangers  of  the  sea  in  time 
of  need.  Amidships  by  the  gunwale  the  coxswain 
stood,  to  regulate  the  rowers'  successive  strokes,  to 
set  their  cadence  to  the  oars,  and,  as  the  blades  were 
drawn  back  together,  to  make  the  water  echo  to  the 

"  When  the  sailors  had  done  their  work,  and  the 
time  for  starting  came,  and  the  ship  was  fitted  out, 
and  the  wind  made  sailing  possible,  then  all  the  people 
hastened  to  the  shore — women  and  boys  and  old  men. 
Through  the  midst  of  the  crowd  and  before  their  un- 
friendly eyes  Regulus  was  brought  along  by  Fortune, 
for  them  to  look  at.  His  calm  brow  met  their  gaze — 
calm  as  when  he  first  brought  the  fleet  under  his 
command  to  the  Carthaginian  shore.  I  went  with 
him,  and  he  made  no  objection  ;  sadly  I  went  on 
board,  to  share  his  ill-fortune.  To  contend  with  / 
pressing  evils — squalid  attire  and  meagre  fare  and 
a  hard  bed — this  he  thought  more  glorious  than  to 
win  a  battle  ;  and  he  held  it  a  nobler  thing  to  conquer 
adversity  by  endurance  than  to  avoid  it  by  pre- 
caution. One  hope  I  still  cherished — although  I  knew 
well,  and  had  long  known,  the  inflexible  conscience 
of  the  man — that,  if  we  wretches  were  permitted  to 
reach  the  walls  of  Rome  and  our  homes,  his  resolu- 
tion might  give  way  and  be  melted  at  least  by  the 
tears  of  his  wife  and  children.  I  hid  my  fears  in 
my  breast,  and  beheved  that  Regulus  could  weep 
and  feel  misfortune  like  other  men.  When  at  last 
our  ship  ghded  into  the  Tiber,  our  native  river,  I 
VOL.  I  l2  309 


servabam  vultus  ducis  ac  prodentia  sensum 

lumina  et  obtutu  perstabam  intentus  eodem.  385 

si  qua  fides,  unum,  puer,  inter  mille  labores, 

unum  etiam  in  patria  saevaque  in  Agenoris  urbe 

atque  unum  vidi  poenae  quoque  tempore  vultum. 

obvia  captivo  cunetis  simul  urbibus  ibat 

Ausonia,  et,  campum  turba  vincente,  propinqui     390 

implentur  coUes  ;  strepit  altis  Albula  ripis. 

ipsi  Poenorum  proceres  immitia  corda 

ad  patrios  certant  cultus  revocare,  logaeque 

addebatur  honos.     stetit,  illacrimante  senatu 

et  matrum  turba  iuvenumque  dolore  profuso,         395 

inter  tot  gemitus  immobilis  ;  aggere  consul 

tendebat  dextram  et  patria  vestigia  primus 

ponentem  terra  occursu  celebrabat  amico. 

collegit  gressum  ;  monitusque  recedere  consul 

nee  summum  violare  decus  ;  cingente  superba       400 

Poenorum  turba  captivoque  agmine  saeptus 

ibat  et  invidiam  caelo  divisque  ferebat. 

"  Ecce  trahens  geminum  natorum  Marcia  pignus, 
infelix  nimia  magni  virtute  mariti, 
squalentem  crinem  et  tristis  lacerabat  amictus.      405 
(agnoscisne  diem  ?    an  teneris  non  haesit  in  annis  ?) 
atque  ea,  postquam  habitu  iuxta  et  velamine  Poeno 
deformem  aspexit,  fusis  ululatibus  aegra 
labitur,  et  gelidos  mortis  color  occupat  artus. 
si  qua  deis  pietas,  tales,  Carthago,  videre  410 

dent  tibi  Sidonias  matres.     me  voce  quieta 

<*  Carthage  :   Agenor,  father  of  Cadmus,  was  a  king  of  the 
Phoenicians.  ^  The  ancient  name  of  the  Tiber. 

"  The  toga,  the  white  woollen  gown  characteristic  of  the 
Roman  citizen. 

**  Romans  who  were  to  be  exchanged  for  Carthaginians 
if  the  embassy  from  Carthage  succeeded  in  their  object. 

PUNICA,  VI.  384-411 

watched  his  face  and  the  eyes  that  reveal  the 
mind,  and  never  did  I  take  my  gaze  off  him.  If  you 
can  believe  me,  young  man,  his  expression  was  un- 
changed amid  a  thousand  dangers,  unchanged  in 
Rome  and  in  the  cruel  city  of  Agenor,**  and  unchanged 
even  when  he  was  tortured.  From  all  the  cities  of 
Italy  men  came  to  meet  the  prisoner  ;  and,  when 
the  plain  could  not  contain  the  crowd,  the  neigh- 
bouring hills  were  thronged,  and  the  high  banks 
of  the  Albula  ^  resounded.  Even  the  Carthaginian 
senators  pleaded  with  that  stern  heart  to  resume  his 
native  dress,  and  the  dignity  of  the  gown  '^  was  offered 
him.  He  stood  there  unmoved,  while  the  senators 
shed  tears,  and  the  crowd  of  matrons  and  the  young 
men  wept  for  sorrow.  On  the  river  bank  the  consul 
first  held  out  his  hand,  in  friendly  welcome  to  the 
exile  as  he  set  foot  upon  his  native  soil.  Regulus 
stepped  back  ;  he  bade  the  consul  withdraw  and  not 
dishonour  his  high  office  ;  only  the  haughty  Cartha- 
ginians and  the  company  of  prisoners  ^  were  round 
him  when  he  moved  on,  causing  men  to  reproach 
Heaven  and  the  gods. 

"  Now  Marcia  came  up,  leading  two  boys,  the 
pledges  of  their  love — Marcia  made  unhappy  by  the 
too  lofty  virtue  of  her  great  husband  ;  in  her  sorrow 
she  tore  her  disordered  hair  and  rent  her  garments. 
(Do  you  remember  that  day,  Serranus,  or  has  it 
slipped  from  your  boyish  memory  ?)  When  she  saw 
him  near,  changed  in  mien  and  wearing  the  unsightly 
dress  of  Carthage,  with  a  loud  cry  she  fell  fainting, 
and  the  hue  of  death  covered  her  cold  hmbs.  (If 
the  gods  have  any  pity,  let  them  make  Carthage 
witness   mothers   suffering   like    Marcia.)      Regulus 



aflPatus,  iubet  et  vestros  et  coniugis  una 
arcere  amplexus  ;  patet  impenetrabilis  ille 
luctibus  et  numquam  summissus  colla  dolori." 

Hie  alto  iuvenis  gemitu  laerimisque  eoortis  :       415 
"  magne  parens,"  inquit,  "  quo  maius  numine  nobis 
Tarpeia  nee  in  aree  sedet,  si  iura  querelis 
sunt  eoncessa  piis,  cur  hoc  matrique  mihique 
solamen,  vel  cur  decus  hoc,  o  dure,  negasti, 
tangere  saeratos  vultus  atque  oseula  ab  ore  420 

libavisse  tuo  ?     dextram  mihi  prendere  dextra 
non  licitum  ?     leviora  forent  haec  vulnera  quantum, 
si  ferre  ad  manes  infixos  mente  daretur 
amplexus,  venerande,  tuos.     sed  vana  recordor 
ni.  Mare, — nam  primo  tunc  haerebamus  in  aevo — 
humana  maior  species  erat ;  horrida  cano  426 

vertice  descendens  ingentia  colla  tegebat 
caesaries,  frontique  coma  squalente  sedebat 
terribilis  decor  atque  animi  venerabile  pondus. 
nil  posthac  oculis  simile  incidit."     excipit  inde       430 
iam  Marus  atque,  inhibens  convellere  vulnera  questu  : 
"  quid,  cum  praeteritis  invisa  penatibus,"  inquit, 
"  hospitia  et  sedes  Poenorum  intra vit  acerbas  ? 
affixi  clipei  currusque  et  spicula  nota 
aedibus  in  parvis,  magni  monumenta  triumphi,      435 
pulsabant  oculos,  coniuxque  in  limine  primo 
clamabat  :  *  quo  fers  gressus  ?     non  Punicus  hie  est, 
Regule,  quem  fugias,  career,     vestigia  nostri 
casta  tori  domus  et  patrium  sine  crimine  servat 
inviolata  larem.     semel  hie  iterumque  (quid,  oro,  440 


PUNICA,  VI.   412-440 

spoke  to  me  in  a  calm  voice  and  bade  me  keep  from 
him  the  embraces  of  you  two,  his  children,  and  of 
his  wife  ;  he  remained  obdurate  against  grief  and 
never  bowed  his  neck  to  pain." 

Then  Serranus  spoke  with  a  deep  groan  and  start- 
ing tears  :  "  Noble  father,"  he  said,  "  not  less  divine 
to  me  than  even  the  deity  who  dwells  on  the  Tarpeian 
rock,  if  love  has  a  right  to  complain,  why  did  you  so 
sternly  deny  my  mother  and  me  this  consolation 
and  this  glory — to  touch  your  sacred  face  and  take 
kisses  from  your  lips  ?  Was  I  forbidden  to  clasp 
your  hand  in  mine  ?  How  much  lighter  my  present 
wounds  would  be,  had  I  been  allowed  to  carry 
to  the  grave  the  undying  memory  of  your  embrace, 

0  worshipful  father  !  But,  Marus,  unless  memory 
deceives  me — and  I  was  but  a  child  then — his  stature 
was  more  than  human ;  the  unkempt  hair  fell  down 
from  his  white  head  and  hid  the  great  shoulders  ; 
and  on  his  brow  with  its  disordered  locks  sat  an  awful 
majesty  and  reverend  dignity.    None  like  him  have 

1  seen  since."  But  here  Marus  took  up  the  tale  and 
prevented  him  from  making  his  wounds  worse  by  com- 
plaining :  "  And  what,"  he  cried,  "  when  he  passed 
by  his  own  house  and  sought  the  hateful  hospitality 
of  the  Carthaginians  and  their  unfriendly  lodging  ? 
Shields  and  chariots  and  javelins  were  fastened  at  his 
doors — famous  trophies  of  a  great  victory  adorning 
a  humble  dwelling  ;  these  struck  on  his  sight,  and 
his  wife  was  crying  out  from  the  threshold  :  '  Whither 
are  you  going,  Regulus  ?  This  is  no  Carthaginian 
prison,  for  you  to  shun.  This  house  preserves  the 
prints  on  our  chaste  marriage-bed,  and  our  hereditary 
household  gods  are  stained  by  no  guilt.  In  it  once 
and  again — what,  I  ask,  have  I  done  to  dishonour  the 



pollutum  est  nobis  ?)  prolem,  gratante  senatu 
et  patria,  sum  enixa  tibi.     tua,  respice,  sedes 
haec  est,  unde  ingens  humeris  fulgentibus  ostro 
vidisti  Latios  consul  procedere  fasces  ; 
unde  ire  in  Martem,  quo  capta  referre  solebas       445 
et  victor  mecum  suspendere  postibus  arma. 
non  ego  complexus  et  sanctae  foedera  taedae 
coniugiumve  peto  :  patrios  damnare  penates 
absiste  ac  natis  fas  due  concedere  noctem.' 

"  Hos  inter  fletus  iunctus  vestigia  Poenis  450 

limine  se  clusit  Tyrio  questusque  reliquit. 
vixdum  clara  dies  summa  lustrabat  in  Oeta 
Herculei  monumenta  rogi,  cum  consul  adire 
accirique  iubet  Libyas.     tum  limina  templi 
vidimus  intrantem.     quae  consultata  senatus,        455 
quasve  viri  voces  extremum  curia  maerens 
audierit,  placido  nobis  ipse  edidit  ore. 
intulit  ut  gressus,  certatim  voce  manuque 
ad  solitam  sedem  et  vestigia  nota  vocabant. 
abnuit  antiquumque  loci  aspernatur  honorem.        460 
at  circumfusi  non  secius  undique  dextram 
prensare  ac,  patriae  ductorem  nomine  tanto 
redderet,  orabant ;  captiva  posse  redemptum 
pensari  turba,  ac  Tyrias  tum  iustius  arces 
arsuras  dextra,  fuerit  quae  vincta  catenis.  465 

Tum  palmas  simul  attollens  ac  lumina  caelo  : 
'  iustitiae  rectique  dator,  qui  cuncta  gubernas, 
nee  levior  mihi  diva  Fides  Sarranaque  luno, 

"  These  would  be  the  quarters  provided  by  the  State  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  Carthaginian  envoys. 

*  An  elaborate  way  of  saying  that  the  sun  was  rising  :  for 
Oeta  see  note  to  iii.  43. 

"  The  Senate-house  is  often  called  a  temple  ;  and  also  meet- 
ings of  the  Senate  were  often  held  in  the  temple  of  some  god. 


PUNICA,  VI.  441-468 

house  ? — I  bore  you  a  child,  and  the  Senate  and 
people  wished  us  joy.  Look  back  !  this  is  your  own 
dwelling,  from  which,  in  all  a  consul's  state,  your 
shoulders  gleaming  with  purple,  you  saw  the  Roman 
lictors  march  forth.  From  it  you  went  to  the  wars  ; 
and  to  it  you  often  brought  back  the  victor's  spoils, 
and  we  hung  them  up  together  on  the  threshold.  No 
embraces  do  I  ask,  no  union  that  the  hallowed  torch 
of  wedlock  brings  ;  but  do  not  persist  in  shunning 
the  house  of  your  fathers,  and  count  it  no  crime  to 
pass  one  night  here  for  the  sake  of  your  sons.' 

'  While  thus  she  lamented,  he  passed  along  with  the 
Carthaginians  and  shut  himself  up  in  their  lodging," 
deaf  to  her  appeal.  Scarce  was  the  daylight  shining 
on  the  famous  pyre  of  Hercules  upon  Oeta's  height,* 
when  the  consul  ordered  the  Carthaginians  to  be 
summoned.  Then  we  saw  Regulus  entering  the 
temple.''  How  the  Senate  debated,  and  how  Regulus 
at  last  addressed  the  sorrowing  house — this  he  re- 
ported to  me  himself  with  calm  utterance.  When  he 
entered,  all  eagerly  called  on  him  with  voice  and 
gesture  to  take  his  wonted  seat  and  former  place. 
He  refused  and  declined  the  seat  of  honour  that  once 
was  his.  None  the  less  they  gathered  round,  all 
seeking  to  grasp  his  hand  and  begging  him  not  to 
deprive  his  country  of  so  great  a  general ;  he,  they 
said,  might  be  exchanged  for  the  crowd  of  Cartha- 
ginian prisoners  ;  and  then  the  hand  which  once 
wore  fetters  at  Carthage  would  more  fitly  set  fire  to 
the  Carthaginian  citadel. 

' '  Then  he  lifted  hand  and  eye  together  to  heaven : '  O 
Ruler  of  the  universe,  source  of  justice  and  truth  ;  and 
O  Loyalty,  no  less  divine  to  me,  and  Juno  of  Tyre,  ye 



qiios  reditus  testes  iurata  mente  vocavi, 

si  mihi  fas  me  digna  loqui  Latiosque  tueri  470 

voce  focos,  ibo  ad  Tyrios  non  segnior,'  inquit, 

*  stante  fide  reditus  et  salvo  foedere  poenae. 

sic  nobis  rerum  exitio  desistite  honorem 

tendere.     tot  bellis  totque  annis  fregimus  aevum  ; 

nunc  etiam  vinclis  et  longo  carcere  torpent  475 

captivo  in  senio  vires,     fuit  ille  nee  umquam, 

dum  fuit,  a  duro  cessavit  munere  Martis 

Regulus  :  exsangui  spectatis  corpore  nomen. 

at  non  Carthago,  fraudum  domus,  inscia  quantum 

e  nobis  restet,  iuvenes  parat,  aspera  ferro  480 

pectora,  captivos  nostra  pensare  senecta. 

ite  dolos  contra,  gensque  astu  fallere  laeta 

discat,  me  capto  quantum  tibi,  Roma,  supersit. 

nee  vero  placeat,  nisi  quae  de  more  parentum 

pax  erit.     exposcunt  Libyes  nobisque  dedere         485 

haec  referenda,  pari  libeat  si  pendere  bellum 

foedere  et  ex  aequo  geminas  conscribere  leges. 

sed  mihi  sit  Stygios  ante  intravisse  penates, 

talia  quam  videam  ferientes  pacta  Latinos.* 

"  Haec  fatus  Tyriae  sese  iam  reddidit  irae,         490 
nee  monitus  spernente  graves  fidosque  senatu, 
Poenorum  dimissa  cohors,  quae  maesta  repulsa 
ac  minitans  capto  patrias  properabat  ad  oras. 
prosequitur  vulgus  patres,  ac  planctibus  ingens 

"  The  imprisonment  of  Regulus  at  Carthage  lasted  eight 
years,  from  258  to  250  b.c.  :  Silius  says  little  about  this  long 

**  The  Carthaginians  asked  for  the  restitution  of  the  status 
quo  before  the    war ;    and    this  would    have  involved  the 


PUNICA,  VI.  469-494 

gods  whom  I  invoked  to  witness  my  oath  that  I  would 
return,  if  I  am  permitted  to  speak  words  that  befit 
me,  and  by  my  voice  to  protect  the  hearths  of  Rome, 
not  unwiUingly  shall  I  go  to  Carthage,  keeping  my 
promise  to  return  and  enduring  the  prescribed  penalty. 
Therefore  cease  to  honour  me  and  thus  ruin  the  state. 
So  many  years,  so  many  wars,  have  broken  down  my 
strength  ;  and  also  long  captivity  <*  in  fetters  has 
sapped  the  energy  of  an  old  man  and  a  prisoner. 
Regulus  is  not  the  man  he  was  once,  when  he  never 
rested  from  the  hard  task  of  war  ;  what  you  see  now 
is  a  mere  name,  a  bloodless  body.  But  Carthage, 
that  home  of  treachery,  know^s  well  what  a  wreck  I 
am,  and  is  scheming  to  get  in  exchange  for  my  worn- 
out  body  our  prisoners  who  are  young  and  eager  for 
battle.  Foil  their  knavish  tricks,  and  teach  a  nation 
that  delights  in  deceit  how  much ,  though  I  be  a  prisoner, 
is  still  left  to  Rome.  Accept  no  peace  that  is  not 
concluded  in  the  fashion  of  our  fathers.  The  Cartha- 
ginians demand — and  this  is  the  message  they  gave 
me  to  carry — that  you  should  weigh  this  war  in  equal 
scales,  and  frame  conditions  of  peace  that  shall  favour 
neither  nation.^  But  I  would  rather  go  down  to  the 
house  of  Hades  than  see  the  Romans  strike  so  base  a 

"  Thus  he  spoke  and  at  once  gave  himself  up 
again  to  the  anger  of  Carthage.  Nor  did  the  Senate 
reject  a  warning  so  serious  and  so  honest,  but  sent  off 
the  Carthaginian  envoys,  who  made  haste  for  home, 
vexed  by  their  failure  and  threatening  their  prisoner. 
The  Roman  populace  accompanied  the  senators, 
beating  their  breasts  and  mourning,  till  the  vast  Field 

surrender  of  Sicily,  and  the  recognition  of  Carthaginian 



personal  et  luctu  campus  :  revocare  libebat  495 

interdum  et  iusto  raptum  retinere  dolore. 

"  At  trepida  et  subito  ceu  stans  in  funere  coniux 
ut  vidit  puppi  properantem  intrare,  tremendum 
vociferans,  celerem  gressum  referebat  ad  undas  : 
'  tollite  me,  Libyes,  comitem  poenaeque  necisque. 
hoc  unum,  coniux,  uteri  per  pignora  nostri  501 

unum  oro  :  liceat  tecum  quoscumque  ferentem 
terrarum  pelagique  pati  caelique  labores. 
non  ego  Amyclaeum  ductorem  in  proelia  misi, 
nee  nostris  tua  sunt  circumdata  colla  catenis.         605 
cur  usque  ad  Poenos  miseram  fugis  ?     accipe  mecum 
banc  prolem.     forsan  duras  Carthaginis  iras 
flectemus  lacrimis,  aut,  si  praecluserit  aures 
urbs  inimica  suas,  eadem  tunc  hora  manebit 
teque  tuosque  simul ;  vel,  si  stat  rumpere  vitam,    510 
in  patria  moriamur.     adest  comes  ultima  fati.' 

"  Has  inter  voces  vinclis  resoluta  moveri 
paulatim  et  ripa  coepit  decedere  puppis. 
tum  vero  infeUx,  mentem  furiata  dolore, 
exclamat,  fessas  tendens  ad  litora  palmas  :  515 

*  en,  qui  se  iactat  Libyae  populisque  nefandis 
atque  hosti  servare  fidem  !     data  foedera  nobis 
ac  promissa  fides  thalamis  ubi,  perfide,  nunc  est  ?  ' 
ultima  vox  duras  haec  tunc  penetravit  ad  aures  ; 
cetera  percussi  vetuerunt  noscere  remi.  520 

"  Tum  fluvio  raptim  ad  pelagi  devolvimur  oras 
ac  legimus  pontum  pinuque  immane  cavata 
aequor  et  immensas  curva  trabe  findimus  undas. 

"  The  chief  pubhc  park  in  Rome,  used  for  many  purposes : 
it  stretched  along  the  banks  of  the  Tiber. 

^  Xanthippus :    see  note  to  11.  304  foil.     Amyclae  was  a 
town  in  Laconia,  on  the  Eurotas. 

PUNICA,  VI.  495-523 

of  Mars"  was  filled  with  the  sound.  They  were 
eager  at  times  to  call  him  back  and  to  rescue  him  by 
force  in  their  righteous  indignation. 

"  But  when  Marcia  saw  him  hastening  on  board,  she 
was  bewildered  and  uttered  a  terrible  cry,  as  if  she 
stood  suddenly  by  his  death-bed.  Hurrying  to  the 
shore,  *  Take  me,  ye  Carthaginians,'  she  cried,  *  to 
share  his  punishment  and  his  death.  Husband,  I  ask 
but  one  thing  in  the  name  of  the  children  I  bore  you  : 
suffer  me  to  endure  along  with  you  whatever  earth 
and  sea  and  sky  can  inflict.  It  was  not  I  who  sent  the 
Spartan  leader  ^  forth  to  battle  ;  nor  mine  were  the 
chains  that  were  riveted  round  your  neck.  Why  do 
you  go  all  the  way  to  Carthage,  to  escape  unhappy 
me  ?  Take  me  and  these  children  with  you.  Per- 
haps our  tears  will  melt  the  hard  hearts  of  the  Cartha- 
ginians ;  or,  if  that  hostile  city  turns  a  deaf  ear,  then 
the  same  hour  will  await  you  and  yours  together.  Or,if 
you  are  resolved  to  end  your  life,  let  us  die  in  our  own 
country.    Here  is  one  to  share  your  fate  to  the  end.' 

**  While  she  spoke,  the  ship  was  cast  loose  from  her 
moorings  and  began  to  move  slowly  from  the  shore. 
Then  indeed  the  unhappy  wife,  frantic  with  grief, 
stretched  forth  her  weary  hands  over  the  bank  with 
a  loud  cry  :  '  See  him  !  He  boasts  of  keeping  faith 
with  the  enemy  and  the  abominable  people  of  Libya. 
But  where  is  now  the  compact  made  with  me,  and  the 
troth  you  plighted  at  our  marriage,  unfaithful  hus- 
band ?  '  These  were  the  last  words  that  reached  the 
inflexible  ear  of  Regulus  ;  the  rest  was  drowned  by 
the  plashing  of  the  oars. 

**  Then  we  went  swiftly  down  the  river  to  the  sea- 
shore, and  sailed  over  the  deep,  cleaving  the  vast 
expanse  of  water  and  the  great  waves  with  our  hollow 



ludibrium  necis  horrescens,  vis  aspera  ponti 
obrueret,  scopulisque  ratem  furor  improbus  Euri    525 
frangeret,  optabam  ;  letum  id  commune  fuisset. 
sed  nos  ad  poenam  moderato  flamine  lenes 
vexerunt  Zephyri  Tyrioque  dedere  furori. 

"  Infelix  vidi  patriamque  remissus  in  urbem 
narrator  poenae  dura  mercede  reverti.  530 

nee  tibi  nunc  ritus  imitantem  irasque  ferarum 
Pygmalioneamttentarem  expromere  gentem, 
si  maius  quicquam  toto  vidisset  in  orbe 
gens  hominum,  quam  quod  vestri  veneranda  parentis 
edidit  exemplum  virtus  ;   pudet  addere  questus     535 
suppliciis,  quae  spectavi  placido  ore  ferentem. 
tu  quoque,  care  puer,  dignum  te  sanguine  tanto 
fingere  ne  cessa  atque  orientes  comprime  fletus. 
praefixo  paribus  ligno  mucronibus  omnes 
armantur  laterum  crates,  densumque  per  artem    540 
texitur  erecti  stantisque  ex  ordine  ferri 
infelix  stimulus,  somnisque  hac  fraude  negatis 
quocumque  inflexum  producto  tempore  torpor 
inclinavit  iners,  fodiunt  ad  viscera  corpus, 
absiste,  o  iuvenis,  lacrimis  :  patientia  cunctos         545 
haec  superat  currus.     longo  revirescet  in  aevo 
gloria,  dum  caeli  sedem  terrasque  tenebit 
casta  Fides  ;  dum  virtutis  venerabile  nomen, 
vivet ;  eritque  dies,  tua  quo,  dux  indite,  fata 
audire  horrebunt  a  te  calcata  minores."  550 

haec  Marus  et  maesta  refovebat  vulnera  cura. 

"  For  Pygmalion  see  note  to  i.  21. 

^  The  digression  which  began  on  p.  287  ends  here.  Silius 
was  determined  to  include  the  history  of  Regulus  in  his  poem, 
though  it  was  no  part  of  the  Second  Punic  War.  But  it  is 
not  easy  to  see  why  Serranus  should  not  have  heard  all  these 

PUNICA,  VI.   524-551 

ship.  Dreading  a  shameful  death,  I  prayed  that  the 
violence  of  the  sea  might  sink  our  vessel,  or  that  the 
wild  fury  of  the  wind  might  dash  her  upon  the  rocks  ; 
then  we  should  have  died  together.  But  the  mild 
breath  of  gentle  zephyrs  carried  us  on  to  the  torture, 
and  gave  us  over  to  the  rage  of  Carthage. 

"  I,  alas,  witnessed  his  punishment,  and  was  sent 
back  to  Rome  to  tell  the  tale  ;  and  dearly  did  I  pay  for 
my  release.  Nor  would  I  now  essay  to  tell  you  how 
the  people  of  Carthage"  behaved  with  the  cruelty  of 
wild  beasts,  if  mankind  had  ever  seen  in  any  part 
of  the  world  a  nobler  example  than  was  set  by  the 
splendid  courage  of  your  father.  I  am  ashamed  to 
complain  of  tortures  which  I  saw  him  endure  with 
cheerfulness.  You  too,  dear  youth,  must  still  think 
yourself  worthy  of  such  a  glorious  descent,  and  check 
those  starting  tears.  A  frame  all  round  him  was 
faced  with  planking  studded  with  points  of  equal 
length,  and  there  was  artfully  compacted  a  painful 
system  of  puncture  consisting  of  rows  of  projecting 
iron  spikes.  By  this  device  sleep  was  denied  him  ; 
for  to  M'hichever  side  passive  drowsiness  made  him 
lean  as  time  dragged  on,  these  spikes  pierced  deep 
into  his  flesh.  Weep  no  more,  young  man.  That 
endurance  is  greater  than  all  triumphs.  His  laurels 
will  be  green  throughout  the  ages,  as  long  as  unstained 
Loyalty  keeps  her  seat  in  heaven  and  on  earth,  and 
will  last  as  long  as  virtue's  name  is  worshipped.  The 
day  will  come  when  posterity  will  shudder  to  hear 
of  the  death  which  thou,  O  famous  leader,  madest 
light  of."  Thus  Marus  spoke,  while  he  tended  the 
young  man's  wounds  with  sorrowful  care.^ 

details  many  years  earlier,  either  from  his  mother,  Marcia, 
or  from  Marus  himself. 



Interea,  rapidas  perfusa  cruoribus  alas, 
sicut  sanguinea  Thrasymenni  tinxerat  unda, 
vera  ac  ficta  simul  spargebat  Fama  per  urbem. 
AUia  et  infandi  Senones  captaeque  recursat  555 

attonitis  arcis  facies  :  excussit  habenas 
luctificus  Pavor,  et  tempestas  aucta  timendo. 
hie  raptim  ruit  in  muros.     vox  horrida  fertur, 
hostis  adest,  iaciuntque  sudes  et  inania  tela, 
ast  aliae,  laeeris  canentes  crinibus,  alta  560 

verrunt  tecta  deum  et  seris  post  fata  suorum 
sollicitant  precibus.     requiem  tenebraeque  diesque 
amisere  ;  iacent  portis  ululante  dolore 
dispersum  vulgus,  remeantumque  ordine  longo 
servat  turba  gradus  ;  pendent  ex  ore  loquentum,  565 
nee  laetis  sat  certa  fides,  iterumque  morantur 
orando  et,  vultu  interdum  sine  voce  precati, 
quod  rogitant,  audire  pavent.     hinc  fletus,  ubi  aures 
percussae  graviore  malo  ;  metus  inde,  negatum 
si  scire,  et  dubius  responsi  nuntius  haesit.  570 

iamque  ubi  conspectu  redeuntum  visa  propinquo 
corpora,  sollicite  laeti  funduntur  et  ipsis 
oscula  vulneribus  figunt  superosque  fatigant. 

Hie  inter  trepidos,  curae  venerandus,  agebat 
Serranum  Marus  ;  atque  olim  post  fata  mariti       575 
non  egressa  domum  vitato  Marcia  coetu 
et  lucem  causa  natorum  passa,  ruebat 
in  luctum  similem  antiquo  ;  turbata  repente 

«  See  note  to  i.  624. 

PUNICA,  VI.  652-578 

Meanwhile  Rumour,  her  swift  wings  dyed  with 
blood — she  had  dipped  them  in  the  blood-stained 
waters  of  Lake  Trasimene — spread  tidings  true  and 
false  throughout  Rome.  In  their  terror  men  re- 
called the  battle  of  the  Allia,  the  accursed  Senones, 
and  the  sight  of  the  captured  citadel. **  Woeful  Fear 
shook  off  all  restraint,  and  the  calamity  was  made 
worse  by  apprehension.  Some  rush  to  the  walls.  A 
dreadful  cry  is  raised — "  The  enemy  is  upon  us." 
They  hurl  stakes  and  javelins  at  an  imaginary  foe. 
Women  also,  with  their  grey  hair  torn,  lay  their 
heads  in  the  dust  of  the  lofty  temples,  and  besiege 
the  gods  with  prayer  for  their  dear  ones  whom 
death  has  already  taken.  Neither  day  nor  night 
brings  relief.  The  people,  vociferous  in  their  grief, 
lie  scattered  round  the  different  gates  ;  and  they 
follow,  step  by  step,  the  long  procession  of  fugitives, 
and  hang  upon  their  hps.  Good  news  they  can 
hardly  believe  ;  they  stop  a  man,  to  ask  a  second 
time  ;  some  beg  for  tidings  with  dumb  looks,  and 
dread  the  answer  to  their  question.  Some  weep, 
when  they  hear  of  a  grievous  loss  ;  others  are 
affrighted,  when  the  messenger  professes  ignorance 
and  hesitates  to  answer.  But  when  the  fugitives 
came  close  and  were  clearly  seen,  then  their 
friends  crowded  round  them  with  a  fearful  joy, 
kissing  their  very  wounds,  and  wearying  Heaven 
with  prayers. 

Now  Marus  came  through  the  anxious  crowd,  lead- 
ing Serranus  with  praiseworthy  care ;  and  then 
Marcia,  who  had  never  left  the  house  since  her 
husband's  death,  but  shunned  society  and  endured 
life  only  for  the  sake  of  her  sons — she  too  rushed  forth, 
to  mourn  as  she  had  mourned  long  ago.     Startled  by 



agnoscensque  Marum  :  "  fidei  comes  indite  magnae, 
hunc  certe  mihi  reddis,"  ait.  "  leve  vulnus  ?  an  alte 
usque  ad  nostra  ferus  penetravit  viscera  mucro  ?  681 
quicquid  id  est,  dum  non  vinctum  Carthago  catenis 
abripiat  poenaeque  instauret  monstra  paternae, 
gratum  est,  o  superi.  quotiens  heu,  nate,  petebam, 
ne  patrias  iras  animosque  in  proelia  ferres,  685 

neu  te  belligeri  stimularet  in  arma  parentis 
triste  decus.     nimium  vivacis  dura  senectae 
supplicia  expendi.     quaeso,  iam  parcite,  si  qua 
numina  pugnastis  nobis." 

At  cladis  acerbae 
discussa  ceu  nube,  patres  conquirere  fessis  690 

iam  rebus  meditantur  opem,  atque  ad  munera  belli 
certatur,  pulsusque  timor  graviore  periclo. 
maxima  curarum,  rectorem  ponere  castris, 
cui  Latium  et  moles  rerum  quassata  recumbat, 
spectante  occasum  patria.     lovis  ilia  ruenti  695 

Ausoniae  atque  Italis  tempus  protendere  regnis 
cura  fuit ;  nam  Tyrrhenos  Poenumque  secundis 
Albana  surgens  respexerat  arce  tumentem, 
qui  ferre  in  muros  victricia  signa  parabat. 
tum  quassans  caput :   "  baud  umquam  tibi  lupiter," 

"  o  iuvenis,  dederit  portas  transcendere  Romae      601 
atque  inferre  pedem.     Tyrrhenas  sternere  valles 
caedibus,  et  ripas  fluviorum  exire  Latino 
sanguine  fas  fuerit :  Tarpeium  accedere  collem 
murisque  aspirare  veto."     quater  inde  coruscum  605 
contorsit  dextra  fulmen,  quo  tota  reluxit 

"  He  had  a  famous  temple  on  the  Alban  mount,  where 
the  Roman  consuls  had  to  offer  sacrifice  once  a  year. 

PUNICA,  VI.   579-606 

the  sudden  sight  and  recognizing  Marus,  she  spoke  to 
him  :  "  Famous  comrade  of  one  most  faithful,  one  at 
least  you  bring  back  to  me  alive.  Is  his  wound 
slight  ?-  Or  did  the  cruel  point  pierce  deep,  to  my 
very  vitals  ?  In  either  case,  I  thank  the  gods,  if  only 
Carthage  does  not  carry  him  off  in  fetters,  and  repeat 
the  tortures  that  his  father  endured.  Alas,  my  son, 
how  often  I  begged  you  not  to  carry  into  battle 
the  impetuous  ardour  of  your  sire,  and  not  to  be 
urged  on  to  feats  of  arms  by  his  crown  of  thorns  !  I 
have  lived  too  long  and  paid  a  heavy  penalty  for  my 
long  life.  Spare  me  henceforth,  ye  gods,  if  any  gods 
have  fought  against  us." 

And  now,  as  if  the  thunder-cloud  of  cruel  disaster 
had  dispersed,  the  Senate  discussed  the  means  of 
mending  their  desperate  plight ;  each  did  his  utmost 
to  carry  on  the  war  ;  and  fear  was  dispelled  by  the 
terrible  danger.  Their  chief  task  was  to  appoint 
a  commander,  who  could  support  Rome  and  the 
shattered  edifice  of  the  state,  now  that  destruction 
was  in  sight.  It  was  Jupiter  who  took  in  hand  to 
grant  a  reprieve  from  ruin  to  Italy  and  to  Roman  rule. 
For  aloft  on  the  Alban  mount  "  he  had  seen  the  land 
of  Tuscany,  and  Hannibal  puffed  up  with  success  and 
ready  to  carry  his  victorious  standards  against  the 
walls  of  Rome.  Shaking  his  head  in  anger,  he  spoke  : 
"  Never  shall  Jupiter  permit  you,  young  man,  to  pass 
the  gates  of  Rome  and  walk  her  streets.  To  cover 
the  valleys  of  Tuscany  with  the  slain,  and  to  make  the 
rivers  brim  with  Roman  blood — these  things  you  may 
do  ;  but  I  forbid  you  to  approach  the  Tarpeian  hill 
and  to  raise  your  hopes  to  the  walls  of  Rome."  Then 
four  times  he  hurled  his  flashing  bolt  with  his  right 
arm,  till  all  Tuscany  was  lighted  up  ;    and  rolling  a 



Maeonidum  tellus,  atramque  per  aethera  volvens 

abrupto  fregit  caelo  super  agmina  nubem. 

nee  Poenum  avertisse  satis  ;  dat  numine  magno 

Aeneadis  mentem,  gremio  deponere  tuto  610 

Romuleam  sedem  Fabioque  salutis  habenas 

credere  ductori.     cui  postquam  tradita  belli 

iura  videt :  "  non  hunc,"  inquit,  "  superaverit  unquam 

invidia  aut  blando  popularis  gloria  fuco  ; 

non  astus  fallax,  non  praeda  aliusve  cupido.  615 

bellandi  vetus  ac  laudum  cladumque  quieta 

mente  capax  ;  par  ingenium  castrisque  togaeque." 

sic  genitor  divum  recipitque  ad  sidera  gressum. 

Hie,  circumspectis  nulli  deprensus  in  armis 
laudatusque  lovi,  Fabius  mirabile  quantum  620 

gaudebat  reducem  patriae  annumerare  reversus, 
duxerat  egrediens  quam  secum  in  proelia,  pubem. 
nee  membris  quisquam  natove  pepercit  amato 
acrius,  aut  vidit  socium  per  bella  cruorem 
tristior.     atque  idem,  perfusus  sanguine  victor       625 
hostili,  plenis  repetebat  moenia  castris. 
stirpe  genus  clarum  caeloque  affinis  origo. 
nam  remeans  longis  olim  Tirynthius  oris 
et  triplicis  monstri  famam  et  spectacula  captas 
mira  boves  hac,  qua  fulgent  nunc  moenia  Romae,  630 
egit  ovans.     tunc  Arcadius,  sic  fama,  locabat 

"  Quintus  Fabius  Maximus,surnamed  Cunctator  (Dawdler, 
Slow-coach),  was  elected  Dictator  after  the  defeat  of  Trasi- 
mene.  He  is  one  of  the  most  famous  of  old  Roman  worthies ; 
and  to  his  cautious  strategy  his  countrymen  attributed  their 
ultimate  defeat  of  Hannibal.     See  note  to  ii.  3. 

''  Geryon  :  see  note  to  i.  277. 

''  Evander,  a  son  of  Mercury  and  Carmentis,  brought  a 
band  of  colonists  from  Arcadia  to  Italy  :  with  the  consent  of 
King  Faunus,  he  founded  a  city,  called  Pallantium  after  his 

PUNICA,  VI.   607-631 

black  cloud  through  the  sky,  he  broke  it  and  made  a 
rift  in  the  heavens  over  the  head  of  the  Carthaginian 
army.  Nor  was  he  content  with  turning  Hannibal 
away  :  his  divine  power  inspired  the  Aeneadae  to 
place  a  sure  shield  before  the  seat  of  Romulus,  and 
to  entrust  to  Fabius  "  as  general  the  control  of  their 
deliverance ;  and  when  he  saw  the  supreme  com- 
mand handed  over  to  him,  "  This  man,"  he  said, 
"  will  never  yield  to  jealousy  or  the  sweet  poison  of 
popular  applause  ;  he  will  be  proof  against  artful 
devices  and  desire  of  plunder  and  all  other  passions. 
A  veteran  soldier,  he  can  meet  success  and  disaster 
with  a  quiet  mind  ;  neither  war  nor  peace  is  beyond 
his  capacity."  Thus  spoke  the  Father  of  the  gods, 
and  went  back  to  his  heaven. 

This  Fabius,  so  praised  by  Jupiter,  was  never  sur- 
prised by  any  foe  ;  so  wary  a  campaigner  was  he. 
Marvellous  was  his  joy,  when  he  came  home  and 
brought  the  soldiers  he  had  led  forth  to  war  back  to 
their  country  without  one  missing.  No  man  was  ever 
more  eager  to  guard  his  own  life,  or  the  life  of  a 
beloved  son,  than  he  to  spare  his  soldiers  ;  and  no 
man  was  sadder  to  see  the  blood  of  his  comrades  shed 
in  battle  ;  and  yet  he  ever  returned  to  Rome  red  with 
the  slaughter  of  foemen,  a  conqueror  with  undepleted 
ranks.  His  birth  was  noble,  and  the  founder  of  his 
family  was  akin  to  the  gods.  For  Hercules  long  ago, 
when  he  came  back  from  a  far  country,  drove  his 
booty  in  triumph  to  the  place  where  glorious  Rome 
now  stands.  He  had  taken  the  kine  that  were  the 
pride  of  the  triple  monster  ^  ;  and  men  marvelled  to 
see  them.     Legend  tells  that  a  man  from  Arcadia  " 

birthplace,  on  one  of  the  Seven  Hills  which  was  afterwards 
called  the  Palatine. 



inter  desertos  fundata  Palatia  dumos 
paupere  sub  populo  ductor  ;  cum  regia  virgo, 
hospite  victa  sacro,  Fabium  de  crimine  laeto 
procreat  et  magni  commiscet  seminis  ortus  635 

Areas  in  Hereuleos  mater  ventura  nepotes. 
ter  centum  domus  haec  Fabios  armavit  in  hostem, 
limine  progresses  uno  ;  pulcherrima  quorum 
cunctando  Fabius  superavit  facta  ducemque 
Hannibalem  aequando.     tantus  tunc,  Poene,  fuisti ! 

Dum  se  perculsi  renovant  in  bella  Latini,  641 

turbatus  love  et  exuta  spe  moenia  Romae 
pulsandi,  colles  Umbros  atque  arva  petebat 
Hannibal,  excelso  summi  qua  vertice  montis 
devexum  lateri  pendet  Tuder,  atque  ubi  latis         645 
proiecta  in  campis  nebulas  exhalat  inertes, 
et  sedet  ingentem  pascens  Mevania  taurum, 
dona  lovi  ;  tum  Palladios  se  fundit  in  agros 
Picenum  dives  praedae  atque  errantibus  armis, 
quo  spoil  a  invitant,  transfert  populantia  signa  ;      650 
donee  pestiferos  mitis  Campania  cursus 
tardavit  bellumque  sinu  indefensa  recepit. 

Hie  dum  stagnosi  spectat  templumque  domosque 
Literni  ductor,  varia  splendentia  cernit 
pictura  belli  patribus  monumenta  prioris  655 

exhausti — nam  porticibus  signata  manebant — 
quis  inerat  longus  rerum  et  spectabilis  ordo. 
primus  bella  truci  suadebat  Regulus  ore, 

«  See  vii.  39  foil. 

''  That  he  was  not  defeated  by  Fabius  is  the  best  proof  of 
Hannibal's  genius  for  war. 

"  Also  called  Tudertum  (now  Todi) :   a  town  in  Umbria. 

**  For  the  bulls  of  Mevania  see  iv.  544  foil. 

«  A  town  on  the  Campanian  coast,  where  Scipio  Africanus 

PUNICA,  VI.   632-668 

was  then  building  a  house  on  the  Palatine  among 
uninhabited  thorn-brakes,  a  king  with  needy  sub- 
jects ;  and  the  king's  daughter,  unable  to  resist  the 
divine  stranger,  gave  birth  to  a  Fabius — a  sin  that 
brought  no  sorrow  ;  and  thus  the  Arcadian  woman 
blended  with  her  own  the  blood  of  that  mighty  sire, 
to  become  the  ancestress  of  the  stock  of  Hercules. 
Three  hundred  Fabii  once  went  forth  to  war  from  a 
single  household  "  ;  but  this  Fabius  surpassed  their 
glorious  deed  by  delay  and  by  proving  himself  a  match 
for  Hannibal.    So  great  wert  thou  then,  O  Hannibal !  ^ 

While  the  defeated  Romans  were  preparing  for 
a  fresh  campaign,  Hannibal,  rebuffed  by  Jupiter's 
warning  and  hopeless  of  battering  the  walls  of  Rome, 
made  for  the  hills  and  fields  of  Umbria,  where  Tuder  *' 
hanijs  on  a  high  mountain-top  and  slopes  down  its 
side  ;  and  where  Mevania,  lying  low  on  the  wide 
plains,  breathes  forth  sluggish  mists  and  feeds  mighty 
bulls  for  Jupiter's  altar.**  Next  he  passed  on  over  the 
land  of  Picenum,  rich  in  olives,  and  took  much  booty  ; 
then  he  moved  his  plundering  forces  from  place  to 
place,  wherever  spoil  attracted  them,  till  mild  Cam- 
pania stopped  his  destructive  raids  and  harboured  the 
war  in  her  undefended  breast. 

Here,  at  Liternum  ^  in  the  marshes,  while  Hannibal 
viewed  the  temple  and  buildings  of  the  city,  he  saw, 
painted  in  divers  colours  on  the  temple-cloisters,  a 
record  of  the  former  war,  which  the  past  generation 
had  fought  to  a  finish  ;  and  these  pictures  remained 
upon  the  walls,  representing  a  long  succession  of 
notable  events.  First  there  was  Regulus,  speaking 
with  fierce   aspect  in  favour  of  war — war  that  he 

died,  having  withdrawn  from  Rome  in  disgust  with  the  state 
of  public  affairs. 



bella  neganda,  viro  si  noscere  fata  daretur. 
at  princeps  Poenis  indicta  more  parentum  660 

Appius  astabat  pugna  lauroque  revinctus 
iustum  Sarrana  ducebat  caede  triumphum. 
aequoreum  iuxta  decus  et  navale  tropaeum, 
rostra  gerens  nivea  surgebat  mole  columna  ; 
exuvias  Marti  donumque  Duilius,  alto  665 

ante  omnes  mersa  Poenorum  classe,  dicabat. 
cui,  nocturnus  honos,  funalia  clara  sacerque 
post  epulas  tibicen  adest ;  castosque  penates 
insignis  laeti  repetebat  murmure  cantus. 
cernit  et  extremos  defuncti  civis  honores  :  670 

Scipio  ductoris  celebrabat  funera  Poeni, 
Sardoa  victor  terra,     videt  inde  ruentem 
litoribus  Libycis  dispersa  per  agmina  pubem  ; 
instabat  crista  fulgens  et  terga  premebat 
Regulus ;     Autololes    Nomadesque    et    Maurus    et 
Hammon  675 

et  Garamas  positis  dedebant  oppida  telis. 
lentus  harenoso  spumabat  Bagrada  camipo 
viperea  sanie,  turmisque  minantibus  ultro 
pugnabat  serpens  et  cum  duce  bella  gerebat. 
necnon  proiectum  puppi  frustraque  vocantem         680 
numina  Amyclaeum  mergebat  perfida  ponto 
rectorem  manus,  et  seras  tibi,  Regule,  poenas 
Xanthippus  digni  pendebat  in  aequore  leti. 

"  That  is,  his  own  defeat  and  captivity. 

"  Appius  Claudius  Caudex,  consul  in  264  b.c,  led  a  Roman 
army  to  Sicily  and  defeated  the  Carthaginians. 

*  In  260  B.C.  C.  Duihus,  consul  in  that  year,  defeated  a 
Carthaginian  fleet  at  Mylae,  on  the  N.E.  coast  of  Sicily  :  he 
received  a  triumph  as  well  as  the  peculiar  honours  mentioned 
here,  which  he  seems  to  have  conferred  upon  himself. 


PUNICA,  VI.   659-683 

should  have  spoken  against,  could  he  have  foretold 
the  future."  Next  Appius  ^  was  seen  ;  he  was  first  to 
declare  war  in  the  ancient  fashion  against  Carthage  ; 
and  crowned  with  laurel  he  led  along  a  triumphal 
procession,  earned  by  slaughter  of  Carthaginians. 
Hard  by  was  seen  a  tall  column  of  white  marble, 
adorned  with  the  beaks  of  ships,  a  naval  trophy  for  a 
victory  at  sea  ;  Duilius,''  the  first  to  sink  a  Cartha- 
ginian fleet,  was  dedicating  his  spoils  to  Mars  and 
offering  sacrifice.  (He  had  honour  in  the  night  ;  for 
flaming  torches  and  a  temple-piper  attended  him 
home  from  the  banquet ;  and  he  walked  back  to  his 
modest  dwelling  to  the  sound  of  a  merry  tune.)  Here 
Hannibal  saw  too  the  last  honours  paid  to  a  dead 
countryman  ;  for  Scipio,  victorious  over  Sardinia,  was 
conducting  the  funeral  of  a  Carthaginian  general. 
Next  he  saw  the  Roman  soldiers  on  the  African  coast 
rushing  on  through  a  routed  army  ;  and  in  hot 
pursuit  of  the  rear  came  Regulus  with  glittering 
plume :  Autololes,  Numidians,  Moors,  Ammonians, 
Garamantes  —  all  laid  down  their  arms  and  gave 
up  their  towns.  Bagrada,  the  sluggish  river  that 
passes  over  a  sandy  desert,  was  shown  there  also, 
foaming  with  the  monster's  slime,  when  the  serpent 
challenged  the  threatening  squadrons  and  fought  a 
battle  against  Regulus.**  Elsewhere,  the  Spartan 
general,  hurled  overboard  and  appealing  to  the  gods 
in  vain,  was  being  drowned  by  a  treacherous  crew  ; 
and  thus  Xanthippus  at  last  paid  the  penalty  to 
Regulus  by  a  deserved  death  in  the  sea.*    The  artists 

<*  See  11.  146  foil. 

*  Several  ancient  writers  report  that  the  Carthaginians, 
being  jealous  of  the  fame  of  Xanthippus,  caused  him  to  be 
thrown  overboard  while  he  was  returning  to  Sparta. 



addiderant  geminas  medio  consurgere  fluctu 

Aegates  ;  lacerae  circum  fragmenta  videres  685 

classis  et  efFusos  fluitare  in  gurgite  Poenos. 

possessor  pelagi  pronaque  Lutatius  aura 

captivas  puppes  ad  litora  victor  agebat. 

haec  inter  iuncto  religatus  in  ordine  Hamilcar, 

ductoris  genitor,  cunctarum  ab  imagine  rerum       690 

totius  in  sese  vulgi  converterat  ora. 

sed  Pacis  faciem  et  pollutas  foederis  aras 

deceptumque  lovem  ac  dictantes  iura  Latinos 

cernere  erat.     strictas  trepida  cervice  secures 

horrebat  Libys,  ac  summissis  ordine  palmis  695 

orantes  veniam  iurabant  irrita  pacta. 

haec  Eryce  e  summo  spectabat  laeta  Dione. 

Quae  postquam  infesto  percensuit  omnia  vultu 
arridens  Poenus,  lenta  proclamat  ab  ira  : 
"  non  leviora  dabis  nostris  inscribere  tectis  700 

acta  meae  dextrae  :  captam,  Carthago,  Saguntum 
da  spectare,  simul  flamma  ferroque  ruentem  ; 
perfodiant  patres  natorum  membra  ;  nee  Alpes 
exiguus  domitas  capiet  locus  ;  ardua  celsis 
persultet  iuga  victor  equis  Garamasque  Nomasque. 
addes  Ticini  spumantes  sanguine  ripas  706 

et  nostrum  Trebiam  et  Thrasymenni  htora  Tusci 
clausa  cadaveribus.     ruat  ingens  corpore  et  armis 
Flaminius  ;  fugiat  consul  manante  cruore 
Scipio  et  ad  socios  nati  cervice  vehatur.  710 

haec  mitte  in  populos,  et  adhuc  maiora  dabuntur. 

«  See  note  to  i.  35. 

^  Venus,  who  had  a  famous  temple  upon  Mount  Eryx  in 

"  See  iv.  454  foil. 


PUNICA,  VI.   684-711 

had  painted  also  the  two  Aegatian  islands  *  rising  in 
mid-sea  ;  and  the  remnants  of  a  shattered  fleet  were 
visible  all  round,  and  shipwrecked  Carthaginians 
adrift  on  the  water,  while  Lutatius,  lord  of  the  sea, 
drove  the  captured  ships  ashore  before  the  wind. 
And  there  too  was  Hamilcar,  the  father  of  Hannibal ; 
fettered  in  a  long  row  of  prisoners,  he  turned  the 
eyes  of  the  whole  throng  away  from  all  the  painted 
scenes  upon  himself  alone.  But  there  one  might  see  the 
form  of  Peace,  and  the  profaned  altars  at  which  the 
treaty  was  sworn,  and  the  mockery  of  Jupiter,  and 
the  Romans  dictating  terms.  With  bowed  necks  the 
Libyans  shrank  from  the  bare  axes,  and  held  out 
their  hands  together  begging  for  pardon,  and 
swore  to  a  treaty  which  they  did  not  observe,  while 
Dione  ^  looked  on  the  scene  rejoicing,  from  the 
heights  of  Eryx. 

All  these  pictures  Hannibal  surveyed  with  a  face  of 
anger  and  contempt,  and  then  cried  out  with  rising 
passion  :  "  Deeds  as  great  as  these,  the  work  of  my 
right  arm,  shall  Carthage  yet  display  upon  her  walls. 
Let  us  see  there  the  capture  of  Saguntum,  overthrown 
by  fire  and  sword  together  ;  let  fathers  be  shown 
stabbing  their  own  children  ;  the  conquest  of  the 
Alps  will  claim  no  little  space  ;  let  Garamantes  and 
Numidians,  riding  on  their  horses,  trample  on  the  high 
peaks.  Add  the  banks  of  the  Ticinus  foaming  with 
blood,  and  my  victory  on  the  Trebia,  and  the  shore  of 
Lake  Trasimene  covered  deep  with  the  Roman  dead. 
Let  us  see  Flaminius,  a  giant  in  giant  armour,  crash 
to  the  ground,  and  the  consul  Scipio  a  wounded 
fugitive,  borne  on  his  son's  shoulders  back  to  their 
camp.*'  Show  these  sights  to  the  people,  Carthage  ; 
and  greater  sights  shall  be  forthcoming  in  future  :  you 
VOL.  I  M  333 


flagrantem  effinges  facibus,  Carthago,  Libyssis 
Romam  et  deiectum  Tarpeia  rupe  Tonantem. 
interea  vos,  ut  dignum  est,  ista,  ocius  ite, 
o  iuvenes,  quorum  dextris  mihi  tanta  geruntur,     715 
in  cineres  monumenta  date  atque  involvite  flammis." 


PUNICA,   VI.   712-716 

shall  display  Rome  blazing  with  Libyan  fire-brands, 
and  the  Thunderer  cast  down  from  the  Tarpeian  rock. 
For  the  present,  ye  soldiers,  by  whose  valour  my  great 
deeds  are  accomplished,  make  haste  to  do  what  is 
right  to  be  done  :  throw  these  pictures  into  the  fire 
and  wrap  them  in  flames." 




Fabius  determines  to  take  no  risks  in  the  field  (1-19). 
Cilnius,  one  of  his  prisoners,  informs  Hannibal  concerning 
the  family  history  and  character  of  Fabius  (20-78).  Re- 
ligious observances  at  Rome  (74-89).  Fabius  restores  dis- 
cipline in  the  army.  Hannibal  cannot  tempt  him  to  fight 
(90-122).  Hannibal  moves  to  Apulia  and  tries  to  provoke 
Fabius  by  various  devices.  He  returns  to  Campania  and 
ravages  the  Falernian  country  (123-161).  The  visit  of  Bacchus 
to  the  aged  peasant,  Falernus  (162-211).  Fabius  explains  his 
policy  of  inaction  to  his  discontented  soldiers  (212-259).  A 
trick  of  Hannibal's,  to  make  the  Dictator  more  unpopular 

Interea  trepidis  Fabius  spes  unica  rebus. 

ille  quidem  socios  atque  aegram  vulnere  praeceps 

Ausoniam  armabat  viridique  ad  dura  laborum 

bellator  senio  iam  caslra  movebat  in  hostem. 

sed  mens  humana  maior  non  tela  nee  enses  6 

nee  fortes  spectabat  equos  :   tot  milia  contra 

Poenorum  invictumque  ducem,  tot  in  agmina  solus 

ibat  et  in  sese  cuncta  arma  virosque  gerebat. 

ac  ni  sacra  seni  vis  impressumque  fuisset, 

sister  e  Fortunam  cunctando  ad  versa  foventem,        10 

ultima  Dardanii  transisset  nominis  aetas. 

ille  modum  superis  in  Punica  castra  favoris 



ARGUMENT  {continued) 

(260-267).  Hannibal,  having  got  into  a  dangerous  situation^ 
breaks  out  by  means  of  a  stratagem  and  encamps  on  open 
ground  (268-376).  The  Dictator,  obliged  to  visit  Rome, 
warns  Minucius  against  fighting  (377-408).  A  Carthaginian 
fleet  lands  at  Caieta  :  the  Nymphs  are  terrified ;  but  the 
prophecy  of  Proteus  comforts  them  (409-493).  Minucius 
is  given  equal  powers  with  the  Dictator  (494-522).  The 
Dictator  returns  and  gives  up  half  the  army  to  Minucius  : 
Minucius  rashly  engages  the  enemy  but  is  rescued  by  the 
Dictator  (523-579).  Fabius  is  hailed  as  *' Father  "  by 
Minucius  and  the  soldiers  (730-750). 

Meanwhile  Fabius  was  the  one  beacon-light  in  that 
dark  hour.  He  made  haste  to  arm  sore-wounded 
Italy  and  her  allies  ;  his  green  old  age  faced  the  hard- 
ships of  war,  and  he  soon  marched  against  the  foe. 
But  that  more  than  human  genius  recked  little  of 
spears  and  swords  and  strong  steeds.  He  went  forth 
alone  against  an  army  of  so  many  thousand  Cartha- 
ginians and  their  invincible  leader  ;  and  all  the  men 
and  arms  of  Italy  were  comprised  in  his  person.  But 
for  that  old  man's  godlike  power,  but  for  his  fixed 
resolve  to  check  by  delay  Fortune's  favour  for  the 
enemy,  the  Roman  name  would  have  passed  away 
for  ever.  He  it  was  who  made  the  gods  withdraw 
their  favour  from  the  Punic  host,  and  put  a  stop  to 



addidit  et  Libyae  finem  inter  prospera  bella 
vincendi  statuit  ;  tumefactum  cladibus  ille 
Hesperiis  lento  Poenum  moderamine  lusit.  15 

summe  ducum,  qui  regna  iterum  labentia  Troiae 
et  fluxas  Latii  res  maiorumque  labores, 
qui  Carmentis  opes  et  regna  Evandria  servas, 
surge,  age  et  emerito  sacrum  caput  insere  caelo. 

At  Libyae  ductor,  postquam  nova  nomina  lecto  20 
dictatore  vigent,  raptim  mutata  Latinis 
imperia  baud  frustra  reputans,  cognoscere  avebat, 
quae  fortuna  viro,  quodnam  decus  ;   ultima  fessis 
ancora  cur  Fabius,  quem  post  tot  Roma  procellas 
Hannibali  putet  esse  parem.     fervore  carentes        25 
angebant  anni  fraudique  inaperta  senectus. 
ocius  accitum  captivo  ex  agmine  poscit 
progeniem  ritusque  ducis  dextraeque  labores. 
Cilnius,  Arreti  Tyrrhenis  ortus  in  oris, 
clarum  nomen  erat  ;    sed  laeva  adduxerat  hora       30 
Ticini  iuvenem  ripis,  fususque  mentis 
vulnere  equi,  Libycis  praebebat  colla  catenis. 
hie  ardens  exire  malis  et  rumpere  vitam  : 
"  non  cum  Flaminio  tibi  res,  nee  fervida  Gracchi 
in  manibus  consulta,"  inquit.     "  Tirynthia  gens  est ; 
quam  si  fata  tuis  genuissent,  Hannibal,  oris,  36 

terrarum  imperium  Carthaginis  arce  videres. 
non  ego  te  longa  serie  per  singula  ducam. 
ioc  sat  erit,  nosces  Fabios  certamine  ab  uno  : 
Veientum  populi  violata  pace  negabant  40 

acceptare  iugum,  ac  vicino  Marte  furebat 

"  For  Evander  and  Carmentis  see  note  to  vi.  631. 

^  A    noble   Etruscan    name,   borne   later   by    C.    Cilnius 
JNlaecenas,  the  patron  and  friend  of  the  Augustan  poets. 

"  He  expected  to  suffer  death  for  his  bold  answer. 

PUNICA,  VII.  13-41 

the  victorious  campaign  of  the  African  invaders  ;  it 
was  his  wise  policy  of  delay  that  baffled  Hannibal 
elated  with  conquest.  O  greatest  of  generals,  who 
didst  save  the  realm  of  Troy  from  falling  a  second 
time,  preserver  of  perishing  Italy  and  the  great  deeds 
of  our  ancestors,  of  Carmentis's  treasure  and  the 
throne  of  Evander" — arise  and  lift  up  thy  sacred  head 
to  the  heaven  which  is  thy  due  ! 

But,  when  the  dictator  had  been  chosen  and  new 
names  came  to  the  front,  Hannibal,  reflecting  that 
the  Romans  had  not  so  quickly  changed  the  supreme 
command  without  good  reason,  was  eager  to  learn 
the  dictator's  rank  and  reputation  ;  he  wondered  why 
Fabius  was  the  sole  remaining  anchor  of  the  storm- 
tossed  state,  and  why  Rome  thought  him  a  match  for 
Hannibal.  He  was  troubled  by  his  rival's  age,  free 
from  youthful  passion  and  proof  against  stratagem. 
Quickly  he  summoned  one  of  his  prisoners  and  ques- 
tioned him  concerning  the  dictator's  family,  his 
manner  of  life,  and  his  martial  exploits.  Cilnius,*' 
born  in  the  Tuscan  land  of  Arretium,  bore  a  famous 
name  ;  but  an  evil  hour  had  brought  him  to  the  banks 
of  the  Ticinus,  where  he  was  thrown  from  his  wounded 
horse  and  taken  prisoner  by  the  Libyans.  He  was 
eager  to  end  his  troubles  by  a  violent  death  "  and 
answered  thus  :  "  You  have  not  now  to  do  with  a 
Flaminius  or  a  hot-headed  Gracchus.  Hercules  is 
the  ancestor  of  his  house  ;  and  if  Fate  had  made  them 
your  countrymen,  Hannibal,  you  would  have  seen 
Carthage  mistress  of  the  world.  I  shall  not  detain 
you  with  a  long  list  of  separate  achievements  :  one 
will  suffice,  and  from  one  battle  you  shall  learn  what 
the  Fabii  are.  The  people  of  Veil  had  broken  the 
peace  and  refused  to  submit  to  the  Roman  yoke,  war 



ad  portas  bellum,  consulque  ciebat  ad  arma. 
dilectus  vetiti,  privataque  castra  penates 
Herculei  implevere  ;  domo,  mirabile,  ab  una 
patricius  iunctis  exercitus  ibat  in  armis.  45 

ter  centum  exiluere  duces  ;  quocumque  liberet, 
uno  non  pavidus  rexisses  bella  magistro. 
sed  (dirum  egressis  omen)  Scelerata  minaci 
stridentis  sonitu  tremuerunt  limina  portae, 
maximaque  Herculei  mugivit  numinis  ara.  60 

invasere  hostem,  numerarique  aspera  virtus 
baud  est  passa  viros,  et  plures  milite  caedes. 
saepe  globo  densi,  saepe  et  per  devia  passim 
dispersi  subiere  vices  ;  meritique  labore 
aequato  nulli  quisquam  virtute  secundus,  55 

ducere  ter  centum  Tarpeia  ad  templa  triumphos. 
spes  heu  fallaces  oblitaque  corda  caducum, 
mortali  quodcumque  datur  !     grex  ille  virorum, 
qui  Fabia  gente  incolumi  deforme  putabat 
publica  bella  geri,  pariter  cecidere  deorum  60 

invidia,  subitis  circumvenientibus  armis. 
nee  tamen  occisos  est  cur  laetere  ;  supersunt, 
quot  tibi  sint  Libyaeque  satis  ;  certaverit  unus 
ter  centum  dextris.     tarn  vivida  membra  laborque 
providus  et  cauta  soUertia  tecta  quiete.  65 

nee  vero,  calidi,  nunc  tu,  cui  sanguinis  aetas, 
foderis  in  pugna  velocius  ilia  planta 
bellatoris  equi  frenisque  momorderis  ora." 
quem  cernens  avidum  leti  post  talia  Poenus  : 

"  The  Porta  Carmentalis,  between  the  Capitoline  Hill  and 
the  Tiber,  was  called  Scelerata  after  the  destruction  of  the 
Fabii,  who  had  marched  out  of  Rome  by  that  gate.  The 
date  assigned  is  478  b.c. 

^  The  Great  Altar  of  Hercules  stood  in  the  cattle-market  at 

PUNICA,  VII.  42-69 

was  raging  close  to  the  gates  of  Rome,  and  the  consul 
gave  the  call  to  arms.  No  levy  was  held  :  the  clan 
of  Hercules,  unhelped  by  the  State,  made  up  an  army. 
From  a  single  house — marvellous  to  tell ! — there 
went  forth  an  army  of  patricians  to  fight  side  by  side. 
Three  hundred  leaders  sprang  to  arms,  and  with 
any  one  of  them  in  command  you  might  have  fought 
a  campaign  with  confidence.  But  they  went  forth 
with  evil  omens  :  the  Bloody  Gate  <*  creaked  with 
inauspicious  sound,  and  a  moaning  came  from  the 
Great  Altar  of  divine  Hercules.^  When  they  attacked 
the  foe,  their  fierce  valour  suffered  them  not  to 
count  the  enemy,  and  they  slew  more  than  their 
own  number.  Often  in  close  array,  and  often 
scattered  afar  over  uneven  ground,  they  endured 
the  changing  chances  of  battle  ;  and  by  their  equal 
effort  and  equal  valour  they  deserved  to  lead  three 
hundred  triumphs  to  the  temple  of  Jupiter.  But 
alas  for  hope  deceived  !  They  forgot  that  no  boon 
granted  to  mortal  man  is  lasting.  That  band  of 
heroes,  who  thought  shame  that  the  Fabian  clan 
should  not  hazard  their  lives  when  their  country  was 
at  war,  were  suddenly  surrounded  and  slain  all  to- 
gether, because  of  the  j  ealousy  of  Heaven.  But  you, 
Hannibal,  have  no  reason  to  rejoice  at  their  death  : 
enough  of  them  is  left  to  cope  with  you  and  Libya  : 
one  Fabius  will  match  the  three  hundred  warriors. 
Such  life  is  there  in  his  limbs  ;  so  painstaking  is  his 
foresight ;  such  shrewdness  does  he  hide  beneath 
calmness  and  caution.  Though  you  are  of  the  age 
when  blood  is  hot,  you  will  not  be  swifter  than  Fabius 
to  spur  the  flanks  of  your  war-horse  and  tear  his  mouth 
with  the  bridle."  Such  a  speech  showed  Hannibal 
that  Cilnius  was  eager  for  death.  "  Fool !  "  he  cried  : 
VOL.  I  M  2  841 


*'  nequicquam  nostras,  demens,"  ait,  **  elicis  iras     70 
et  captiva  paras  moriendo  evadere  vincla. 
vivendum  est.     arta  serventur  colla  catena." 
haec  iuvenis,  divisque  tumens  ausisque  secundis. 

At  patres  Latiasque  nurus  raptabat  ad  aras 
cura  deum.     maesto  sufFusae  lumina  vultu  75 

femineus  matres  graditur  chorus  ;  ordine  longo 
lunoni  pallam  conceptaque  vota  dicabant : 
**  hue  ades,  o  regina  deum,  gens  casta  precamur 
et  ferimus,  digno  quaecumque  est  nomine,  turba 
Ausonidum  pulchrumque  et,  acu  et  subtemine  fulvo  80 
quod  nostrae  nevere  manus,  venerabile  donum. 
ac  dum  decrescit  matrum  metus,  hoc  tibi,  diva, 
interea  velamen  erit.     si  pellere  nostris 
Marmaricam  terris  nubem  dabis,  omnis  in  auro 
pressa  tibi  varia  fulgebit  gemma  corona."  86 

necnon  et  proprio  venerantur  Pallada  done 
Phoebumque      armigerumque     deum      primamque 

tanta  adeo,  cum  res  trepidae,  reverentia  divum 
nascitur  ;  at  rarae  fumant  felicibus  arae. 

Dum  Roma  antiquos  templis  indicit  honores,       90 
iam  Fabius,  tacito  procedens  agmine  et  arte 
bellandi  lento  simiHs,  praecluserat  omnes 
Fortunaeque  hostique  vias.     discedere  signis 
baud  Hcitum,  summumque  decus,  quo  tollis  ad  astra 
imperii,  Romane,  caput,  parere  docebat.  95 

verum  ubi  prima  satis  conspecta  in  montibus  altis 
signa  procul,  fulsitque  no  vis  exercitus  armis, 
arrectae  spes  Sidonii,  fervetque  secundis 
fortunae  iuvenis.     vincendi  sola  videtur, 
quod   nondum   steterint   acies,   mora :    **  Pergite," 
clamat,  100 


PUNICA,  VII.  70-100 

"  in  vain  you  seek  to  rouse  my  wrath  and  to  escape 
captivity  by  death.  You  must  go  on  Uving.  Let  him 
be  guarded  in  close  fetters."  Thus  he  spoke,  proud 
of  victory  and  the  favour  of  Heaven. 

But  the  senators  and  matrons  of  Rome  repaired  in 
haste  to  the  temples,  to  worship  the  gods.  With  sad 
looks  and  streaming  eyes,  the  band  of  women  marched 
in  long  procession,  and  offered  a  robe  to  Juno  and 
solemn  vows.  "  Be  present,  O  Queen  of  Heaven, 
we,  thy  chaste  people,  pray  ;  and  we,  all  the  Roman 
women  of  noble  name,  bring  thee  a  gift  wondrous  fair, 
which  our  own  hands  have  woven  and  embroidered 
with  threads  of  gold.  This  robe  thou  shalt  wear  for 
the  present,  O  goddess,  until  mothers  grow  less  fearful 
for  their  sons.  But  if  thou  dost  grant  us  to  drive  the 
African  storm-cloud  away  from  our  land,  divers  jewels, 
set  in  gold,  shall  adorn  thy  glittering  crown."  They 
made  special  offerings  also  to  Pallas  and  Phoebus, 
to  the  War-god,  and  to  Dione  °  above  all.  So  great 
is  the  sudden  piety  of  men  in  time  of  trouble  ;  but 
altars  seldom  smoke  in  prosperous  times. 

While  Rome  in  ancient  fashion  appointed  sacrifices 
for  the  temples  of  the  gods,  Fabius,  moving  quietly 
forwards,  by  his  strategy  which  might  be  mistaken 
for  inaction,  had  barred  every  approach  against 
Fortune  and  the  foe.  He  suffered  none  to  leave  the 
ranks,  and  taught  his  men  discipline — discipline,  the 
chief  glory  that  raises  the  imperial  head  of  Rome 
to  heaven.  But,  when  the  first  Roman  ensigns  were 
distinctly  seen  on  the  heights,  and  the  new  weapons 
of  the  army  glittered  in  the  distance,  Hannibal's  hopes 
rose  high.  Intoxicated  by  success,  he  made  sure 
of  victory  as  soon  as  the  armies  met  :  "  On  !  on  !  " 
"  Venus,  the  ancestress  of  the  Roman  nation. 



**  ite  citi,  ruite  ad  portas,  propellite  vallum 
pectoribus.     quantum  campi  distamus,  ad  umbras 
tantum  hosti  superest.     resides  ad  bella  vocantur, 
quis  pudeat  certare,  senes  :  quodcumque  videtis, 
hoc  reliquum  est,  primo  damnatum  ut  inutile  bello. 
en,  ubi  nunc  Gracchi  atque  ubi  nunc  sunt  fulmina 
gentis  106 

Scipiadae  ?     pulsi  Ausonia  non  ante  paventem 
dimisere  fugam,  quam  terror  ad  ultima  mundi 
Oceanumque  tulit ;  profugus  nunc  errat  uterque, 
nomina  nostra  tremens,  et  ripas  servat  Hiberi.       110 
est  etiam,  cur  Flaminio  mihi  gloria  caeso 
creverit,  et  titulis  libeat  cur  figere  nostris 
crudum  Marte  viri  nomen  :  quot  demere  noster 
huic  annos  Fabio  gladius  valet !     at  tamen  audet. 
audeat.     haud  ultra  faxo  spectetur  in  armis."        115 

Talia  vociferans  volucri  rapit  agmina  cursu 
ac,  praevectus  equo,  nunc  dextra  provocat  hostem, 
nunc  voce  increpitat,  missa  nunc  eminus  hasta 
fertur  ovans  pugnaeque  agitat  simulacra  futurae. 
ut  Thetidis  proles  Phrygiis  Vulcania  campis  120 

arma  tulit,  clipeo  amplexus  terramque  polumque 
maternumque  fretum  totumque  in  imagine  mundum. 

Cassarum  sedet  irarum  spectator  et  alti 
celsus  colle  iugi  domat  exultantia  corda 
infractasque  minas  dilato  Marte  fatigat  125 

sollers  cunctandi  Fabius.     ceu  nocte  sub  atra 
munitis  pastor  stabulis  per  ovilia  clausum 

"  Ti.  Sempronius  Gracchus,  consul  in  213  b.c,  is  meant: 
see  iv.  495  foil.  The  Scipios  are  the  brothers,  Publius 
Cornelius  and  Gnaeus  Cornelius  Scipio,  the  father  and  uncle 
of  Africanus :  they  had  been  sent  to  fight  Hasdrubal, 
Hannibal's  brother,  in  Spain,  and  both  fell  there  in  battle. 

"  See  note  to  i.  270.  "  The  Ebro. 

PUNICA,  VII.   101-127 

he  cried  ;  "  make  haste  !  Rush  to  the  gates  of  Rome  ! 
Knock  down  the  ramparts  with  your  breasts !  The 
space  between  the  hosts  is  all  that  separates  the 
enemy  from  death.  They  summon  to  arms  the  old 
and  feeble,  unworthy  antagonists  for  us.  All  whom 
you  see  now  are  the  refuse — men  discarded  as  useless 
when  the  war  began.  Where  are  now  the  Gracchi, 
and  where  are  the  two  Scipios,"  the  thunderbolts  of 
their  nation  ?  Behold  !  Hunted  out  of  Italy,  they 
never  paused  in  their  cowardly  flight  until  terror 
drove  them  to  the  Ocean  and  the  World's  End  ^  ;  each 
is  now  a  wandering  exile,  and  keeps  to  the  banks  of 
the  Iberus,"  in  dread  of  my  name.  With  good  reason 
my  fame  was  increased  when  Flaminius  fell ;  with 
good  reason  I  rejoice  to  add  to  the  list  of  my  exploits 
the  name  of  that  doughty  warrior  ;  but  how  few 
years  can  my  sword  cut  off  from  the  life  of  this 
Fabius  !  And  yet  he  dares.  Let  him  dare  !  Never 
again,  I  warrant,  shall  he  be  seen  in  arms." 

Thus  he  shouted,  and  pushed  his  army  on  with 
flying  speed.  Riding  in  advance,  now  he  shook  his 
fist  at  the  foe,  and  now  taunted  them,  and  again 
hurled  his  spear  from  far  and  rode  on  triumphant,  re- 
hearsing the  impending  battle.  So  the  son  of  Thetis  ^ 
bore  on  the  plains  of  Troy  the  armour  that  Vulcan 
forged — the  shield  on  which  the  whole  world  was 
depicted — earth  and  sky  and  his  mother's  sea. 

Fabius  sat  and  watched  this  fruitless  rage  from  a 
lofty  mountain-top  ;  by  refusing  battle  he  tamed  their 
proud  hearts,  and  wore  out  their  baffled  boasting 
by  masterly  delay.  So  through  the  dark  night 
the   shepherd    sleeps   secure   who    keeps    his   flock 

<•  Achilles  :  Thetis  was  a  marine  goddess. 



impavidus  somni  servat  pecus  ;  effera  saevit 
atque  impasta  truces  ululatus  turba  luporum 
exercet  morsuque  quatit  restantia  claustra.  130 

Irritus  incepti  movet  inde  atque  Apula  tardo 
arva  Libys  passu  legit  ac  nunc  valle  residit 
conditus  occulta,  si  praecipitare  sequentem 
atque  inopinata  detur  circumdare  fraude  ; 
nunc  nocturna  parat  caecae  celantibus  umbris        135 
furta  viae  retroque  abitum  fictosque  timores 
assiniulat ;  turn  castra  citus  deserta  relicta 
ostentat  praeda  atque  invitat  prodigus  hostem. 
qualis  Maeonia  passim  Maeandrus  in  ora, 
cum  sibi  gurgitibus  flexis  revolutus  oberrat.  140 

nulla  vacant  incepta  dolis  ;  simul  omnia  versat 
miscetque  exacuens  varia  ad  conamina  mentem. 
sicut  aquae  splendor,  radiatus  lampade  solis, 
dissultat  per  tecta,  vaga  sub  imagine  vibrans 
luminis,  et  tremula  laquearia  verberat  umbra.        145 
iamque  dolore  furens  ita  secum  immurmurat  irae  : 
"  obvia  si  primus  nobis  hie  tela  tulisset, 
nuUane  nunc  Trebiae  et  Thrasymenni  nomina  ?    nulli 
lugerent  Itali  ?   numquam  Phaethontius  amnis 
sanguinea  pontum  turbasset  decolor  unda  ?  150 

inventum,  dum  se  cohibet,  terimurque  sedendo, 
vincendi  genus  ;   en  quotiens,  velut  obvius  iret, 
discinxit  ratione  dolos  fraudesque  resolvit !  " 
haec  secum,  mediam  insomni  cum  bucina  noctem 
divideret,  iamque,  excubias  sortitus  iniquas,  155 

"  Of  provoking  a  battle. 

"  The  Eridanus,  the  river  Po  :  Phaethon  fell  into  this  river 
when  he  made  his  ill-fated  attempt  to  drive  the  chariot  of  the 

"  In  a  Roman  camp  both  day  and  night  were  divided  into 
four  watches  of  three  hours  each ;  and  Hannibal's  army  may 
have  observed  the  same  routine. 


PUNICA,  VII.    128-155 

penned  in  the  fold  behind  iron  bars,  while  the  pack 
of  wolves  rage  outside,  mad  with  hunger,  howling  in 
their  fury  and  rattling  with  their  teeth  at  the  unyield- 
ing barriers. 

Foiled  in  his  design,"  Hannibal  moved  away  and 
marched  slowly  through  the  land  of  Apulia.  Some- 
times he  halted  and  hid  in  some  remote  valley,  hoping 
for  a  chance  to  hurry  on  the  foe  behind  him  and 
surround  them  with  an  unexpected  ambush ;  or 
again  he  planned  secret  marches  under  cover  of 
night,  and  pretended  to  retreat  in  panic  ;  and  again 
he  suddenly  abandoned  in  sight  of  the  enemy  a 
camp  filled  with  booty,  and  set  a  trap  for  them, 
careless  of  the  cost.  Thus  the  Maeander,  as  it  flows 
through  the  land  of  Lydia,  turns  back  in  its  crooked 
course  and  wanders  till  it  rejoins  its  own  stream. 
All  his  attempts  are  full  of  guile  ;  he  tries  every 
trick  at  once,  and  sharpens  his  ingenuity  for  every 
kind  of  enterprise.  Even  so,  when  a  sunbeam  is 
reflected  in  water,  the  Hght  flits  to  and  fro  through 
the  room,  quivering  as  the  reflection  moves,  and 
strikes  the  ceiling  with  flickering  shadow.  And  now, 
wild  with  rage,  Hannibal  thus  complained  in  his 
wrath  :  "  If  I  had  met  Fabius  at  first  in  battle,  would 
the  Trebia  and  Lake  Trasimene  never  have  become 
famous  ?  would  no  Italians  be  mourning  their  dead  ? 
would  the  river  of  Phaethon  ^  never  have  darkened 
the  sea  with  its  blood-stained  waters  ?  He  has  in- 
vented a  new  method  of  conquest  :  he  holds  his  hand, 
and  we  are  weakened  by  inaction.  How  often,  pre- 
tending an  attack,  has  he  skilfully  unmasked  our  plots 
and  disclosed  our  stratagems  !  "  Thus  the  sleepless 
general  pondered,  when  the  bugle  sounded  the  mid- 
night hour,  and  when  the  third  watch,"  to  whom  the 



tertius  abrupta  vigil  iret  ad  arma  quiete. 

vertit  iter  Daunique  retro  tellure  relicta 

Campanas  remeat  notus  populator  in  oras. 

hie  vero,  intravit  postquam  uberis  arva  Falerni — 

dives  ea  et  numquam  tellus  mentita  colono —         160 

addunt  frugiferis  inimica  incendia  ramis. 

Haud  fas,  Bacche,  tuos  taciturn  tramittere  honor es, 
quamquam  magna  incepta  vocent.    memorabere,  sacri 
largitor  laticis,  gravidae  cui  nectare  vites 
nullum  dant  prelis  nomen  praeferre  Falernis.  165 

Massica  sulcabat  meliore  Falernus  in  aevo, 
ensibus  ignotis,  senior  iuga.     pampinus  umbras 
nondum  uvae  virides  nudo  texebat  in  arvo, 
pocula  nee  norant  sucis  mulcere  Lyaei. 
fonte  sitim  et  pura  soliti  defendere  lympha.  170 

attulit  hospitio  pergentem  ad  litora  Calpes 
extremumque  diem  pes  dexter  et  hora  Lyaeum, 
nee  pigitum  parvosque  lares  humilisque  subire 
limina  caelicolam  tecti :  cepere  volentem 
fumosi  postes  et  ritu  pauperis  aevi  176 

ante  focos  mensae  ;  laetus  nee  senserat  hospes 
advenisse  deum  ;  sed  enim  de  more  parentum 
grato  cursabat  studio  instabatque  senectae, 
donee  opes  festas  puris  nunc  poma  canistris 
composuit,  nunc  irriguis  citus  extulit  hortis  180 

rorantes  humore  dapes.     tum  lacte  favisque 
distinxit  dulces  epulas  nuUoque  cruore 

**  Apulia. 

''  The  best  wine  known  to  the  Romans  was  produced  there. 

<=  A  legendary  figure  who  gave  his  name  to  the  place : 
Mount  Massicus  is  in  Campania. 

^  A  name  for  Bacchus  :  he  made  a  triumphal  progress 
from  India  to  Spain,  from  the  Far  East  to  the  Far  West. 

*  Bread. 


PUNICA,  VII.   156-182 

unwelcome  duty  was  allotted,  were  roused  from 
sleep  to  take  up  their  arms.  He  now  changed  his 
route  :  he  left  the  land  of  Daunus  **  behind  him  and 
returned  to  Campania  which  had  felt  the  spoiler's 
hand  before  ;  but  this  time  when  he  reached  the 
fertile  district  of  Falernus  ^ — a  rich  soil  it  is,  that  never 
deceived  the  husbandman — they  flung  destroying  fire 
on  the  fruitful  branches. 

Though  called  away  by  my  great  theme,  I  may  not 
pass  over  the  honours  of  Bacchus  without  mention. 
I  must  tell  of  the  god  who  bestowed  on  man  the  divine 
drink,  and  whom  the  nectar-bearing  vines  forbid  to 
set  any  brand  above  the  presses  of  Falernus.  In  the 
good  old  days  before  swords  were  known,  Falernus,*' 
a  man  in  years,  used  to  plough  the  high  ground  of 
Mount  Massicus.  Then  the  fields  were  bare,  and  no 
vine-plant  wove  a  green  shade  for  the  clusters  ;  nor 
did  men  know  how  to  mellow  their  draught  with  the 
juice  of  Lyaeus,**  but  were  wont  to  slake  their  thirst 
with  the  pure  water  of  a  spring.  But  when  Lyaeus 
was  on  his  way  to  the  shore  of  Calpe  and  the  setting 
sun,  a  lucky  foot  and  a  lucky  hour  brought  him 
hither  as  a  guest ;  nor  did  the  god  disdain  to  enter 
the  cottage  and  pass  beneath  its  humble  roof.  The 
smoke-grimed  door  welcomed  a  willing  guest ;  the 
meal  was  set,  in  the  fashion  of  that  simple  age,  in 
front  of  the  hearth  ;  nor  was  the  happy  host  aware 
that  he  entertained  a  god  ;  but,  as  his  fathers  used 
lo  do,  he  ran  hither  and  thither  vnth  kindly  zeal, 
tasking  his  faihng  strength.  At  last  the  feast  was 
set — fruit  in  clean  baskets,  and  dainties  dripping 
dew  which  he  hastened  to  cull  from  his  well-watered 
garden.  Then  he  adorned  the  toothsome  meal  >vith 
milk  and  honeycomb,  and  heaped  the  gifts  of  Ceres  * 



polluta  castus  mensa  cerealia  dona 

attulit,  ac  primum  Vestae  detersit  honorem 

undique  et  in  mediam  iecit  libamina  flammam.      185 

deesse  tuos  latices,  hac  sedulitate  senili 

captus,  lacche,  vet  as.     subito,  mirabile  dictu, 

fagina  pampineo  spumarunt  pocula  suco, 

pauperis  hospitii  pretium  ;  vilisque  rubenti 

fluxit  mulctra  mero,  et  quercu  in  cratera  cavata    190 

dulcis  odoratis  humor  sudavit  ab  uvis. 

"  en  cape,"  Bacchus  ait,  "  nondum  tibi  nota,  sed  olim 

viticolae  nomen  pervulgatura  Falerni 

munera  " — et  haud  ultra  latuit  deus.     inde  nitentem 

lumine  purpureo  frontem  cinxere  corymbi,  195 

et  fusae  per  colla  comae,  dextraque  pependit 

cantharus,  ac  vitis,  thyrso  delapsa  virenti, 

festas  Nysaeo  redimivit  palmite  mensas. 

nee  facilis  laeto  certasse,  Falerne,  sapori, 

postquam  iterata  tibi  sunt  pocula,  iam  pede  risum, 

iam  lingua  titubante  moves,  patrique  Lyaeo  201 

tempora  quassatus  grates  et  praemia  digna 

vix  intellectis  conaris  reddere  verbis, 

donee  composuit  luctantia  lumina  Somnus, 

Somnus,  Bacche,  tibi  comes  additus.     hie  ubi  primo 

ungula  dispersit  rores  Phaethontia  Phoebo,  206 

uviferis  late  florebat  Massicus  arvis, 

miratus  nemora  et  lucentes  sole  racemos. 

it  monti  decus,  atque  ex  illo  tempore  dives 

Tmolus  et  ambrosiis  Ariusia  pocula  sucis  210 

ac  Methymna  ferox  lacubus  cessere  Falernis. 

*•  The  thyrsus  was  the  staff  carried  by  Bacchus  and  his 
votaries :  the  top  of  it  was  decked  with  vine-leaves  or  ivy- 

*  Nysa,  some  undetermined  place  in  the  East,  was  the 
birthplace  of  Bacchus. 

PUNICA,  VII.  183-211 

on  a  chaste  board  which  no  blood  defiled.  And  from 
each  dish  he  first  plucked  a  portion  in  honour  cf 
Vesta,  and  threw  what  he  had  plucked  into  the  centre 
of  the  fire.  Pleased  by  the  old  man's  willing  service, 
Bacchus  decreed  that  his  liquor  should  not  be  lacking. 
Suddenly  a  miracle  was  seen  :  to  pay  the  poor  man 
for  his  hospitality,  the  beechen  cups  foamed  with  the 
juice  of  the  grape  ;  a  common  milk-pail  ran  red  with 
wine  ;  and  the  sweet  moisture  of  fragrant  clusters 
sweated  in  the  hollow  oaken  bowl.  "  Take  my  gift," 
said  Bacchus  ;  "  as  yet  it  is  strange  to  you,  but  here- 
after it  will  spread  abroad  the  name  of  Falernus,  the 
vine-dresser  "  ;  and  the  god  was  no  longer  disguised. 
Straightway  ivy  crowned  his  brows  that  glowed  and 
flushed  ;  his  locks  flowed  down  over  his  shoulders  ; 
a  beaker  hung  down  from  his  right  hand  ;  and  a  vine- 
plant,  falling  from  his  green  thyrsus,**  clothed  the 
festive  board  with  the  leaves  of  Nysa,''  Falernus 
found  it  hard  to  strive  against  the  cheerful  draught : 
when  he  had  drunk  once  again  of  the  cup,  his  stammer- 
ing tongue  and  staggering  feet  roused  mirth.  With 
splitting  head  he  tried,  though  he  could  not  speak 
plain,  to  render  thanks  and  praise  to  Father  Lyaeus  ; 
and  at  last  Sleep,  who  goes  ever  in  the  train  of  Bacchus, 
closed  his  reluctant  eyes.  And  when  the  sun  rose 
and  the  hoofs  of  Phaethon's  horses  dispelled  the 
dews, all  Mount  Massicus  was  green  with  vine-bearing 
fields,  and  marvelled  at  the  leafage  and  the  bunches 
shining  in  the  sunlight.  The  fame  of  the  mountain 
grew,  and  from  that  day  fertile  Tmolus  and  the  nectar 
of  Ariusia  and  the  strong  wine  of  Methymna  "  have 
all  yielded  precedence  to  the  vats  of  Falernus. 

"  The  best  Greek  wines  came  from   Mount  Tmolus  in 
Lydia,  Ariusa  in  Chios,  and  Methymna  in  Lesbos. 



Haec  turn  vasta  dabat  terrisque  infestus  agebat 
Hannibal,  et  sicci  stimulabant  sanguinis  enses, 
ludiflcante  ducem  Fabio.    iamque  improba  castris 
Ausoniis  vota  et  pugnandi  prava  libido  215 

gliscebat ;  proni  decurrere  monte  parabant. 

Da  famae,  da,  Musa,  virum,  cui  vincere  bina 
eoncessum  castra  et  geminos  domitare  furores. 
"  fervida  si  nobis  corda  abruptumque  putassent 
ingenium  patres  et  si  clamoribus,"  inquit,  220 

"  turbari  facilem  mentem,  non  ultima  rerum 
et  deplorati  mandassent  Martis  habenas. 
Stat  pensata  diu  belli  sententia  :  vincam 
servare  invitos  urgentesque  ultima  fata, 
nulli  per  Fabium  e  vobis  cecidisse  licebit.  225 

si  lueis  piget,  et  supremis  esse  cupido  est 
nominis  Ausonii,  taedetque  in  tempore  tali 
nullum  clade  nova  claraeque  fragore  ruinae 
insignem  fecisse  locum,  revocandus  ab  atris 
Flaminius  nobis  est  sedibus.     ille  ruendi  230 

iam  dudum  properans  signum  auspiciumque  dedisset. 
an  nondum  praeceps  vicinaque  fata  videtis  ? 
una,  ut  debellet,  satis  est  victoria  Poeno. 
state,  viri,  et  sentite  ducem.     cum  optabile  tempus 
deposcet  dextras,  tunc  ista  ferocia  dicta  235 

aequentur  factis.     non  est,  mihi  credite,  non  est 
arduus  in  pugnas  ferri  labor  :  una  reclusis 
omnes  iam  portis  in  campum  effuderit  hora  : 
magnum  illud  solisque  datum,  quos  mitis  euntes 
lupiter  aspexit,  magnum  est,  ex  hoste  reverti.       240 

«  His  own  and  that  of  Hannibal.  *  See  iv.  708  foil. 


PUNICA,  VII.   212-240 

This  was  the  land  which  Hannibal  then  ravaged  and 
fiercely  persecuted.  He  was  impatient,  because  the 
blood  on  his  swords  was  dry,  while  Fabius  still 
foiled  him.  But  now  over-confidence  and  a  perverse 
desire  for  battle  grew  strong  in  the  Roman  camp, 
and  the  men  were  ready  to  rush  down  from  their 
position  on  the  heights. 

Muse,  make  famous  the  man  who  was  enabled  to 
master  two  armies  <*  and  to  quell  the  fury  of  them 
both.  Fabius  spoke  thus  :  "If  the  Senate  had  con- 
sidered me  a  man  of  hot  blood  and  violent  temper,  a 
man  easily  upset  by  clamour,  they  would  not  have 
trusted  me  in  the  last  resort  with  the  control  of  a  war 
already  all  but  lost.  My  plan  of  campaign  has  long 
been  weighed  and  is  fixed  :  I  will  persist  in  saving 
you,  though  you  protest  against  it  and  court  your 
doom.  Not  one  of  you  shall  be  allowed  to  perish,  if  I 
can  help  it.  If  you  are  tired  of  life,  and  wish  to  be  the 
last  bearers  of  the  Roman  name,  and  if  at  this  crisis 
you  are  not  content  unless  you  have  made  some  spot 
famous  for  fresh  disaster  and  resounding  defeat,  then 
we  must  call  Flaminius  ^  back  from  the  realm  of 
darkness.  Long  ago  he  would  have  given  the  order 
and  the  signal  to  attack.  Or  are  you  still  blind  to  the 
yawning  precipice  and  imminent  destruction  ?  One 
victory  more  for  Hannibal,  and  the  war  is  over.  Stay 
where  you  are,  my  men,  and  learn  to  understand  your 
leader.  When  a  favourable  moment  calls  for  action, 
then  let  your  deeds  match  your  present  vaunting 
words.  It  is  not,  I  assure  you,  it  is  not  a  hard  thing 
to  rush  to  battle :  when  the  gates  of  the  camp  are 
opened,  a  single  hour  will  see  you  all  pour  out  into  the 
field.  But  it  is  a  great  thing — and  none  get  it,  unless 
Jupiter  has  smiled  on  them  as  they  went  forth — to 



fortunae  Libys  incumbit  flatuque  secundo 

fidit  agens  puppim.     dum  desinat  aura,  sinusque 

destituat  tumidos  subducto  flamine  ventus, 

in  rem  cunctari  fuerit.     non  ulla  perenni 

amplexu  Fortuna  fovet.     iam  copia  quanto  245 

artior,  et — niillo  Tyriis  certamine — quantum 

detritum  est  famae  !     quin  inter  cetera  nostra 

baud  laude  afuerit,  modo  qui — sed  parcere  dictis 

sit  melius,     iam  vos  acies  et  proelia  et  hostem 

poscitis  ?     o  maneat,  superi,  fiducia  talis  !  25"o 

interea,  exclusa  maioris  sorte  pericli, 

me  solum,  quaeso,  toti  me  opponite  bello." 

his  dictis  fractus  furor,  et  rabida  arma  quierunt. 

ut  cum  turbatis  placidum  caput  extulit  undis 

Neptunus  totumque  videt  totique  videtur  255 

regnator  ponto,  saevi  fera  murmura  venti 

dimittunt  nullasque  movent  in  frontibus  alas  ; 

tum,  sensim  infusa  tranquilla  per  aequora  pace, 

languentes  tacito  lucent  in  litore  fluctus. 

Sensit  cura  sagax  Poeni  fraudisque  veneno  260 

aggreditur  mentes.     pauca  atque  haec  ruris  aviti 
iugera  nee  multis  Fabius  vertebat  aratris  ; 
Massicus  uviferis  addebat  nomina  glebis. 
hinc  pestem  placitum  moliri  et  spargere  causas 
in  castra  ambiguas  :   ferro  flammisque  pepercit      265 

"  Modesty  prevents  him  from  saying  that  he  hopes  to  beat 
Hannibal  in  the  end.  Or  Fabius  may  have  meant  to  add, 
"  if  only  I  am  not  prevented  by  Minucius." 

^  Ancient  sculptors  and   painters  represented  winds  as 


PUNICA,  VII.   241-266 

come  back  after  the  battle.  Hannibal  is  following  up 
his  good  fortune,  and  driving  his  ship  with  confidence 
before  a  favouring  wind.  Until  the  breeze  falls  and 
the  flagging  wind  deserts  his  swelling  sails,  to  delay 
will  prove  our  gain.  Fortune  never  clings  to  any  man 
with  a  lasting  embrace.  Already,  how  much  reduced 
are  their  forces,  and  how  much  reputation  they  have 
lost !  And  yet  we  have  fought  no  battle  against 
them.  Indeed,  my  titles  to  fame  may  include  him 
who  not  long  ago — but  it  may  be  better  to  say  no 
more.**  Do  you  call  for  immediate  action  and  battle 
with  the  foe  ?  I  pray  to  Heaven  that  your  confident 
spirit  may  be  lasting.  In  the  meantime,  avert  the 
risk  of  a  great  disaster,  and  set  me,  me  only,  in 
opposition  to  the  whole  war."  His  words  tamed  their 
frenzy  and  calmed  their  angry  weapons.  So,  when 
Neptune,  the  ruler  of  the  sea,  raises  his  serene  brow 
above  the  stormy  waves,  and  sees  the  whole  ocean 
and  is  seen  by  it,  the  angry  winds  stop  their  fierce 
howling  and  cease  to  ply  the  wings  ^  on  their  fore- 
heads ;  then  peace  and  quiet  spread  gradually  over 
the  deep,  and  gentle  waves  reflect  the  light  along  the 
silent  shore. 

Hannibal,  watchful  and  shrewd,  was  aware  of  this, 
and  tried  to  poison  men's  minds  by  a  trick.  Fabius 
owned  a  small  estate  inherited  from  his  ancestors, 
which  needed  but  few  ploughs  to  till  it ;  but  the 
fields  grew  vines  that  Mount  Massicus  made  famous. 
Hence  Hannibal  resolved  to  stir  up  mischief  and  sow 
disaffection  in  the  camp  :  with  wicked  cunning  he 
refrained  from  fire  and  sword  and  left  that  land  in 

winged  creatures  :  their  practice  was  imitated  by  the  later 
poets  ;  and  the  winds  bore  wings  not  only  on  their  shoulders 
and  feet  but  also  on  their  temples,  as  here. 



suspectamque  loco  pacem  dedit  arte  maligna, 
ceu  clandestino  traheretur  foedere  bellum. 

Intellectus  erat  Fabio,  Tyriosque  videbat 
dictator  saevire  dolos  ;  sed  non  vacat  aegram 
invidiam  gladios  inter  lituosque  timere  270 

et  dubia  morsus  famae  depellere  pugna, 
donee  reptantem,  nequiquam  saepe  trahendo 
hue  illuc  castra  ac  scrutantem  proelia  Poenum, 
qua  nemorosa  iuga  et  scopulosi  vertice  colles 
exsurgunt,  clausit  sparsa  ad  divortia  turma.  275 

hinc  Laestrygoniae  saxoso  monte  premebant 
a  tergo  rupes,  undosis  squalida  terris 
hinc  Literna  palus.    nee  ferri  aut  militis  usum 
poscebat  regio.     saeptos  sed  fraude  locorum 
arta  fames,  poenas  miserae  exactura  Sagunti,        280 
urgebat,  finisque  aderat  Carthaginis  armis. 

Cuncta  per  et  terras  et  lati  stagna  profundi 
condiderat  somnus,  positoque  labore  dierum 
pacem  nocte  datam  mortalibus  orbis  agebat. 
at  non  Sidonium  curis  flagrantia  corda  285 

ductorem  vigilesque  metus  haurire  sinebant 
dona  soporiferae  noctis.     nam  membra  cubili 
erigit  et  fulvi  circumdat  pelle  leonis, 
qua  super  instratos  proiectus  gramine  campi 
presserat  ante  toros.     tunc  ad  tentoria  fratris        290 
fert  gressus  vicina  citos  ;  nee  degener  ille 
belligeri  ritus,  taurino  membra  iacebat 
effultus  tergo  et  mulcebat  tristia  somno. 
baud  procul  hasta  viri  terrae  defixa  propinquae, 
et  dira  e  summa  pendebat  cuspide  cassis  ;  295 

"  People  might  suspect  Fabius  of  saying  to  Hannibal, 
"  If  you  spare  my  land,  I  will  be  slack  in  the  conduct  of  the 

''  Laestrygonians  were  found  in  Sicily  and  also  round 

PUNICA,  VII.   266-295 

peace  ;  thus  men  might  suspect  that  the  war  was 
prolonged  by  a  secret  understanding." 

The  dictator  saw  through  the  trick  of  the  Cartha- 
ginian and  perceived  its  danger.  But  he  was  too 
busy,  amid  the  clashing  of  swords  and  the  sound  of 
bugles,  to  fear  morbid  jealousy,  and  to  parry  the 
tooth  of  calumny  by  fighting  a  hazardous  battle.  At 
last,  as  Hannibal  crept  about,  shifting  his  camp  with- 
out result  and  spying  out  any  chance  of  battle,  Fabius 
posted  cavalry  where  cross-roads  met,  and  shut  him 
in,  where  there  were  wooded  heights  and  steep  rising 
cliffs.  The  high  rocks  of  Laestrygonia  ^  hemmed 
in  his  rear  ;  in  front  were  the  marshes  of  Liternum, 
a  dismal  stretch  of  flooded  fields.  The  ground  made 
the  soldier's  sword  useless  ;  they  were  trapped  by 
the  treacherous  position  ;  Famine,  soon  to  claim  the 
penalty  for  the  tragedy  of  Saguntum,  held  them  in 
her  grip ;  and  the  army  of  Carthage  came  near  to 

Sleep  had  lulled  all  things  to  rest  over  the  earth 
and  the  calm  wide  sea  ;  the  labour  of  the  day  was 
done,  and  the  world  enjoyed  the  peace  that  night 
brings  to  all  mankind.  But  restless  anxiety  and 
watchful  fear  prevented  Hannibal  from  tasting  the 
bounty  of  drowsy  night.  Rising  from  his  bed,  he 
put  on  the  tawny  lion-skin  which  had  served  him  as 
bedding  when  he  lay  stretched  upon  the  grassy  sward. 
Then  he  went  in  haste  to  his  brother's  '^  tent  which 
was  pitched  near  his  own.  Mago  too  was  no  effeminate 
soldier  :  his  limbs  rested  on  an  ox-hide,  as  he  lay 
there  soothing  trouble  with  sleep.  His  spear  was 
planted  in  the  ground  beside  him,  and  from  the  spear- 

Formiae,  a  town  of  Latium  on  the  borders  of  Campania  : 
the  latter  place  is  meant  here.  *  Mago. 



at  clipeus  circa  loricaque  et  ensis  et  arcus 

et  telum  Baliare  simul  tellure  quiescunt. 

iuxta  lecta  manus,  iuvenes  in  Marte  probati ; 

et  sonipes  strato  carpebat  gramina  dorso. 

ut  pepulere  levem  intrantis  vestigia  somnum  :       300 

"  heus  !  "  inquit  pariterque  manus  ad  tela  ferebat, 

"  quae  te  cura  vigil  fessum,  germane,  fatigat  ?  " 

ac  iam  constiterat  sociosque  in  caespite  fusos 

incussa  revocat  castrorum  ad  munera  planta, 

cum  Libyae  ductor  :  "  Fabius  me  noctibus  aegris. 

in  curas  Fabius  nos  excitat ;  ilia  senectus,  306 

heu  fatis  quae  sola  meis  currentibus  obstat ! 

cernis,  ut  armata  circumfundare  corona, 

et  vallet  clauses  collectus  miles  in  orbem. 

verum,  age,  nunc  quoniam  res  artae,  percipe  porro 

quae  meditata  mihi.     latos  correpta  per  agros       311 

armenta  assueto  belli  de  more  secuntur. 

cornibus  arentes  edicam  innectere  ramos 

sarmentique  leves  fronti  religare  maniplos, 

admotus  cum  fervorem  disperserit  ignis,  315 

ut  passim  exultent  stimulante  dolore  iuvenci 

et  vaga  per  colles  cervice  incendia  iactent. 

tum  terrore  novo  trepidus  laxabit  iniquas 

custos  excubias  maioraque  nocte  timebit. 

si  cordi  consulta  (moras  extrema  recusant)  320 

accingamur,"  ait.     gemino  tentoria  gressu 

inde  petunt.     ingens  clipeo  cervice  reposta 

inter  equos  interque  viros  interque  iacebat 

capta  manu  spolia  et  rorantia  caede  Maraxes 

ac  dirum,  in  somno  ceu  bella  capesseret,  amens     325 

clamorem  tum  forte  dabat  dextraque  tremente 

«  See  note  to  1.314. 

PUNICA,  VII.   296-326 

point  his  dreadful  helmet  hung  down  ;  and  his  shield 
and  breastplate,  his  sword  and  bow  and  Balearic 
sling  "  lay  on  the  ground  beside  him.  A  chosen  band 
of  veteran  soldiers  attended  him  ;  and  his  war-horse 
wore  the  saddle  as  it  grazed.  When  his  light  slumber 
was  broken  by  the  sound  of  entering  footsteps,  "  Ha, 
brother  !  "  he  cried,  and  at  the  same  time  reached 
out  for  his  weapons  ;  "  what  sleepless  anxiety  forbids 
you  to  rest  your  weary  limbs  ?  "  Already  he  stood 
erect,  and  a  stamp  of  his  foot  summoned  to  attention 
his  men  who  lay  stretched  upon  the  sward,  when 
Hannibal  thus  began  :  "  It  is  Fabius  who  breaks  my 
rest,  Fabius  who  excites  my  fears  ;  that  old  man, 
alas,  alone  withstands  the  tide  of  my  fortunes.  You 
see  how  you  are  surrounded  by  a  ring  of  warriors, 
trapped  and  encircled  by  the  army  he  has  placed 
there.  But,  come,  since  we  are  in  this  strait,  hear 
further  a  plan  I  have  devised.  The  cattle  we  have 
seized  up  and  down  the  land  are  with  us  now,  after 
the  custom  of  war.  I  shall  order  dry  branches  to  be 
tied  to  their  horns,  and  bundles  of  light  faggots 
to  be  fixed  to  their  foreheads  ;  then,  when  fire  is 
applied  and  spreads  its  heat,  the  beasts,  driven  mad 
by  pain,  will  run  wild  and  spread  a  blaze  over  the 
hills  with  tossing  heads.  Then  our  jailers,  surprised 
and  alarmed,  will  relax  their  strict  guard,  and  will 
fear  worse  dangers  in  the  darkness.  If  my  plan 
pleases  you,  let  us  set  to  work — the  crisis  forbids 
delay."  Together  they  went  at  once  to  the  camp. 
There  lay  huge  Maraxes,  his  head  pillowed  on  his 
shield  ;  around  him  were  horses  and  men  and  blood- 
dripping  spoils  that  he  had  taken  in  battle  ;  and, 
as  if  fighting  in  dreams,  he  uttered  just  then  a  frantic 
cry,  while    his    shaking    hand    felt  eagerly    for   his 



arma  toro  et  notum  quaerebat  fervidus  ensem. 
huic  Mago,  inversa  quatiens  ut  dispulit  hasta 
bellantem  somnum  :  "  tenebris,  fortissime  ductor, 
iras  compesce  atque  in  lucem  proelia  differ.  330 

ad  fraudem  occultamque  fugam  tutosque  receptus 
nunc  nocte  utendum  est.     arentes  nectere  frondes 
cornibus  et  latis  accensa  immittere  silvis 
armenta,  oppositi  reserent  quo  claustra  manipli, 
germanus  parat  atque  obsessa  evellere  castra.        335 
emergamus,  et  hie  Fabio  persuadeat  astus, 
non  certare  dolis."     nihil  hinc  cunctante  sed  acris 
incepti  laeto  iuvene,  ad  tentoria  Acherrae 
festinant ;  cui  parea  quies  minimumque  soporis, 
nee  notum  somno  noctes  aequare  ;  feroci  340 

pervigil  inservibat  equo  fessumque  levabat 
tractando  et  frenis  ora  exagitata  fovebat. 
at  socii  renovant  tela  arentemque  cruorem 
ferro  detergent  et  dant  mucronibus  iras. 
quid  fortuna  loci  poscat,  quid  tempus,  et  ipsi  345 

quaenam  agitent,  pandunt  et  coeptis  ire  ministrum 
haud  segnem  hortantur.     discurrit  tessera  castris  ; 
intentique  decent,  quae  sint  properanda,  monentque 
quisque  suos  ;  instat  trepidis  stimulatque  ruentes 
navus  abire  timor,  dum  caeca  silentia  dumque       350 
maiores  umbrae,     rapida  iam  subdita  peste 
virgulta  atque  altis  surgunt  e  cornibus  ignes. 
hie  vero  ut,  gliscente  malo  et  quassantibus  aegra 
armentis  capita,  adiutae  pinguescere  flammae 
coepere,  et  vincens  fumos  erumpere  vertex  :  355 


PUNICA,  VII.   327-355 

good  sword  and  the  weapons  on  his  bed.  With  a 
blow  from  the  butt  of  his  spear  Mago  awoke  him  from 
his  unpeaceful  slumber.  "  Control  your  ardour  in 
the  hours  of  darkness,  brave  captain,"  he  said,  "  and 
postpone  your  fighting  till  day  comes.  We  must 
make  use  of  to-night  for  a  stratagem,  for  a  secret 
flight  and  safe  retreat.  My  brother  intends  to  fix 
dry  branches  to  the  horns  of  the  cattle  and  to  turn 
them  loose  when  lighted  all  through  the  woods,  that 
the  foe  may  relax  his  grasp  ;  and  he  hopes  thus  to 
wrench  the  beleaguered  army  from  their  clutches. 
Let  us  make  our  way  out,  and  teach  Fabius  that  he 
is  no  match  for  us  in  cunning."  Rejoicing  in  this 
bold  stroke,  the  warrior  tarried  not.  The  pair  next 
hastened  to  the  quarters  of  Acherras,  a  man  content 
with  brief  slumbers  who  never  slept  the  whole  night 
through.  He  was  awake  now  and  attending  to  a 
mettlesome  steed,  rubbing  him  down  after  exercise 
and  bathing  the  mouth  which  the  bit  had  chafed. 
His  men  were  furbishing  their  weapons,  washing  the 
dry  blood  from  the  steel  and  sharpening  their  swords. 
The  pair  explained  their  business  and  the  require- 
ments of  the  place  and  time,  and  bade  Acherras  go 
with  speed  and  further  the  plan.  The  word  was 
passed  round  through  the  camp  ;  the  captains  zeal- 
ously instructed  their  men  and  explained  the  work 
to  be  done  ;  fear  beset  them  and  quickened  their 
pace,  urging  them  to  depart  in  the  silence  and  dark- 
ness, before  the  shadow  of  night  grew  lighter.  The 
brushwood  was  quickly  kindled,  and  fire  rose  high 
from  the  horns  of  the  cattle.  But  when  the  mischief 
spread  and  the  beasts  tossed  their  tortured  heads,  the 
flames,  so  helped,  grew  thicker,  and  their  crest  burst 
upwards  through  the  smoke  and  conquered  it.     All 



per  coUes  dumosque  (lues  agit  atra)  per  altos 

saxosi  scopulos  montis  lymphata  feruntur 

corpora  anhela  bourn,  atque  obsessis  naribus  igni 

luctantur  frustra  rabidi  mugire  iuvenci. 

per  iuga,  per  valles  errat  Vulcania  pestis,  360 

nusquam  stante  malo  ;  vicinaque  litora  fulgent. 

quam  multa,  afRxus  caelo  sub  nocte  serena, 

fluctibus  e  mediis  sulcator  navita  ponti 

astra  videt ;  quam  multa  videt,  fervoribus  atris 

cum  Calabros  urunt  ad  pinguia  pabula  saltus,         365 

vertice  Gargani  residens  incendia  pastor. 

At  facie  subita  volitantum  montibus  altis 
flammarum,  quis  tunc  cecidit  custodia  sorti, 
horrere  atque  ipsos,  nuUo  spargente,  vagari 
credere  et  indomitos  pasci  sub  collibus  ignes.         370 
caelone  exciderint,  et  magna  fulmina  dextra 
torserit  Omnipotens,  an  caecis  rupta  cavernis 
fuderit  egestas  accenso  sulphure  flammas 
infelix  tellus,  media  in  formidine  quaerunt. 
iamque  abeunt ;  faucesque  viae  citus  occupat  armis 
Poenus  et  in  patulos  exultans  emicat  agros.  376     , 

hue  tamen  usque  vigil  processerat  arte  regendi  J 

dictator  Trebiam  et  Tusci  post  stagna  profundi,  ^ 

esset  ut  Hannibali  Fabium  Romanaque  tela 
evasisse  satis,     quin  et  vestigia  pulsi  380 

et  gressus  premeret  castris,  ni  sacra  vocarent 
ad  patrios  veneranda  deos.     tum,  versus  ad  urbem, 
alloquitur  iuvenem,  cui  mos  tramittere  signa 
et  belli  summam  primasque  iubebat  habenas, 

"  See  note  to  iv.  561.  *  Lake  Trasimene. 

"  As  the  head  of  the  Fabian  family,  he  was  obliged  to  offer 
sacrifice  yearly  to  Diana  on  the  Quirinal  Hill. 



PUNICA,  VII.   356-384 

over  the  hills  and  thickets,  over  the  high  cliffs  of 
the  rocky  mountain,  the  maddened  cattle  rushed  on 
panting,  driven  by  that  dreadful  scourge  ;  and  the 
steers,  their  nostrils  stopped  by  the  fire,  tried  in  vain 
to  bellow.  Nothing  can  check  the  destroying  fire  : 
it  runs  from  place  to  place  over  hill  and  valley  ;  and 
the  sea,  not  far  away,  reflects  it.  It  was  like  the 
multitude  of  stars  which  the  seaman  beholds  from 
his  ship  as  he  ploughs  the  deep  on  a  clear  night,  with 
his  gaze  fixed  upon  the  sky  ;  or  like  the  multitude 
of  fires  that  the  shepherd  sees  from  his  seat  on  Mount 
Garganus,"  when  the  uplands  of  Calabria  are  burnt 
and  blackened,  to  improve  the  pasture. 

But  the  Roman  sentries  whose  turn  it  was  to  be  on 
guard  were  horror-struck  by  the  sudden  sight  of  flames 
moving  about  on  the  mountain- tops :  they  believed  that 
no  hand  of  man  had  sent  forth  fire,  but  that  it  spreadof 
itself  and  flourished  unrestrained  beneath  the  hills. 
"  Did  it  fall  from  heaven  ?  "  they  asked  in  their  fear; 
"  had  the  Almighty  launched  thunderbolts  with  his 
strong  arm  ?  or  had  the  vexed  earth  burst  asunder  and 
sent  forth  flames,  vomited  from  hidden  hollows  with 
burning  sulphur  ?  "  Quickly  they  fled ;  and  the  Cartha- 
<::inian  army  made  haste  to  seize  the  narrow  pass  and 
dashed  forth  triumphant  into  the  open  country.  Yet 
by  his  skilful  management  the  watchful  Dictator  had 
succeeded  so  far,  that  Hannibal,  even  after  the  Trebia 
and  the  Tuscan  lake,^  was  content  now  to  have  escaped 
Fabius  and  the  Roman  attack.  Indeed  Fabius  would 
have  followed  with  his  army  the  retreating  foe,  had 
he  not  been  summoned  to  pay  worship  to  the  gods 
of  his  family. °  As  he  turned  his  face  to  Rome,  he 
addressed  the  younger  man,  who  took  over,  as  custom 
required,  the  colours  and  the  supreme  command,  and 



atque  his  praeformat  dictis  fingitque  monendo  :     385 
"  si  factis  nondum,  Minuci,  te  cauta  probare 
erudiit  Fortuna  meis,  nee  dueere  verba 
ad  verum  decus  ac  pravis  arcere  valebunt. 
vidisti  clausum  Hannibalem  ;  nil  miles  et  alae 
iuvere  aut  densis  legio  conferta  maniplis.  390 

testor  te,  solus  clausi,  nee  deinde  morabor. 
dis  sine  me  libare  dapem  et  sollemnia  ferre. 
hunc  iterum  atque  iterum  vinctum  vel  montibus  altis 
amnibus  aut  rapidis — modo  pugna  absistite — tradam. 
interea  (crede  experto,  non  fallimus)  aegris  395 

nil  movisse  salus  rebus,     sit  gloria  multis 
et  placeat,  quippe  egregium,  prosternere  ferro 
hostem  ;  sed  Fabio  sit  vos  servasse  triumphus. 
plena  tibi  castra  atque  intactus  vulnere  miles 
creditur  ;  hos  nobis  (erit  haec  tibi  gloria)  redde.   400 
iam  cernes  Libycum  huic  vallo  assultare  leonem, 
iam  praedas  ofFerre  tibi,  iam  vertere  terga, 
respectantem  adeo  atque  iras  cum  fraude  coquentem. 
claude,  oro,  castra  et  cunctas  spes  eripe  pugnae. 
haec  monuisse  satis  ;  sed  si  compescere  corda        405 
non  datur  oranti,  magno  te  iure  pioque 
dictator  capere  arma  veto."     sic  castra  relinquens 
vallarat  monitis  ac  se  referebat  ad  urbem. 

Ecce  autem  flatu  classis  Phoenissa  secundo 
litora  Caietae  Laestrygoniosque  recessus  410 

«  M.  Minucius  Rufus  was  Master  of  the  Knights  to  the 
Dictator,  and  second  in  command  of  the  army. 

^  A  seaport  town  on  the  borders  of  Latium  and  Campania: 
for  the  Laestrygonians  see  note  to  1.  276. 

PUNICA,  VII.  385-410 

spoke  thus,  instructing  him  beforehand  and  schooling 
him  with  warning  :  "  Minucius,"  if  you  have  not  yet 
learned  from  my  actions  to  approve  caution,  then 
words  also  will  be  too  weak  to  attract  you  to  true 
glory  and  to  guard  you  from  mistakes.  You  have 
seen  Hannibal  entrapped  :  his  footmen  and  his  horse- 
men and  his  army  with  its  serried  ranks  were  all 
useless.  I  alone  entrapped  him,  I  call  you  to  witness. 
Nor  shall  I  be  slow  to  do  it  again.  Suffer  me  to  make 
a  feast  for  the  gods  and  offer  the  customary  sacrifices. 
Again  and  again — do  you  but  refrain  from  battle — I 
shall  show  you  Hannibal  penned  in  by  lofty  moun- 
tains or  rapid  rivers.  For  the  present  (take  the 
word  of  experience,  I  speak  the  truth)  inaction  is 
safety  in  peril.  Let  many  generals  feel  joy  and 
pride  when  they  have  laid  low  the  enemy  in  battle 
— and  it  is  indeed  a  glorious  thing  ;  but  let  Fabius 
regard  this  as  his  height  of  glory,  that  he  has 
saved  the  lives  of  you  all.  I  hand  over  to  you  an 
undepleted  force  and  unwounded  men  ;  give  them 
back  to  me  unharmed,  and  that  shall  be  your  boast. 
Soon  you  will  see  the  Libyan  lion  charging  our  ram- 
parts ;  at  one  time  he  will  offer  you  spoil,  and  at 
another  he  will  retreat,  looking  ever  backwards  and 
nursing  wrath  in  his  guileful  heart.  Shut  the  gates 
of  the  camp,  I  entreat  you,  and  rob  him  of  all  hope 
of  fighting.  This  is  sufficient  warning  ;  but,  if  my 
entreaties  cannot  restrain  your  ardour,  then  by  my 
high  office  of  dictator  and  by  my  duty  I  forbid  you 
to  take  up  arms."  Thus  he  defended  the  camp  by 
his  warnings  ere  he  left  it  and  returned  to  Rome. 

But  now,  before  a  favouring  wind,  Carthaginian 

ships  were  seen  ploughing  with  their  beaks  the  sea  by 

the  shore  of  Caieta  ^  and  the  bay  of  the  Laestry- 

voL.  I  N  365 


sulcabat  rostris  portusque  intrarat  apertos, 

ac  totus  multo  spumabat  remige  pontus, 

cum  trepidae  fremitu  vitreis  e  sedibus  antri 

aequoreae  pelago  simul  emersere  sorores 

ac  possessa  vident  infestis  litora  proris.  415 

turn  magno  perculsa  metu  Nereia  turba 

attonitae  propere  refluunt  ad  limina  nota, 

Teleboum  medio  surgunt  qua  regna  profundo 

pumiceaeque  procul  sedes.     immanis  in  antro 

conditur  abrupto  Proteus  ac  spumea  late  420 

cautibus  obiectis  reiectat  caerula  vates. 

is  postquam  (sat  gnarus  enim  rerumque  metusque) 

per  varias  lusit  formas  et  terruit  atri 

serpentis  squamis  horrendaque  sibila  torsit, 

aut  fremuit  torvo  mutatus  membra  leone  :  425 

"  dicite,"  ait,  "  quae  causa  viae  ?     quisve  ora  repente 

pervasit  pallor  ?     cur  scire  futura  libido  ?  " 

Ad  quae  Cymodoce,  Nympharum  maxima  natu 
Italidum  :  "  nosti  nostros,  praesage,  timores. 
quid  Tyriae  classes  ereptaque  litora  nobis  430 

portendunt  ?     num  migrantur  Rhoeteia  regna 
in  Libyam  superis  ?     aut  hos  Sarranus  habebit 
navita  iam  portus  ?    patria  num  sede  fugatae 
Atlantem  et  Calpen  extrema  habitabimus  antra  ?  " 

Tunc  sic,  evolvens  repetita  exordia,  retro  435 

incipit  ambiguus  vates  reseratque  futura  : 
"  Laomedonteus  Phrygia  cum  sedit  in  Ida 
pastor  et,  errantes  dumosa  per  avia  tauros 
arguta  revocans  ad  roscida  pascua  canna, 

*  Nereids. 

''  The  island,  of  Capri :  the  residence  of  Proteus,  the 
prophet  and  god  of  the  sea,  is  generally  placed  elsewhere  by 
the  poets. 

"  The  epithet  perhaps  refers  to  the  power  of  Proteus  to 
change  his  shape. 

PUNICA,   VII.  411-439 

and  the  number  of  their  oarsmen  churned  all  the  sea 
to  foam.  The  noise  startled  the  Sea  Sisters,**  and  they 
rose  up  together  from  the  crystal  seats  of  their  grotto, 
and  saw  the  shore  occupied  by  hostile  vessels.  Then 
in  great  fear  and  consternation  the  train  of  Nereids 
swam  off  quickly  to  a  familiar  haunt,  where  the  realm 
of  the  Teleboans  ^  rises  far  off  in  mid-sea,  and  there 
are  rocky  caves.  Proteus,  the  monstrous  "  seer,  hides 
here  in  his  cavern  among  the  rocks,  and  keeps  the 
foaming  deep  at  a  distance  by  a  barrier  of  cliffs.  He 
knew  well  the  cause  of  their  alarm  ;  but  first  he 
eluded  them  by  taking  various  shapes  :  he  frightened 
them  in  the  likeness  of  a  black  and  scaly  snake,  and 
hissed  horribly ;  again  he  changed  into  a  fierce  Hon 
and  roared.  At  last  he  spoke  :  "  Tell  me  the  cause 
of  your  coming,  and  why  have  your  faces  suddenly 
turned  pale  ?     Why  seek  ye  to  know  the  future  ?  " 

Cymodoce  replied,  the  eldest  of  the  Italian  nymphs: 
"  Prophet,"  she  said,  "  you  know  why  we  are  afraid 
What  mean  these  ships  of  Carthage  that  have  robbec 
us  of  our  shore  ?  Are  the  gods  removing  the  empire 
of  Rome  **  to  Libya  ?  Or  shall  the  seamen  of  Tyre 
possess  these  harbours  in  future  ?  Must  we  leave 
our  native  seat  and  dwell  in  the  caves  of  uttermost 
Atlas  and  Calpe  ?  " 

Then  the  prophet,  the  deity  of  many  forms,  thus 
began  to  reveal  the  future,  beginning  his  tale  far  back 
in  the  distant  past.  "  When  the  shepherd  son  *  of 
Laomedon  sat  on  Phrygian  Ida,  and  his  sweet  piping 
recalled  to  the  dewy  pastures  his  bulls  that  strayed 

<*  Lit.  "  of  Rhoeteum  " :  this  was  a  promontory  near  Troy  : 
see  note  to  ii.  51, 
•  Paris. 



audivit  sacrae  lectus  certamina  formae,  440 

turn  matris  currus  niveos  agitabat  olores, 

tempora  sollicitus  litis  servasse,  Cupido. 

parvulus  ex  humero  gorytos  et  aureus  arcus 

fulgebat,  nutuque  vetans  trepidare  parentem, 

monstrabat  gravidam  telis  se  ferre  pharetram.       445 

ast  alius  nivea  comebat  fronte  capillos, 

purpureos  alius  vestis  religabat  amictus, 

cum  sic  suspirans  roseo  Venus  ore  decoros 

alloquitur  natos  :  *  testis  certissima  vestrae 

ecce  dies  pietatis  adest.     quis  credere  salvis  450 

hoc  ausit  vobis  ?     de  forma  atque  ore  (quid  ultra 

iam  superest  rerum  ?)  certat  Venus,     omnia  parvis 

si  mea  tela  dedi  blando  medicata  veneno, 

si  vester,  caelo  ac  terris  qui  foedera  sancit, 

stat  supplex,  cum  vultis,  avus  :  victoria  nostra       455 

Cypron  Idumaeas  referat  de  Pallade  palmas, 

de  lunone  Paphos  centum  mihi  fumet  in  aris.' 

dumque  haec  aligeris  instat  Cytherea,  sonabat 

omne  nemus  gradiente  dea.     nam  bellica  virgo, 

aegide  deposita  atque  assuetum  casside  crinem      460 

involvi  tunc  compta  tamen  pacemque  serenis 

condiscens  oculis,  ibat  lucoque  ferebat 

praedicto  sacrae  vestigia  concita  plantae. 

parte  alia  intrabat  iussis  Saturnia  silvis, 

iudicium  Phrygis  et  fastus  pastoris  et  Iden  465 

post  fratris  latura  toros.     postrema  nitenti 

afFulsit  vultu  ridens  Venus,     omnia  circa 

et  nemora  et  penitus  frondosis  rupibus  antra 

"  Jupiter. 

"  The  birthplace  of  Venus  :   Paphos  in  Cyprus  was  one  of 
the  seats  of  her  worship.     For  Idume  see  note  to  iii.  600. 

"  Pallas.  "*  Juno. 


PUNICA,  VII.   440-468 

through  pathless  thickets,  he  was  chosen  to  witness 
the  contest  of  the  goddesses  for  the  prize  of  beauty. 
Then  a  Cupid  drove  the  snow-white  swans  harnessed 
to  his  mother's  car,  and  feared  to  be  too  late  for  the 
contest.  A  tiny  quiver  and  a  golden  bow  glittered  at 
his  shoulder,  and  he  signed  to  his  mother  to  have  no 
fear,  and  showed  her  the  quiver  that  he  carried  loaded 
with  arrows.  Another  Cupid  combed  the  tresses  on 
her  snow-white  brow,  and  a  third  put  the  girdle  round 
the  folds  of  her  purple  robe.  Then  Venus  sighed,  and 
her  rosy  lips  thus  addressed  her  pretty  children  :  '  See, 
the  day  has  come  that  will  prove  beyond  all  doubt 
your  love  for  your  mother.  Who  would  dare  to 
believe,  that  while  you  still  live,  the  claim  of  Venus 
to  the  prize  for  beauty  is  contested  ?  What  worse 
remains  behind  ?  If  I  gave  to  my  children  all  my 
arrows  steeped  in  delicious  poison — if  your  grandsire," 
the  Lawgiver  of  heaven  and  earth,  stands  a  suppliant 
before  you  when  so  you  please,  then  let  my  triumph 
bear  back  to  Cyprus  ^  the  palm  of  Edom  won  from 
Pallas,  and  let  the  hundred  altars  of  Paphos  smoke  for 
my  conquest  of  Juno.'  And,  while  Cytherea  thus 
charged  her  winged  children,  all  the  grove  re-echoed 
the  footsteps  of  a  goddess.  For  now  came  the  Warrior 
Maid.*'  She  had  laid  aside  her  aegis  ;  the  hair  which 
the  helmet  was  wont  to  hide  was  braided  now,  and 
her  clear  eyes  wore  a  studied  look  of  peace  ;  and  her 
sacred  feet  bore  her  quickly  to  the  appointed  grove. 
From  another  quarter  obedient  to  the  call  came  the 
daughter  of  Saturn  ^  ;  though  wedded  to  her  brother, 
Jupiter,  she  must  endure  to  be  judged  and  rejected 
by  the  Trojan  shepherd  on  Mount  Ida.  Last  came 
Venus  with  smiling  face,  glorious  in  her  beauty.  All 
tlie  surrounding  groves  and  all  the  hollows  of  the 



spirantem  sacro  traxerunt  vertice  odorem. 

nee  iudex  sedisse  valet ;  fessique  nitoris  470 

luce  cadunt  oculi,  ac  metuit  dubitasse  videri. 

sed  victae  fera  bella  deae  vexere  per  aequor, 

atque  excisa  suo  pariter  cum  iudice  Troia. 

turn  plus  Aeneas,  terris  iactatus  et  undis, 

Dardanios  Itala  posuit  tellure  penates.  475 

dum  cete  ponto  innabunt,  dum  sidera  caelo 

lucebunt,  dum  sol  Indo  se  litore  toilet, 

hie  regna  et  nullae  regnis  per  saecula  metae. 

at  vos,  o  natae,  currit  dum  immobile  filum, 

Hadriaci  fugite  infaustas  Sasonis  harenas.  480 

sanguineis  tumidus  ponto  miscebitur  undis 

Aufidus  et  rubros  impellet  in  aequora  fluctus  ; 

damnatoque  deum  quondam  per  carmina  campo 

Aetolae  rursus  Teucris  pugnabitis  umbrae. 

Punica  Romuleos  quatient  mox  spicula  muros,       485 

multaque  Hasdrubalis  fulgebit  strage  Metaurus. 

hinc  ille  in  furto  genitus  patruique  piabit 

idem  ultor  patrisque  necem  ;  tum  litus  Elissae 

implebit  flammis  avelletque  Itala  Poenum 

viscera  torrentem  et  propriis  superabit  in  oris.        490 

huic  Carthago  armis,  huic  Africa  nomine  cedet. 

hie  dabit  ex  sese,  qui  tertia  bella  fatiget 

et  cinerem  Libyae  ferat  in  Capitolia  victor." 

*•  The  prophet  foretells  the  battle  of  Cannae  :  the  Roman 
blood  shed  there  will  flow  down  the  river  Aufidus  into  the 
sea  :   Saso  is  an  island  on  the  coast  of  Epirus. 

^  The  Sibyl  of  Cumae :  cp.  ix.  57. 

*  See  note  to  i.  125.  **  Romans. 

«  Scipio  Africanus,  the  conqueror  of  Hannibal:  see  xiii. 
615  foil. 

^  The  Scipio  brothers  both  fell  in  Spain  in  212  b.c. 

"  He  assumed  the  name  of  Africanus. 

'*  In  146  B.C.  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus  Aemilianus 


PUNICA,  VII.   469-493 

leaf-clad  heights  drank  in  deeply  the  fragrance  that 
breathed  from  that  divine  head.  The  judge  could 
not  sit  still ;  his  eyes,  dazzled  by  the  brilliance  of  her 
beauty,  sank  to  the  ground  ;  and  he  feared  lest  he 
might  seem  ever  to  have  been  in  doubt.  But  the 
defeated  goddesses  brought  a  fierce  army  across  the 
sea,  and  Troy  was  demolished  together  with  the 
Trojan  who  had  judged  them.  Then  good  Aeneas, 
after  much  suffering  on  land  and  sea,  established  the 
gods  of  Troy  on  the  soil  of  Italy.  So  long  as  sea- 
monsters  shall  svnm  the  deep  and  stars  shine  in  the 
sky  and  the  sun  rise  on  the  Indian  shore,  Rome  shall 
rule,  and  there  shall  be  no  end  to  her  rule  throughout 
the  ages.  But  you,  my  daughters,  while  the  thread 
of  Fate  that  none  may  change  still  runs  on,  avoid  the 
ill-omened  sands  of  Saso  "  in  the  Adriatic  sea.  For 
Aufidus  will  fall  into  that  sea,  his  stream  swollen  with 
gore,  and  will  pour  incarnadined  waters  into  the 
main  ;  and  on  a  field  condemned  long  ago  by  the 
oracles  of  Heaven,^  the  ghosts  of  Aetolia  '^  shall  fight 
the  Trojans'*  once  more.  Later  the  missiles  of  Car- 
thage shall  batter  the  walls  of  Romulus,  and  the 
Metaurus  shall  be  famous  for  the  utter  defeat  of 
Hasdrubal.  Next  the  offspring  of  stolen  love  *  shall 
duly  avenge  his  father  and  his  uncle  ^  as  well ;  then 
he  shall  spread  fire  over  the  coast  of  Dido,  and  tear 
Hannibal  away  from  the  vitals  of  Italy  on  which  he  is 
preying,  and  defeat  him  in  his  own  country.  To  him 
Carthage  shall  surrender  her  arms,  and  Africa  her 
name.*  And  his  son's  son  shall  finish  a  third  war 
with  victory  and  bring  back  the  ashes  of  Libya  to  the 

destroyed  Carthage  and  ended  the  Third  Punic  War:  he 
was,  by  adoption,  the  grandson  of  the  first  Afiicanus. 



Quae  dum  arcana  deum  vates  evolvit  in  antro, 
iam  monita  et  Fabium  bellique  equitumque  magister 
exuerat  mente  ac  praeceps  tendebat  in  hostem.     496 
pascere  nee  Poenus  pravum  ae  nutrire  furorem 
deerat  et,  ut  parvo  maiora  ad  proelia  damno 
eliceret,  dabat  interdum  simulantia  terga. 
non  aliter,  quam  qui  sparsa  per  stagna  profundi    500 
evocat  e  liquidis  piscem  penetralibus  esca, 
cumque  levem  summa  vidit  iam  nare  sub  unda, 
ducit  sinuato  captivum  ad  litora  lino. 

Fama  furit  versos  hostes,  Poenumque  salutem 
invenisse  fuga  ;  liceat  si  vincere,  finem  505 

promitti  cladum  ;  sed  enim  dicione  carere 
virtutem,  et  poenas  vincentibus  esse  repostas. 
clausurum  iam  castra  ducem  rursusque  referri 
vaginae  iussurum  enses,  reddatur  in  armis 
ut  ratio,  et  purget  miles,  cur  vicerit  hostem.  510 

haec  vulgus  ;  necnon  patrum  Saturnia  mentes 
invidiae  stimulo  fodit  et  popularibus  auris. 
tunc  indigna  fide  censent  optandaque  Poeno, 
quae  mox  haud  parvo  luerent  damnata  periclo. 

Dividitur  miles,  Fabioque  equitumque  magistro 
imperia  aequantur  geminis.    cernebat,  et  expers   516 
irarum  senior,  magnas  ne  penderet  alti 
erroris  poenas  patria  inconsulta,  timebat. 
ac  turn,  multa  putans  secum,  ut  remeavit  ab  urbe, 
partitus  socias  vires,  vicina  propinquis  520 

"  Juno. 

PUNICA,  VII.   494-520 

While  the  prophet  in  his  grotto  revealed  these 
secret  things  of  the  gods,  the  Master  of  the  Knights 
and  commander  of  the  army  had  put  from  his  mind 
the  warnings  of  Fabius,  and  was  pressing  forward 
against  the  enemy.  And  Hannibal  was  not  slow  to 
feed  and  encourage  this  folly  :  he  feigned  at  times  to 
retreat,  that  by  a  trifling  loss  he  might  tempt  Minu- 
cius  to  a  pitched  battle.  So  the  fisherman  tempts  a 
fish  forth  from  the  watery  depths  by  scattering  bait 
in  the  pools,  and  then,  when  he  sees  his  nimble  prey 
swimming  close  to  the  surface,  draws  it  captive  to  the 
shore  in  his  bellying  net. 

Wild  rumours  ran — that  the  enemy  was  routed,  and 
Hannibal  had  saved  himself  by  flight;  an  end  of 
defeats  was  certain,  if  the  Romans  were  allowed  to 
conquer ;  but  the  brave  had  no  authority,  and  punish- 
ment was  in  store  for  the  victorious.  Soon  would 
Fabius  keep  the  army  in  camp  and  order  the  sword 
to  be  sheathed  once  more,  that  the  warrior  might  be 
called  to  account  and  clear  himself  of  the  crime  of  con- 
quering. Thus  the  people  murmured ;  and  even  the 
hearts  of  the  Senators  were  stirred  up  by  the  daughter 
of  Saturn <»  with  the  sting  of  jealousy  and  with  the 
desire  for  popular  favour.  Then  they  passed  a  decree 
unworthy  of  belief,  a  decree  that  Hannibal  might 
have  prayed  for  ;  they  were  soon  to  repent  it  and 
to  pay  for  it  with  great  disaster. 

The  army  was  divided,  and  the  Master  of  the 
Knights  was  given  equal  powers  with  the  Dictator. 
The  older  man  looked  on  without  resentment ;  but  he 
feared  that  the  ill-advised  government  might  pay  a 
heavy  penalty  for  their  grievous  error.  And  then, 
revolving  many  things  in  his  breast,  he  returned  from 
Rome  and,  after  dividing  the  forces  with  Minucius, 

VOL.  r  N  2  878 


signa  iugis  locat  et  specula  sublimis  ab  alta 
non  Romana  minus  servat,  quam  Punica  castra. 
nee  mora  ;  disiecto  Minuci  vecordia  vallo 
perdendi  simul  et  pereundi  ardebat  amore. 

Quem  postquam  rapidum  vidit  procedere  castris 
hinc  Libys,  hinc  Fabius,  simul  accendere  sagaces  526 
in  subitum  curas.     propere  capere  arma  maniplis 
edicit  vallique  tenet  munimine  turmas 
Ausonius  ;  torquet  totas  in  proelia  vires 
Poenorum  ductor  propellitque  agmina  voce  :  530 

"  dum  dictator  abest,  rape,  miles,  tempora  pugnae. 
non  sperata  diu  piano  certamina  campo 
ofFert  ecce  deus.     quoniam  data  copia,  longum 
detergete  situm  ferro  multoque  cruore 
exsatiate,  viri,  plenos  rubiginis  enses."  535 

Atque  ea  Cunctator  pensabat  ab  aggere  valli, 
perlustrans  campos  oculis,  tantoque  periclo 
discere,  quinam  esset  Fabius,  te,  Roma,  dolebat. 
cui  natus,  iuncta  arma  ferens  :    "  dabit  improbus,'* 

**  quas  dignum  est,  poenas  ;   qui  per  suffragia  caeca 
invasit  nostros  haec  ad  discrimina  fasces.  541 

insanae  spectate  tribus  !     pro  lubrica  rostra 
et  vanis  fora  laeta  viris  !     nunc  munera  Martis 
aequent  imperio  et  solem  concedere  nocti 
sciscant  imbelles  :  magna  mercede  piabunt  545 

erroris  rabiem  et  nostrum  violasse  parentem." 
tum  senior,  quatiens  hastam  lacrimisque  coortis  : 

*  The  nickname  which  Fabius  made  a  title  of  honour. 

''It  was  a  meeting  of  the  plebs,  voting  by  tribes,  which 
carried  the  proposal  that  Minucius  should  have  equal 
authority  with  Fabius. 

"  The  Rostra  (the  orators'  platform)  stood  in  the  market- 


PUNICA,  VII.  621-547 

encamped  on  a  neighbouring  height,  where  from  his 
lofty  watch-tower  he  kept  an  eye  on  the  Roman  army 
as  much  as  on  the  army  of  Hannibal.  Minucius  in 
his  folly  at  once  dismantled  the  rampart  of  his 
camp  ;  he  was  burning  with  eagerness  to  destroy 
and,  at  the  same  time,  to  be  destroyed. 

When  Hannibal  from  one  point  and  Fabius  from 
another  saw  him  hurrying  forth  from  his  camp,  each 
instantly  conceived  wise  plans  to  meet  the  emergency. 
The  Roman  general  ordered  his  foot-soldiers  to  arm 
with  speed,  and  kept  his  cavalry  behind  the  protec- 
tion of  the  ramparts,  while  Hannibal  threw  every 
man  into  the  fighting-line,  and  called  on  them  thus 
to  go  forward  :  "  Soldiers,  seize  the  opportunity  for 
battle,  while  Fabius  is  absent.  See  !  Heaven  offers 
us  the  chance  so  long  denied  of  fighting  on  the  open 
plain.  Since  the  opportunity  is  given,  cleanse  the 
steel  from  the  mould  of  long  disuse,  my  men,  and  glut 
your  rusty  swords  with  much  bloodshed." 

The  Delayer  "  surveyed  the  country  from  the  high 
rampart,  and  weighed  these  things  in  his  heart.  He 
was  grieved  that  Rome  should  learn  the  value  of  a 
Fabius  at  so  great  a  cost.  His  son  who  served  at  his 
side  said  :  "  That  rash  man  will  suffer  as  he  deserves 
— the  man  who  by  the  votes  of  the  blind  populace 
usurped  our  authority  and  has  brought  things  to  this 
pass.  Look  on  now,  ye  senseless  Tribes  !  ^  Shame 
on  the  rhetoric  that  leads  to  ruin,  and  on  the  market- 
place "  that  approves  worthless  men  !  Let  them  now, 
in  their  ignorance  of  war,  divide  the  command  over 
the  army  and  vote  that  light  shall  give  place  to 
darkness  !  Dearly  shall  they  pay  for  their  mad  mis- 
take, and  for  their  insult  to  my  father."  As  the  old 
man  answered  him,  he  shook  his  spear,  and  the  tears 



"  sanguine  Poenorum,  iuvenis,  tarn  tristia  dicta 
sunt  abolenda  tibi.     patiarne  ante  ora  manusque 
civem  deleri  nostras  ?     aut  vincere  Poenum,  550 

me  spectante,  sinam  ?     non  aequavisse  minorem 
solventur  culpa,  si  sunt  mihi  talia  cordi  ? 
iamque  hoc,  ne  dubites,  longaevi,  nate,  parentis 
accipe  et  aeterno  fixum  sub  pectore  serva  : 
succensere  nefas  patriae  ;  nee  foedior  ulla  555 

culpa  sub  extremas  fertur  mortalibus  umbras, 
sic  docuere  senes.     quantus  qualisque  fuisti, 
cum  pulsus  lare  et  extorris  Capitolia  curru 
intrares  exul !     tibi  corpora  caesa,  Camille, 
damnata  quot  sunt  dextra  !     pacata  fuissent  560 

ni  consulta  viro  mensque  impenetrabilis  irae, 
mutassentque  solum  sceptris  Aeneia  regna, 
nullaque  nunc  stares  terrarum  vertice,  Roma, 
pone  iras,  o  nate,  meas.     socia  arma  feramus 
et  celeremus  opem."     iamque  intermixta  sonabant 
classica,  procursusque  viros  colliserat  acer.  566 

Primus  claustra  manu  portae  dictator  et  altos 
disiecit  postes  rupitque  in  proelia  cursum. 
non  graviore  movent  venti  certamina  mole 
Odrysius  Boreas  et  Syrtim  tollere  pollens  570 

Africus  :  obnixi  cum  bella  furentia  torquent, 
distraxere  fretum  ac  diversa  ad  litora  volvunt 
aequor  quisque  suum  ;  sequitur  stridente  procella 
nunc  hue,  nunc  illuc,  raptum  mare  et  intonat  undis. 

<»  Camillus,  the  hero  of  his  age,  returned  from  exile  to 
inflict  a  crushing  defeat  upon  the  Gauls  who  had  burnt 
Rome  in  390  b.c.  When  the  Romans  planned  to  migrate 
from  the  burnt  city  to  Veii,  his  eloquence  prevented  the 

''  See  note  to  i.  408.     Africus  is  the  S.W.  wind, 

PUNICA,  VII.   548-574 

rose  to  his  eyes  :  "  My  son,  you  must  wash  away  that 
harsh  speech  in  Punic  blood.  Shall  I  suffer  my 
countryman  to  be  slain  before  my  eyes,  and  not  move 
a  hand,  or  allow  Hannibal  to  conquer  while  I  look 
on  ?  If  such  were  my  feeling,  will  not  those  who  set 
me  on  a  level  with  my  subordinate  be  acquitted  of 
all  blame  ?  And  now,  my  son,  take  this  for  certain 
from  your  aged  father,  and  keep  it  ever  engraved 
upon  your  heart :  to  harbour  wrath  against  your 
country  is  a  sin ;  and  no  more  heinous  crime  can  mortal 
man  carry  down  to  the  shades  below.  Such  was  the 
doctrine  of  our  fathers.  How  great  and  noble  was 
Camillus,^  when,  exiled  from  home  and  country,  he 
returned  from  banishment  to  drive  his  triumphal 
car  to  the  Capitol !  How  many  enemies  were  slain 
by  that  right  hand  which  Romans  had  condemned  ! 
But  for  the  placid  wisdom  of  Camillus  and  his  refusal 
to  harbour  wrath,  the  realm  of  Aeneas  would  have 
changed  its  seat  of  empire,"  and  Rome  would  not 
stand  now  at  the  summit  of  the  world.  Be  not  angry 
for  your  father's  sake,  my  son  ;  but  let  us  fight  side 
by  side  and  make  haste  to  help."  Already  the 
trumpets  were  sounding  together  with  the  trumpets 
of  the  foe  ;  and  men  had  charged  forward,  to  clash 
in  conflict. 

The  Dictator  was  the  foremost  man  to  knock  down 
the  bars  and  tall  gate-posts  of  the  camp,  and  to  rush 
into  the  fray.  No  mightier  are  the  winds  when  they 
war  against  one  another,  Boreas  from  Thrace  and 
Africus  that  has  power  to  lift  the  Syrtis  ^  ;  when  they 
rage  in  stubborn  conflict,  they  divide  the  sea  and  each 
rolls  his  own  part  to  an  opposite  shore  ;  as  the  tempest 
howls,  the  tide  is  swept  after  it  hither  and  thither,  and 
the  waves  thunder.     No  possible  achievement — not 



haud  prorsus  daret  ullus  honos  tellusque  subacta  575 
Phoenicum  et  Carthago  ruens,  iniuria  quantum 
orta  ex  invidia  decoris  tulit ;  omnia  namque 
dura  simul  devicta  viro,  metus,  Hannibal,  irae, 
invidia,  atque  una  fama  et  fortuna  subactae. 

Poenus  ab  excelso  rapidos  decurrere  vallo  580 

ut  vidit,  tremuere  irae,  ceciditque  repente 
cum  gemitu  spes  haud  dubiae  praesumpta  ruinae  ; 
quippe  aciem  denso  circumvallaverat  orbe, 
hausurus  clausos  conieetis  undique  tehs. 
atque  hie  Dardanius  pravo  certamine  ductor  585 

iam  Styga  et  aeternas  intrarat  mente  tenebras 
(nam  Fabium  auxihumque  viri  sperare  pudebat) 
cum  senior,  gemino  complexus  proelia  cornu, 
ulteriore  ligat  Poenorum  terga  corona 
et  modo  claudentes  aciem  nunc,  extima  cingens,   590 
clausos  ipse  tenet,     maiorem  surgere  in  arma 
maioremque  dedit  cerni  Tirynthius  :  altae 
scintillant  cristae  et,  mirum,  velocibus  ingens 
per  subitum  membris  venit  vigor  ;  ingerit  hastas 
aversumque  premit  telorum  nubibus  hostem.  595 

qualis  post  iuvenem,  nondum  subeunte  senecta, 
rector  erat  Pylius  bellis  aetate  secunda. 

Inde  ruens  Thurin  et  Buten  et  Narin  et  Arsen 
dat  leto  fisumque  manus  conferre  Mahalcen, 
cui  decus  insigne  et  quaesitum  cuspide  nomen.      600 
turn  Garadum  largumque  comae  prosternit  Adherben 
et  geminas  acies  superantem  vertice  Thulin, 
qui  summas  alto  prensabat  in  aggere  pinnas. 

•  i.e.  Minucius  had  given  himself  up  for  lost. 
*•  Nestor,  the  aged  hero  of  the  Homeric  epic. 


PUNICA,  VII.  575-603 

the  conquest  of  Africa  and  the  fall  of  Carthage — could 
confer  on  Fabius  such  glory  as  he  reaped  from  the 
wrong  done  him  by  envy  ;  for  he  conquered  at  the 
same  time  every  obstacle — danger  and  Hannibal, 
resentment  and  jealousy — and  he  trod  underfoot 
calumny  and  Fortune  together. 

When  Hannibal  saw  the  Romans  rushing  down  from 
their  high  rampart,  his  ardour  was  shaken :  he 
groaned,  and  his  sanguine  hopes  of  a  crushing  victory 
sank  in  a  moment.  For  he  had  surrounded  the  army 
of  Minucius  with  a  serried  ring  of  soldiers  and  hoped 
to  destroy  them  by  a  shower  of  missiles  from  every 
side.  And  now  the  Roman  general  in  that  ill-judged 
battle  had  already  in  thought  crossed  the  Styx  to  the 
place  of  eternal  darkness  " — for  he  was  ashamed  to 
look  to  Fabius  for  help — when  the  Dictator,  surround- 
ing the  battle-field  with  his  two  flanks,  hemmed  in 
the  Carthaginian  rear  with  an  outer  circle,  and  now, 
from  his  outside  position,  blockaded  those  who  had 
lately  been  blockaders.  By  grace  of  Hercules  he 
seemed  to  rise  higher  as  he  fought  and  to  grow  in 
stature.  The  plume  of  his  helmet  flashed  on  high  ; 
and  his  frame  was  suddenly  endued  with  marvellous 
strength  and  activity  ;  he  hurled  spear  after  spear 
and  assailed  the  enemy  in  their  rear  with  clouds  of 
darts.  Thus  the  King  of  Pylus  ^  fought  in  his  Second 
stage  of  life,  when  youth  was  gone  and  old  age  not 
yet  come. 

On  he  rushed  and  slew  Thuris  and  Butes,  Naris  and 
Arses,  and  Mahalces  who  had  dared  to  face  him,  a 
famous  warrior  who  had  gained  glory  by  his  spear. 
Then  he  laid  low  Garadus  and  Adherbes  of  the  long 
hair,  and  Thulis  who  towered  above  both  armies  and 
could  grasp  the  ^opmost  battlements  on  a  lofty  wall. 



eminus  hos  :  gladio  Sapharum  gladioque  Monaesum 
et  Morinum  pugnas  aeris  stridore  cientem,  605 

dexteriore  gena  cui  sedit  letifer  ictus, 
perque  tubam  fixae  decurrens  vulnere  malae, 
extremo  fluxit  propulsus  murmure  sanguis, 
proximus  huic  iaculo  Nasamonius  occidit  Idmon. 
namque  super  tepido  lapsantem  sanguine  et  aegra 
lubrica  nitentem  nequicquam  evadere  planta  611 

impacto  prosternit  equo  trepideque  levantem 
membra  afflicta  solo  pressa  violentius  hasta 
implicuit  terrae  telumque  in  caede  reliquit. 
haeret  humi  cornus  motu  tremefaeta  iacentis         615 
et  campo  servat  mandatum  affixa  cadaver. 
Necnon  exemplo  laudis  furiata  iuventus, 
Sullaeque  Crassique  simul  iunctusque  Metello 
Furnius  ac  melior  dextrae  Torquatus,  inibant 
proelia  et  unanimi  vel  morte  emisse  volebant         620 
spectari  Fabio.     miser  hinc  vestigia  retro 
dum  rapit  et  molem  subducto  corpore  vitat 
intorti  Bibulus  saxi  atque  in  terga  refertur, 
strage  super  lapsus  socium,  qua  fibula  morsus 
loricae  crebro  laxata  resolverat  ictu,  625 

accepit  lateri  penitusque  in  viscera  adegit, 
exstabat  fixo  quod  forte  cadavere,  ferrum. 
heu  sortem  necis  !     evasit  Garamantica  tela 
Marmaridumque  manus,  ut  inerti  cuspide  fusus 
occideret,  telo  non  in  sua  vulnera  misso.  630 

volvitur  exanimis,  turpatque  decora  iuventa 

PUNICA,  VII.   604-631 

These  he  slew  from  a  distance  ;  and  his  sword  ac- 
counted for  Sapharus  and  Monaesus,  and  for  Morinus, 
as  he  stirred  the  hearts  of  the  combatants  with  the 
trumpet's  blare ;  the  fatal  blow  struck  his  right  cheek, 
and  the  blood,  running  down  through  the  trumpet 
from  the  wound  in  his  face,  flowed  forth,  expelled  by 
his  dying  breath.  Close  by  him  fell  Idmon,  a  Nasa- 
monian,  slain  by  a  javelin.  For  as  he  slipped  on  the 
warm  blood  and  was  vainly  striving  to  plant  his  un- 
steady feet  on  firm  ground,  the  Dictator's  horse  struck 
him  down  ;  and,  when  he  tried  in  haste  to  lift  his 
bruised  limbs  from  the  ground,  Fabius  pinned  him  to 
the  earth  by  a  strong  thrust  of  his  spear  and  left  the 
weapon  in  the  deadly  wound.  Sticking  in  the  ground, 
the  spear  quivered  as  the  dying  man  moved,  and 
kept  guard  on  the  plain  over  the  corpse  consigned 
to  it. 

This  glorious  example  inflamed  the  younger  men : 
a  Sulla  and  a  Crassus  with  him,  Furnius  and  his 
comrade  Metellus,  and  Torquatus,  a  more  practised 
warrior,  entered  the  battle  ;  and  all  alike  were  willing 
even  to  die,  if  they  might  have  the  eyes  of  Fabius 
upon  them.  Unhappy  Bibulus  was  stepping  quickly 
backwards  and  swerving  aside,  to  elude  a  huge  stone 
hurled  at  him,  when  he  stumbled  on  a  heap  of  Roman 
corpses  in  his  movement  to  the  rear  ;  and  an  iron 
point,  which  happened  to  project  from  a  dead  body, 
entered  his  side  where  many  a  blow  had  loosened  the 
clasps  of  the  buckle  on  his  corslet ;  and  his  fall  drove 
the  weapon  home  to  his  vitals.  Alas,  for  so  strange 
a  death  !  He  was  spared  by  the  missiles  of  the  Gara- 
mantes  and  the  swords  of  the  Marmaridae,  in  order  to 
be  laid  low  by  a  senseless  weapon — a  weapon  aimed 
at  a  different  victim.     Down  he  fell  in  death  ;    a 



ora  novus  pallor  ;  membris  dimissa  solutis 
arma  fluunt,  erratque  niger  per  lumina  somnus. 

Venerat  ad  bellum  Tyria  Sidone,  nepotum 
excitus  prece,  et  auxilio  socia  arma  ferebat,  635 

Eoa  tumidus  pharetrati  militis  ala, 
gens  Cadmi,  Cleadas  ;  fulva  cui  plurima  passim 
casside  et  aurato  fulgebat  gemma  monili. 
qualis  ubi  Oceani  renovatus  Lucifer  unda 
laudatur  Veneri  et  certat  maioribus  astris.  640 

ostro  ipse  ac  sonipes  ostro  totumque  per  agmen 
purpura  Agenoreis  saturata  micabat  aenis. 
hie  avidum  pugnae  et  tam  clarum  excidere  nomen 
Brutum  exoptantem,  varie  nunc  laevus  in  orbem, 
nunc  dexter  levibus  flexo  per  devia  gyris  645 

ludificatus  equo,  volucrem  post  terga  sagittam 
fundit,  Achaemenio  detractans  proelia  ritu. 
nee  damnata  manus,  medio  sed,  flebile,  mento 
armigeri  Cascae  penetrabilis  haesit  harundo, 
obliquumque  secans  surrecta  cuspide  vulnus  650 

umenti  ferrum  admovit  tepefacta  palato. 
at  Brutus,  diro  casu  turbatus  amici, 
ausum  multa  virum  et  spargentem  in  vulnera  saevos 
fraude  fugae  calamos,  iam  nullis  cursibus  instat 
prendere  cornipedis,  sed  totam  pectoris  iram  655 

mandat  atrox  hastae  telumque  volatile  nodo 
excutit,  et  summum,  qua  laxa  monilia  crebro 
nudabant  versu,  tramittit  cuspide  pectus. 

«  The  planet  Venus,  called  by  the  Romans  Lucifer  as  a 
morning  star,  and  Hesperus  as  an  evening  star. 

^  The  purple  dye  of  Sidon,  made  from  the  mvreoi  or  purple- 
fish,  was  the  most  famous  in  the  ancient  world. 

PUNICA,  VII.   632-668 

strange  pallor  disfigured  his  youthful  beauty  ;  his 
shield  fell  from  his  loosened  grasp,  and  the  sleep  of 
darkness  stole  over  his  eyes. 

Cleadas,  a  descendant  of  Cadmus,  had  come  to  the 
wars  from  Tyrian  Sidon,  summoned  by  the  entreaty 
of  the  daughter-city,  and  fought  side  by  side  with  the 
Carthaginians,  proud  of  his  troop  of  archers  from  the 
East ;  jewels  sparkled  all  over  his  golden  helmet  and 
golden  collar.  So  sparkles  Lucifer,"  when,  refreshed 
by  the  waters  of  Ocean,  he  is  approved  by  Venus  and 
outshines  the  greater  stars.  Purple  was  his  dress, 
and  purple  the  housings  of  his  steed  ;  and  on  all  his 
company  glittered  the  precious  dye  that  is  steeped 
in  the  vats  of  Sidon.^  Brutus,  eager  for  the  fray,  was 
burning  to  blot  out  such  a  famous  name  ;  but  Cleadas 
mocked  him,  wheeling  his  horse  lightly  round  in  mazy 
circles,  now  to  the  right  and  now  to  the  left ;  and  then 
he  shot  a  winged  arrow  over  his  shoulder,  refusing 
in  Persian  ^  fashion  to  face  his  foe.  Nor  did  he  fail 
to  hit :  the  keen  arrow  lodged,  alas,  right  in  the 
chin  of  Casca,  the  squire  of  Brutus ;  warmed  with 
blood  the  point  passed  upwards,  leaving  a  jagged 
wound,  and  forced  the  steel  into  the  moist  palate. 
But  Brutus,  troubled  by  the  grievous  plight  of  his 
friend,  no  longer  tried  to  ride  down  Cleadas,  as  he 
ranged  at  large  and  sent  out  a  shower  of  deadly 
arrows  while  pretending  flight  :  he  entrusted  to  his 
spear  all  the  fierce  anger  of  his  heart,  and  launched 
the  flying  weapon  with  a  thong  ^  ;  and  the  point 
pierced  his  breast,  where  the  collar  with  its  row  ot 
pendants   hung  loose   and  left   the   neck  exposed. 

*  The  Parthian  archers  are  meant :    it  was  their  regular 
practice  to  shoot  their  arrows  while  retreating. 
<•  See  note  to  i.  318. 



labitur  intento  cornu  transfossus,  et  una 

arcum  laeva  cadens  dimisit,  dextra  sagittam.  660 

At  non  tarn  tristi  sortitus  proelia  Marte 
Phoebei  Soractis  honor  Carmelus  agebat ; 
sanguine  quippe  suo  iam  Bagrada  tinxerat  ensem, 
dux  rectorque  Nubae  populi ;  iam  fusus  eidem 
Zeusis,  Amyclaei  stirps  impacata  Phalanti,  665 

quern  tulerat  mater  claro  Phoenissa  Laconi. 
talia  dum  metuit,  nee  pugnae  fisus  in  hoste 
tarn  rapido  nee  deinde  fugae,  suadente  pavore, 
per  dumos  miser  in  vicina  cacumina  quercus 
repserat  atque  alta  sese  occultabat  in  umbra  670 

Hampsicus,  insistens  tremulis  sub  pondere  ramis. 
hunc  longa  multa  orantem  Carmelus  et  altos 
mutantem  saltu  ramos  transverberat  hasta  ; 
ut,  qui  viscata  populatur  harundine  lucos, 
dum  nemoris  celsi  procera  cacumina  sensim  675 

substructa  certat  tacitus  contingere  meta, 
sublimem  calamo  sequitur  crescente  volucrem. 
effudit  vitam,  atque  alte  manante  cruore 
membra  pependerunt  curvato  exsanguia  ramo. 

lamque  in  palantes  ac  versos  terga  feroces  680 

pugnabant  I  tali,  subitus  cum  mole  pavenda 
terrificis  Maurus  prorumpit  Tunger  in  armis. 
nigra  viro  membra,  et  furvi  iuga  celsa  trahebant 
cornipedes,  totusque  novae  formidinis  arte 
concolor  aequabat  liventia  currus  equorum  685 

terga  ;  nee  erectis  similes  imponere  cristis 
cessarat  pennas,  aterque  tegebat  amictus. 

"  See  note  to  v.  175.  ^  The  founder  of  Tarentum. 

"  The  ancient  bird-catcher  used  a  cane-rod  tipped  with 
bird-lime  and  made  in  separate  joints,  like  our  fishing-rods, 
so  that  he  could  lengthen  it  out  by  degrees  till  it  reached  the 

PUNICA,  VII.   669-687 

Cleadas'  bow  was  bent  when  he  was  laid  low  by  the 
spear  ;  the  bow  slipped  from  his  left  hand  and  the 
arrow  from  his  right,  as  down  he  fell. 

But  better  fortune  in  battle  befell  Carmelus,  the 
pride  of  Soracte  °  sacred  to  Apollo.  For  he  had 
already  dyed  his  sword  with  the  blood  of  Bagrada, 
lord  and  leader  of  a  Nubian  people  ;  and  he  had  slain 
Zeusis  also,  a  warlike  son  of  Spartan  Phalantus,^  whom 
a  Punic  mother  had  borne  to  a  famous  Lacedae- 
monian. Then  fearing  the  same  fate,  Hampsicus  had 
not  confidence  to  engage  so  active  a  foe,  nor  even 
to  fly  :  urged  by  terror,  the  poor  wretch  had  passed 
through  thickets  and  climbed  to  the  top  of  a  neigh- 
bouring oak,  where  he  hid  in  the  thick  leafage, 
standing  on  boughs  that  shook  under  his  weight. 
But  Carmelus  ran  him  through  with  his  long  spear, 
as  he  begged  hard  for  mercy  and  sprang  from  branch 
to  branch  overhead.  Thus  the  fowler  who  dis- 
peoples the  grove  with  his  cane-rod  tipped  with  bird- 
lime, pursues  the  bird  over  his  head  with  a  lengthen- 
ing reed,  and  silently  tries  to  reach  at  last  the  top- 
most branches  by  adding  a  joint  to  his  tapering  rod." 
Hampsicus  poured  forth  his  life  ;  his  blood  streamed 
down  from  above,  and  his  lifeless  limbs  bent  down 
the  branch  on  which  they  hung. 

And  now  the  Romans  were  fighting  fiercely  against 
the  straggling  and  fleeing  foe,  when  suddenly 
Tunger,  the  Moor,  a  terrible  giant,  rushed  forward  to 
battle.  His  body  was  black,  and  his  lofty  chariot 
was  drawn  by  black  horses  ;  and  the  chariot  —  a 
new  device  to  strike  terror — was  the  same  colour  all 
over  as  the  dusky  backs  of  the  steeds  ;  and  on  his 
lofty  crest  he  had  been  careful  to  set  a  plume  of  the 
same  hue  ;  and  the  garment  he  wore  was  black  also. 



ceu  quondam  aeternae  regnator  noctis,  ad  imos 
cum  fugeret  thalamos,  Hennaea  virgine  rapta, 
egit  nigrantem  Stygia  caligine  currum.  690 

at  Cato,  turn  prima  sparsus  lanugine  malas, 
quod  peperere  decus  Circaeo  Tuscula  dorso 
moenia,  Laertae  quondam  regnata  nepoti, 
quamquam  tardatos  turbata  fronte  Latinos 
collegisse  gradum  videt,  imperterritus  ipse  695 

ferrata  calce  atque  effusa  largus  habena 
cunctantem  impellebat  equum.     negat  obvius  ire 
et  trepidat  cassa  sonipes  exterritus  umbra, 
tum  celer  in  pugnam  dorso  delatus  ab  alto 
alipedem  planta  currum  premit  atque  volanti         700 
assilit  a  tergo  :  cecidere  et  lora  repente 
et  stimuli ;  ferrumque  super  cervice  tremiscens 
palluit  infelix  subducto  sanguine  Maurus. 
ora  rapit  gladio  praefixaque  cuspide  portat. 

At  saevo  Mavorte  ferox  perrumpit  anhelum       705 
dictator  cum  caede  globum.     miserabile  visu, 
vulneribus  fessum  ac  multo  labente  cruore 
ductorem  cernit  suprema  ac  foeda  precantem. 
manavere  genis  lacrimae,  clipeoque  paventem 
protegit  et  natum  stimulans  :  "  fortissime,  labem  710 
banc  pellamus,"  ait,  "  Poenoque  ob  mitia  facta, 
quod  nullos  nostris  ignes  disperserit  arvis, 
dignum  expendamus  pretium."     tunc,  arte  paterna 
ac  stimulis  gaudens,  iuvenis  circumdata  Poenum 

*•  Pluto  (or  Dis),  when  he  carried  oflp  Proserpina  from 
Henna,  to  be  his  queen  in  the  nether  world,  came  up  to  earth 
in  a  black  chariot. 

"  The  famous  Censor,  M.  Porcius  Cato  :  born  in  234  b.c, 
he  was  now  seventeen  years  old. 

*  Telegonus,  a  son  of  Ulysses  and  Circe,  and  therefore 


PUNICA,  VII.   688-714 

So  the  Ruler  of  the  eternal  darkness,  when  he  carried 
off  the  maiden  from  Henna  long  ago  and  hastened  to 
their  bridal  chamber  in  the  lower  world,  drove  a  chariot 
black  with  the  darkness  of  Hell."  But  Cato,^  on 
whose  cheeks  the  down  of  manhood  was  just  appear- 
ing, was  undismayed.  He  was  the  pride  of  his  native 
Tusculum,  which  lies  on  Circe's  height  and  was 
once  ruled  by  the  grandson  of  Laertes.*'  Though 
he  saw  that  the  Roman  van  was  checked  and  had 
withdrawn  in  confusion,  he  drove  on  his  hesitating 
steed  with  iron  heel  and  freely  loosened  rein.  The 
horse  refused  to  go  forward  and  stood  trembling,  terri- 
fied by  the  harmless  shadow  that  Tunger  cast.  Then 
quickly  dismounting  from  his  tall  horse  to  fight, 
he  followed  the  flying  chariot  on  foot,  and  sprang 
upon  it  from  behind  as  it  sped  on.  Reins  and  whip 
were  dropped  in  a  moment ;  and  the  ill-fated  Moor 
lost  courage  and  turned  pale,  dreading  the  sword  that 
hung  over  his  neck.  Cato  cut  off  his  head  with  the 
sword  and  carried  it  away,  stuck  on  the  point  of  his 

Meanwhile  the  Dictator,  exulting  in  fierce  battle, 
burst  his  way  through  a  mass  of  exhausted  men,  and 
carried  death  with  him.  Then  he  saw  a  pitiful  sight 
— Minucius  weary,  wounded,  and  bleeding,  and  ask- 
ing for  a  shameful  death.  Fabius  shed  tears,  and 
protected  the  frightened  general  with  his  shield. 
Then  he  encouraged  his  son  to  battle  thus  :  "  Brave 
son,  let  us  wipe  off  the  stain  upon  us  and  repay 
Hannibal  in  full  for  his  kind  treatment  in  dropping 
no  fire  upon  our  fields."  ^  Then,  rejoicing  in  the  en- 
couragement of  his  wise  father,  the  young  man  drove 

grandson  of  Laertes,  was  the  legendary  founder  of  Tusculum 
(now  Frascati).  *  See  11.  260  foil. 



agmina  deturbat  gladio  campumque  relaxat,  715 

donee  Sidonius  decederet  aequore  ductor  ; 

ceu,  stimulante  fame,  rapuit  cum  Martius  agnum 

averso  pastore  lupus  fetumque  trementem 

ore  tenet  presso  ;  tum,  si  vestigia  cursu 

auditis  celeret  balatibus  obvia  pastor,  720 

iam  sibimet  metuens,  spirantem  dentibus  imis 

reiectat  praedam  et  vacuo  fugit  aeger  hiatu. 

tum  demum,  Tyrium  quas  circumfuderat  atra 

tempestas,  Stygiae  tandem  fugere  tenebrae. 

torpebant  dextrae,  et  sese  meruisse  negabant        725 

servari,  subitisque  bonis  mens  aegra  natabat. 

ut,  qui  collapsa  pressi  iacuere  ruina, 

eruta  cum  subito  membra  et  nox  atra  recessit, 

conivent  solemque  pavent  agnoscere  visu. 

Quis  actis,  senior,  numerato  milite  laetus,  730 

colles  et  tuto  repetebat  in  aggere  castra. 
ecce  autem  e  media  iam  morte  renata  inventus, 
clamorem  tollens  ad  sidera  et  ordine  longo 
ibat  ovans  Fabiumque  decus  Fabiumque  salutem 
certatim  et  magna  memorabant  voce  parentem.    735 
tum,  qui  partitis  dissederat  ante  maniplis  : 
"  sancte,"  ait,  "  o  genitor,  revocato  ad  lucis  honorem 
si  fas  vera  queri,  cur  nobis  castra  virosque 
dividere  est  licitum  ?     patiens  cur  arma  dedisti, 
quae  solus  rexisse  vales  ?    hoc  munere  lapsi  740 

aeternas  multo  cum  sanguine  vidimus  umbras. 

"  They  were  unable  at  first  to  use  their  hands  in  greeting 
tlieir  deliverer.  ^  Minucius. 


PUNICA,  VII.   715-741 

off  with  the  sword  the  surrounding  ranks  of  Carthage, 
and  cleared  the  plain  ;  and  Hannibal  at  last  withdrew 
from  the  field.  So,  when  the  shepherd's  back  is 
turned,  the  wolf  that  Mars  loves,  urged  by  hunger, 
snatches  up  a  lamb  and  holds  the  frightened  young- 
ling fast  in  its  jaws  ;  but,  if  the  shepherd  hears  a 
bleating  and  runs  to  face  the  wolf,  then  it  fears  for 
itself,  and  casts  up  the  still  breathing  prey  from 
between  its  teeth,  and  makes  off  in  wrath  with  empty 
jaws.  Not  till  then  was  the  Stygian  darkness,  with 
which  the  black  cloud  of  the  Carthaginian  attack  had 
surrounded  the  army  of  Minucius,  at  last  dispelled. 
Their  hands  were  numbed  ;  °  they  said  they  were 
not  worthy  to  be  rescued  ;  they  were  stunned  and 
confused  by  sudden  good  fortune.  Even  so,  men 
buried  beneath  a  falling  house,  when  dug  out  and 
suddenly  released  from  darkness,  bhnk  with  their 
eyes  and  fear  to  see  the  sun  again. 

When  all  this  was  done,  Fabius  numbered  his  army 
and  was  glad,  and  marched  back  to  the  heights  where 
they  were  safe  in  camp.  But,  behold,  the  soldiers, 
recalled  to  life  from  the  very  jaws  of  death,  raised  a 
shout  to  the  sky  and  marched  triumphantly  in  long 
procession,  all  with  one  acclaim  loudly  hailing  Fabius 
as  their  glory,  Fabius  as  their  saviour,  and  Fabius 
as  their  father.  Then  the  general  ^  who  had 
lately  parted  from  him,  taking  half  the  army  with 
him,  spoke  thus  :  "  O  worshipful  father,  if  I,  thus 
restored  to  the  blessing  of  light,  may  make  a  just 
complaint,  why  were  we  permitted  to  have  separate 
camps  and  separate  armies  ?  Why  did  you  submit  to 
hand  over  a  force  which  you  alone  are  fit  to  command  ? 
To  that  generous  act  we  owed  our  fall  and  looked  on 
the  darkness  of  death,  and  much  blood  was  spilt. 



ocius  hue  aquilas  servataque  signa  referte. 
hie  patria  est,  murique  urbis  stant  peetore  in  uno. 
tuque  dolos,  Poene,  atque  astus  tandem  exue  notos  ; 
eum  solo  tibi  iam  Fabio  sunt  bella  gerenda."  745 

Haec  ubi  dieta  dedit,  mille  hinc,  venerabile  visu, 
caespite  de  viridi  surgunt  properantibus  arae. 
nee  prius  aut  epulas  aut  munera  grata  Lyaei 
fas  cuiquam  tetigisse  fuit,  quam  multa  precatus 
in  mensam  Fabio  sacrum  libavit  honorem.  750 

«  Wine. 



PUNICA,  VII.   742-750 

Make  haste,  ye  soldiers,  to  bring  back  hither  the 
eagles  and  standards  which  Fabiiis  saved  !  Fabius 
is  our  country,  and  the  walls  of  Rome  rest  on  the 
shoulders  of  a  single  man  !  And  you,  Hannibal,  have 
done  with  your  stale  tricks  and  stratagems  ;  in  future 
you  have  to  fight  Fabius  and  him  alone." 

When  Minucius  had  spoken  thus,  an  imposing  sight 
then  wasseen — a  thousand  altars  of  greenturf  raisedin 
haste ;  and  no  man  dared  to  touch  food  or  the  pleasant 
gift  of  Lyaeus,<*  till  he  had  offered  many  a  prayer  and 
poured  out  wine  upon  the  board  in  honour  of  Fabius. 




HannihaVs  anxiety  (1-24).  Juno  sends  Anna  to  comfort 
him  :  Anna,  the  sister  of  Dido,  is  now  a  nymph  of  the  river 
Numicius :  she  tells  her  own  history,  and  encourages 
Hannibal  by  foretelling  the  battle  of  Cannae  (25-241).  C. 
Terentius  Varro  is  elected  consul  at  Rome  :    his  boastful 

Primus  Agenoridum  cedentia  terga  videre 
Aeneadis  dederat  Fabius.     Romana  parentem 
solum  castra  vocant,  solum  vocat  Hannibal  hostem 
impatiensque  morae  fremit  ;  ut  sit  copia  Martis, 
expectanda  viri  fata  optandumque  sub  armis 
Parcarum  auxilium  ;  namque,  hac  spirante  senecta, 
nequicquam  sese  Latium  sperare  cruorem. 
iam  vero  concors  miles  signisque  relatis 
indivisus  honos,  iterumque  et  rursus  eidem 
soli  obluctandum  Fabio,  maioribus  aegrum  10 

angebant  curis.     lentando  fervida  bella 
dictator  cum  multa  adeo,  turn  miles  egenus 
cunctarum  ut  rerum  Tyrius  foret,  arte  sedendi 
egerat ;  et,  quamquam  finis  pugnaque  manuque 
hauddum  partus  erat,  iam  bello  vicerat  hostem.       15 
quin  etiam  ingenio  fluxi,  sed  prima  feroces, 
vaniloquum  Celtae  genus  ac  mutabile  mentis, 

ARGUMENT  (continued) 

speeches  (242-277).  His  colleague,  L.  Aemilius  Paulus,  is 
afraid  to  thwart  him  (278-297).  He  is  advised  by  Fabius 
to  oppose  Varro  (298-348).  The  consuls  start  for  Apulia  : 
a  catalogue  of  their  troops  (349-621).  Evil  omens  before  the 
battle  alarm  the  soldiers  (622-676). 

Fabius  had  been  the  first  to  show  the  Romans  the 
retreating  backs  of  the  Carthaginians.  Him  alone  his 
soldiers  called  their  father,  and  him  alone  Hannibal 
called  his  foe.  The  Carthaginian  leader  raged, 
impatient  of  delay  :  for  a  chance  of  fighting,  he  must 
wait  for  the  death  of  Fabius  and  summon  the  Fates 
as  allies  in  war  ;  for,  so  long  as  that  old  man  lived,  he 
had  no  hope  of  shedding  Italian  blood.  Further,  the 
united  army,  serving  with  standards  restored  under 
a  single  commander,  and  the  necessity  of  wrestling 
again  and  again  with  Fabius  alone — all  this  weighed 
still  more  heavily  on  his  anxious  spirit.  By  skilful 
inaction  and  by  slackening  the  pace  of  war,  the 
Dictator  had  effected  much ;  and,  above  all,  he 
had  deprived  the  Tyrian  army  of  all  supplies ;  and, 
though  a  fight  to  a  finish  was  still  in  the  future,  he 
was  already  the  master  of  the  foe.  Moreover,  the 
Gauls,  a  boastful  and  unstable  people,  bold  at  the 
start  but  infirm  of  purpose,  were  turning  their  eyes 



respectare  domos  ;  maerebant  caede  sine  uUa 

(insolitum  sibi)  bella  geri,  siccasque  cruore 

inter  tela  siti  Mavortis  hebescere  dextras.  20 

his  super  internae  labes  et  civica  vulnus 

invidia  augebant :  laevus  conatibus  Hannon 

ductoris  non  ulla  domo  summittere  patres 

auxilia  aut  ullis  opibus  iuvisse  sinebat. 

Quis  lacerum  curis  et  rerum  extrema  paventem  25 
ad  spes  armorum  et  furialia  vota  reducit 
praescia  Cannarum  luno  atque  elata  futuris. 
namque  hac  accitam  stagnis  Laurentibus  Annam 
alFatur  voce  et  blandis  hortatibus  implet : 
"  sanguine  cognato  iuvenis  tibi,  diva,  laborat  30 

Hannibal,  a  vestro  nomen  memorabile  Belo. 
perge,  age  et  insanos  curarum  comprime  fluctus. 
excute  sollicito  Fabium.     sola  ilia  Latinos 
sub  iuga  mittendi  mora  iam  discingitur  armis  : 
cum  Varrone  manus  et  cum  Varrone  serenda  35 

proelia,  nee  desit  fatis  ad  signa  movenda. 
ipsa  adero.     tendat  iamdudum  in  lapyga  campum. 
hue  Trebiae  rursum  et  Thrasymenni  fata  sequentur." 

Tum  diva,  indigetis  castis  contermina  lucis  : 
*'  baud,"  inquit,  "  tua  ius  nobis  praecepta  morari.  40 
sit  fas,  sit  tantum,  quaeso,  retinere  favorem 

«  See  ii.  276  foil. 

"  The  Numicius  was  a  little  river  which  flowed  into  the 
sea  between  Lavinium  and  Ardea.  Anna  Perenna,  a 
tutelary  nymph  of  the  river,  was  identified  by  the  Roman 
poets  with  Anna,  the  sister  of  Dido. 

"  C.  Terentius  Varro,  the  popular  leader  of  the  day,  was 
elected  consul  for  216  b.c.  together  with  L.  Aemilius  Paulus. 


PUNICA,  VIII.  18-41 

homewards  :  unaccustomed  to  a  bloodless  campaign, 
they  grieved  that  their  hands,  unwetted  with  gore  in 
time  of  war,  should  be  enfeebled  by  thirst  for  conflict. 
Nor  was  this  all :  his  troubles  were  increased  by 
dangers  at  home — the  jealousy  of  his  fellow-citizens 
and  the  opposition  of  Hanno  <*  to  the  enterprise  ;  for 
Hanno  would  not  suffer  their  senate  to  send  reinforce- 
ments or  supplies  of  any  kind. 

Though  tortured  by  these  anxieties  and  fearing  the 
worst,  Hannibal  regained  hope  of  victory  and  renewed 
his  insane  ambition,  by  help  of  Juno  ;  the  goddess 
foresaw  the  field  of  Cannae,  and  coming  events  filled 
her  with  pride.  Summoning  Anna  from  the  river 
of  Laurentum  ^  she  thus  addressed  her,  pressing  her 
with  flattering  appeal :  "  Goddess,  a  youth  akin  to 
you  is  in  sore  straits — even  Hannibal,  a  famous  name, 
descended  from  Belus  the  Phoenician.  Arise,  hasten, 
and  assuage  his  raging  sea  of  troubles.  Dislodge 
Fabius  from  his  mind.  Fabius  alone  stands  between 
the  Romans  and  subjugation  ;  but  he  is  now  putting 
off  his  armour,  and  Hannibal  will  have  to  fight 
against  Varro  "  and  meet  Varro  in  battle.  Let  him 
move  his  standards  forward  and  take  advantage  of 
Fortune.  I  myself  shall  be  there.  Let  him  march 
instantly  to  the  plain  of  lapygia.**  The  doom  of 
the  Trebia  and  Lake  Trasimene  shall  be  repeated 

Then  the  nymph,  who  dwells  near  the  sacred  grove 
of  the  native  god,"  thus  repUed  :  "It  is  my  duty  to 
do  your  bidding  without  delay.  One  thing  only  I 
beg  :   suffer  me  to  keep  the  goodwill  of  my  former 

*  Apulia  :  see  note  to  iii.  707. 

•  Aeneas  :  he  was  believed  to  have  been  drowned  in  the 
river  Numicius  and  was  worshipped  in  a  temple  there. 



antiquae  patriae  mandataque  magna  sororis, 
quamquam  inter  Latios  Annae  stet  numen  honores.** 

Multa  retro  rerum  iacet  atque  ambagibus  aevi 
obtegitur  densa  caligine  mersa  vetustas,  45 

cur  Sarrana  dicent  Oenotri  numina  templo, 
regnisque  Aeneadum  germana  colatur  Elissae. 
sed  pressis  stringam  revocatam  ab  origine  famam 
narrandi  metis  breviterque  antiqua  revolvam. 

Iliaco  postquam  deserta  est  hospite  Dido,  60 

et  spes  abruptae,  mediam  in  penetralibus  atram 
festinat  furibunda  pyram  :  tum  corripit  ens  em 
certa  necis,  profugi  donum  exitiale  mariti. 
despectus  taedae  regnis  se  imponit  larbas, 
et  tepido  fugit  Anna  rogo  :  quis  rebus  egenis  55 

ferret  opem,  Nomadum  late  terrente  tyranno  ? 
Battus  Cyrenen  molli  tum  forte  fovebat 
imperio,  mitis  Battus  lacrimasque  dedisse 
casibus  humanis  facilis.     qui,  supplice  visa, 
intremuit  regum  eventus  dextramque  tetendit.        60 
atque  ea,  dum  flavas  bis  tondet  messor  aristas, 
servata  interea  sedes  ;  nee  longius  uti 
his  opibus  Battoque  fuit ;  nam  ferre  per  aequor 
exitium  miserae  iam  Pygmaliona  docebat. 
ergo  agitur  pelago,  divis  inimica  sibique,  65 

quod  se  non  dederit  comitem  in  suprema  sorori, 
donee  iactatam  laceris,  miserabile,  velis 
fatalis  turbo  in  Laurentes  expulit  oras. 
non  caeli,  non  ilia  soli,  non  gnara  colentum 

«  Dido  bequeathed  vengeance  against  Rome. 

"  Aeneas.  "  An  African  prince. 

**  She  stayed  there  two  years. 

«  See  note  to  i.  21. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   42-69 

country  and  to  carry  out  the  solemn  behests  of  my 
sister,**  although  the  deity  of  Anna  is  among  those 
honoured  by  the  Romans." 

Far  back  in  history,  and  hidden  in  deep  darkness 
by  the  uncertain  report  of  antiquity,  lies  the  answer 
to  this  question  ;  why  should  the  Italians  consecrate 
a  temple  to  a  Phoenician  deity,  and  why  should  Dido's 
sister  be  worshipped  in  the  country  of  the  Aeneadae  ? 
But  I  shall  repeat  the  legend  from  the  beginning, 
keeping  my  tale  within  strict  Hmits,  and  briefly  re- 
calling the  past. 

When  Dido  was  deserted  by  her  Trojan  guest  ^  and 
hope  was  utterly  dead,  she  hastened  in  frenzy  to 
the  fatal  pyre  within  the  palace.  Then,  resolved 
on  death,  she  seized  the  sword  which  her  runagate 
husband  had  given  her  for  her  destruction.  larbas,*' 
whose  hand  she  had  refused  in  marriage,  usurped  the 
throne,  and  Anna  fled  before  her  sister's  pyre  was 
cold.  Who  would  help  her  in  her  need,  when  that 
king  of  the  Numidians  spread  terror  far  and  wide  ? 
It  chanced  that  Battus  then  ruled  Cyrene  with  gentle 
sway — Battus,  a  kindly  man  and  ready  to  give  a  tear 
to  human  suffering.  When  he  saw  the  suppliant,  he 
trembled  at  the  thought  of  what  princes  may  suffer, 
and  stretched  forth  his  hand  to  her.  And  there  she 
stayed  for  a  time,  till  the  golden  ears  were  twice  cat 
down  by  the  reapers.**  Then  she  could  no  longer 
avail  herself  of  Battus  and  his  friendship ;  for  he 
told  her  that  Pygmalion  *  was  sailing  thither,  intent 
on  her  destruction.  So  she  was  driven  to  the  sea, 
angry  with  Heaven,  and  with  herself  for  not  dying 
together  with  her  sister,  and  was  pitifully  tossed  with 
tattered  sails,  till  at  last  a  fateful  storm  wrecked  her 
upon  the  coast  of  Laurentum.     A  stranger  to  that 

VOL.  I  O  S97 


Sidonis  in  Latia  trepidabat  naufraga  terra.  70 

ecce  autem  Aeneas,  sacro  comitatus  lulo, 

iam  regni  compos,  no  to  sese  ore  ferebat. 

qui  terrae  defixam  oculos  et  multa  timentem 

ac  deinde  allapsam  genibus  lacrimantis  luli 

attollit  mitique  manu  intra  limina  ducit.  75 

atque  ubi  iam  casus  adversorumque  pavorem 

hospitii  lenivit  honos,  tum  discere  maesta 

exposcit  cura  letum  infelicis  Elissae. 

cui  sic,  verba  trahens  largis  cum  fletibus,  Anna 

incipit  et  blandas  addit  pro  tempore  voces  :  80 

"  nate  dea,  solus  regni  lucisque  fuisti 

germanae  tu  causa  meae  ;  mors  testis  et  ille 

(heu  cur  non  idem  mihi  tum  !)  rogus.     ora  videre 

postquam  est  ereptum  miserae  tua,  litore  sedit 

interdum,  stetit  interdum  ;  ventosque  secuta  85 

infelix  oculis,  magno  clamore  vocabat 

Aenean  comitemque  tuae  se  imponere  solam 

orabat  paterere  rati,     mox  turbida  anhelum 

rettulit  in  thalamos  cursum  subitoque  tremore 

substitit  et  sacrum  timuit  tetigisse  cubile.  90 

inde  amens  nunc  sideream  fulgentis  luli 

effigiem  fovet  amplexu,  nunc  tota  repente 

ad  vultus  conversa  tuos,  ab  imagine  pendet 

conqueriturque  tibi  et  sperat  responsa  remitti. 

non  umquam  spem  ponit  amor,     iam  tecta  domumque 

deserit  et  rursus  portus  furibunda  revisit,  96 

si  qui  te  referant  converso  flamine  venti. 

ad  magicas  etiam  fallax  atque  improba  gentis 

Massylae  levitas  descendere  compulit  artes. 

heu  sacri  vatum  errores  !    dum  numina  noctis        100 

PUNICA,  VIII.  70-100 

clime  and  soil  and  to  its  inhabitants,  the  Phoenician 
princess  was  afraid  when  shipwrecked  upon  the  land 
of  Italy.  But  see  !  Aeneas,  having  now  gained  a 
kingdom,  came  with  godlike  lulus,  and  his  face  she 
knew.  In  great  fear  she  gazed  upon  the  ground  and 
then  knelt  down  before  weeping  lulus  ;  but  Aeneas 
raised  her  up  and  led  her  gently  within  the  palace. 
And  when  a  courteous  reception  had  lightened  her 
troubles  and  dispelled  her  fear  of  danger,  with  anxious 
sorrow  he  asked  to  hear  about  the  death  of  unhappy 
Dido.  And  Anna  thus  began,  sighing  and  weeping 
abundantly  as  she  spoke,  and  used  soft  words  too  to 
suit  the  occasion  :  "  O  goddess-born,  my  sister's 
throne  and  her  life  depended  upon  you  alone  ;  bear 
witness  her  death  and  that  funeral-pyre,  which  would 
that  I  then  had  shared  !  When  the  sight  of  your  face 
was  taken  from  her,  she  sometimes  sat,  sometimes 
stood,  on  the  shore  in  her  misery  ;  watching  the 
course  of  the  winds,  she  called  Aeneas  back  with  a 
great  cry,  and  prayed  that  you  would  deign  to  take 
her  alone  on  board  your  ship.  Then  in  confused 
haste  she  hurried  back  to  her  chamber,  and  suddenly 
trembled  and  stood  still,  fearing  to  touch  that  sacred 
couch.  Next  in  her  distraction,  she  first  clasps  the 
beauteous  image  of  radiant  lulus,  and  then,  quickly 
turning  her  whole  mind  to  your  likeness,  hangs  upon 
your  image,  making  her  plaint  to  you  and  hoping  for 
an  answer.  Love  never  abandons  hope.  Now  she 
leaves  the  palace  and  goes  back  in  frenzy  to  the 
harbour,  in  case  some  wind  may  shift  its  course  and 
blow  you  back.  She  stooped  even  to  magic  arts, 
driven  to  this  by  the  wicked  deceitfulness  and  folly  of 
the  Massylian  race.  But,  out  upon  wizards  and  their 
accursed  delusions  !   While  they  called  up  the  infernal 


eliciunt  spondentque  novis  medicamina  curis 
(quod  vidi  decepta  nefas  !)  congessit  in  atram 
cuncta  tui  monumenta  pyram  et  non  prospera  dona.*' 

Tunc  sic  Aeneas  dulci  repetitus  amore  : 
"  tellurem  hanc  iuro,  vota  inter  nostra  frequenter 
auditam  vobis  ;  iuro  caput,  Anna,  tibique  106 

germanaeque  tuae  dilectum  mitis  luli, 
respiciens  aegerque  animi  turn  regna  reliqui 
vestra,  nee  abscessem  thalamo,  ni  magna  minatus 
meque  sua  ratibus  dextra  imposuisset  et  alto  110 

egisset  rapidis  classem  Cyllenius  Euris. 
sed  cur  (heu  seri  monitus  !)  cur  tempore  tali 
incustodito  saevire  dedistis  amori  ?  " 

Contra  sic  infit,  volvens  vix  murmur  anhelum 
inter  singultus  labrisque  trementibus  Anna  :  115 

"  nigro  forte  lovi,  cui  tertia  regna  laborant, 
atque  atri  sociae  thalami  nova  sacra  parabam, 
quis  aegram  mentem  et  trepidantia  corda  levaret 
infelix  germana  tori,  furvasque  trahebam 
ipsa  manu,  properans  ad  visa  pianda,  bidentes  ;     120 
namque  super  somno  dirus  me  impleverat  horror  : 
terque  suam  Dido,  ter  cum  clamore  vocarat 
et  laeta  exultans  ostenderat  ora  Sychaeus. 
quae  dum  abigo  menti  et,  sub  lucem  ut  visa  secundent, 
oro  caelicolas  ac  vivo  purgor  in  amni,  125 

ilia,  cito  passu  pervecta  ad  litora,  mutae 
oscula,  qua  steteras,  bis  terque  infixit  harenae  ; 
deinde  amplexa  sinu  late  vestigia  fovit, 
ceu  cinerem  orbatae  pressant  ad  pectora  matres. 

«  See  note  to  iii.  168. 

''  Jupiter  was  king  of  heaven  and  earth,  Neptune  of  the  sea, 
and  Pluto  of  the  nether  world.  "  Proserpina. 

^  The  dead  husband  of  Dido. 
•  A  common  ceremony  of  purification. 


PUNICA,  VIII.  101-129 

gods  and  promised  relief  for  her  strange  trouble — 
what  a  dreadful  sight  did  I,  who  believed  them, 
witness  ! — she  heaped  upon  a  fatal  pyre  all  memorials 
of  you  and  your  ill-starred  gifts." 

Then  Aeneas  answered,  revisited  by  passion  with 
all  its  sweetness  :  "I  swear  by  this  land,  to  which 
vou  both  often  heard  me  appeal  when  we  exchanged 
vows  ;  I  swear  by  the  head  of  gentle  lulus,  once  so 
dear  to  you  and  to  your  sister  :  in  sorrow  and  with  a 
longing  look  behind  I  left  your  kingdom  ;  nor  would 
I  have  broken  off  the  marriage,  had  not  the  god  of 
Cyllene,"  with  dreadful  threats,  set  me  on  board 
with  his  own  hand,  and  driven  the  fleet  out  to  sea 
with  swift  winds.  But  why — too  late,  alas,  is  my 
warning — why  at  such  a  moment  did  ye  allow  passion 
to  run  wild  unwatched  ?  " 

Anna  thus  replied  with  quivering  lips  and  in  a 
breathless  voice  between  her  sobs  :  "I  chanced  to 
be  preparing  strange  offerings  for  the  sable  King 
whom  the  third  realm  obeys, '^  and  for  the  partner  of 
his  gloomy  bed,''  in  order  to  relieve  my  love-lorn  sister 
of  her  sorrow  and  unrest ;  and  I  was  myself  bringing 
black-fleeced  sheep,  and  making  haste,  to  avert  an 
evil  dream.  For,  in  my  sleep,  an  awful  fear  had  filled 
my  heart ;  and  thrice,  thrice  over  with  a  loud  cry, 
had  Sychaeus  '^  claimed  Dido  as  his  own  and  shown 
a  face  of  pride  and  joy.  I  drove  this  from  my 
thoughts  and  prayed  to  the  gods  to  give  a  favourable 
turn  to  the  dream,  when  day  came  ;  and  I  bathed  in 
a  running  stream.*  Meanwhile,  Dido  went  quickly 
to  the  beach  and  kissed  many  times  the  dumb  sand 
where  you  had  stood  ;  and  then  she  fondly  embraced 
ill  your  foot-prints,  even  as  a  mother  strains  to  her 
breast  the  ashes  of  a  lost  son.     Then  she  rushed  back 



turn  rapido  praeceps  cursu  resoliitaque  crinem       130 

evasit  propere  in  celsam,  quam  struxerat  ante 

magna  mole,  pyram  ;  cuius  de  sede  dabatur 

cernere  cuncta  freta  et  totam  Carthaginis  urbem. 

hie  Phrygiam  vestem  et  bacatum  induta  monile, 

postquam  ilium  infelix  hausit,  quo  munera  primum 

sunt  conspecta,  diem  et  convivia  mente  reduxit     136 

festasque  adventu  mensas  teque  ordine  Troiae 

narrantem  longos,  se  pervigilante,  labores, 

in  portus  amens  rorantia  lumina  flexit  : 

'  di  longae  noctis,  quorum  iam  numina  nobis  140 

mors  instans  maiora  facit,  precor,'  inquit, '  adeste 

et  placidi  victos  ardore  admittite  manes. 

Aeneae  coniux,  Veneris  nurus,  ulta  maritum, 

^vidi  constructas  nostrae  Carthaginis  arces. 

nunc  ad  vos  magni  descendet  corporis  umbra.         145 

me  quoque  fors  dulci  quondam  vir  notus  amore 

expectat,  curas  cupiens  aequare  priores.' 

haec  dicens  ensem  media  in  praecordia  adegit, 

ensem  Dardanii  quaesitum  in  pignus  amoris. 

viderunt  comites  tristique  per  atria  planctu  150 

concurrunt  ;   magnis  resonant  ululatibus  acdes. 

accepi  infelix  dirisque  exterrita  fatis, 

ora  manu  lacerans,  lymphato  regia  cursu 

tecta  peto  celsosque  gradus  evadere  nitor. 

ter  iliro  fueram  conata  incumbere  ferro,  155 

ter  cecidi  exanimae  membris  revoluta  sororis. 

iamque  ferebatur  vicina  per  oppida  rumor  : 

arma  parant  Nomadum  proceres  et  sae  vus  larbas.  157  a 

^  For  the  lacuna  that  begins  here  see  Introd.  p.  xvii. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   130-157  a 

headlong  with  hair  unbound  and  came  to  the  great 
high  pyre  she  had  raised  already  ;  and  from  its  site 
all  the  sea  was  visible  and  the  whole  city  of  Carthage. 
Next  she  put  on  the  robe  from  Troy  and  the  necklace 
of  pearls  ;  she  drank  in,  poor  wretch,  the  memory  of 
that  day  when  she  first  saw  those  gifts  ;  she  recalled 
the  banquet  and  the  feast  that  greeted  your  arrival, 
when  you  told  in  order  the  long  agony  of  Troy,  and 
she  sat  late  to  hear  you.  Then  in  distraction  she 
turned  her  weeping  eyes  to  the  harbour.  *  Ye  gods 
of  endless  night,'  she  cried,  *  whose  power  seems 
greater  to  one  at  the  point  of  death,  help  me,  I  pray, 
and  give  a  kindly  welcome  to  a  spirit  that  love  has 
conquered.  The  wife  of  Aeneas,  the  daughter-in- 
law  of  Venus,  I  avenged  my  husband,"  I  saw  the 
towers  of  my  city  Carthage  rise  ;  and  now  the  shade 
of  a  great  queen  shall  go  down  to  your  domain.  Per- 
haps my  husband,  whose  love  was  sweet  to  me  long 
ago,  is  waiting  for  me  there,  eager  to  love  me  no  less 
than  before.*  Thus  speaking  she  drove  a  sword  into 
the  centre  of  her  breast — the  sword  which  she  had 
received  as  a  pledge  of  the  Trojan's  love.  Her 
attendants  saw  it,  and  rushed  together  through  the 
halls  with  mourning  and  beating  of  breasts  ;  the 
palace  resounded  with  their  loud  cries.  I,  unhappy, 
heard  the  tidings  ;  terror-stricken  by  that  dreadful 
death,  I  tore  my  cheeks  with  my  nails,  as  I  rushed 
in  frenzy  to  the  palace  and  struggled  to  climb  the 
lofty  steps.  Thrice  I  strove  to  throw  myself  on  the 
accursed  sword,  and  thrice  I  fell  prostrate  on  the  body 
of  my  dead  sister.  Soon  the  rumour  spread  through 
the  neighbouring  cities  ;  the  Numidian  chiefs  and 
fierce  larbas  ^  prepared  for  war  ;  and  I,  driven  by 
•  Sychaeus.  "  See  1.  54. 



turn  Cyrenaeam  fatis  agitantibus  urbem 
devenio  ;  hinc  vestris  pelagi  vis  appulit  oris." 

Motus    erat    placidumque    animum    mentemqae 
quietam  160 

Troius  in  miseram  rector  susceperat  Annam. 
iamque  omnes  luctus  omnesque  e  pectore  curas 
dispulerat,  Phrygiis  nee  iam  amplius  advena  tectis 
ilia  videbatur.     tacito  nox  atra  sopore 
cuncta  per  et  terras  et  lati  stagna  profundi  165 

condiderat.  tristi  cum  Dido  aegerrima  vultu 
has  visa  in  somnis  germanae  efFundere  voces  : 
"  his,  soror,  in  tectis  longae  indulgere  quieti, 
heu  nimium  secura,  potes  ?     nee,  quae  tibi  fraudes 
tendantur,  quae  circumstent  discrimina,  cernis  ?    170 
ac  nondum  nostro  infaustos  generique  soloque 
Laomedonteae  noscis  telluris  alumnos  ? 
dum  caelum  rapida  Stellas  vertigine  volvet, 
lunaque  fraterno  lustrabit  lumine  terras, 
pax  nulla  Aeneadas  inter  Tyriosque  manebit.         175 
surge,  age,  iam  tacitas  suspecta  Lavinia  fraudes 
molitur  dirumque  nefas  sub  corde  volutat. 
praeterea  (ne  falsa  putes  haec  fingere  somnum) 
haud  procul  hinc  parvo  descendens  fonte  Numicus 
labitur  et  leni  per  valles  volvitur  amne.  180 

hue  rapies,  germana,  viam  tutosque  receptus. 
te  sacra  excipient  hilares  in  flumina  Nymphae, 
aeternumque  Italis  numen  celebrabere  in  oris." 
sic  fata  in  tenuem  Phoenissa  evanuit  auram. 

Anna  novis  somno  excutitur  perterrita  visis,       185 
itque  timor  totos  gelido  sudor e  per  artus. 

<•  The  Trojans :    Laomedon  was  a  king  of  Troy,  and  the 
father  of  Priam. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   158-186 

fate,  came  to  the  city  of  Cyrene  ;    and  at  last  the 
violence  of  the  sea  brought  me  to  your  coast." 

Aeneas  was  touched  :  he  had  admitted  to  his  heart 
a  gentle  and  kindly  feeling  towards  Anna  in  her 
troubles.  Soon  she  had  put  away  all  grief  and  sorrow 
from  her  heart,  and  she  no  longer  seemed  a  stranger 
in  the  palace  of  the  Trojan.  When  black  night  had 
wrapped  all  things  in  silent  sleep,  over  all  the  earth 
and  the  still  expanse  of  sea,  she  dreamed  that  her 
sister,  Dido,  with  a  face  of  sorrow  and  utmost  grief, 
spoke  to  her  thus  :  "  Sister,  too  heedless  sister,  how 
can  you  bear  to  sleep  long  under  this  roof  ?  Are  you 
blind  to  the  snares  laid  for  you  and  the  dangers  that 
surround  you  ?  Do  you  not  yet  understand  that  the 
people  of  Laomedon**  bring  doom  upon  our  nation 
and  our  land  ?  As  long  as  the  sky  makes  the  stars 
revolve  with  rapid  course,  and  the  moon  lights  up 
the  earth  with  her  brother's  radiance,  no  lasting  peace 
shall  there  be  between  the  Aeneadae  and  the  men  of 
Tyre.  Rise  in  haste  ;  I  distrust  Lavinia  ^ — already 
she  is  laying  snares  in  secret,  and  ponders  some 
horrible  outrage.  Further — nor  deem  this  message 
the  idle  coinage  of  sleep  —  not  far  from  here  the 
river  Numicus  '^  flows  down  from  a  little  spring  and 
runs  with  gentle  current  through  the  valleys.  Hasten, 
sister,  to  a  harbour  of  safety  there.  The  Nymphs 
will  gladly  admit  you  to  their  sacred  stream ;  and 
your  deity  shall  be  for  ever  honoured  in  the  land  of 
Italy."     So  Dido  spoke  and  vanished  into  thin  air. 

Terrified  by  her  strange  dream,  Anna  started  up 
from  sleep  ;   and  fear  covered  her  limbs  with  a  cold 

"  The  wife  whom  Aeneas  had  married  in  Italy  :    it  is 
implied  that  she  was  jealous  of  Anna  and  intended  to  kill  her. 
«  This  river  was  called  either  Numicus  or  Nuniicius. 
VOL.  I  o2  405 


tunc,  ut  erat  tenui  corpus  velamine  tecta, 

prosiluit  stratis  humilique  egressa  fenestra 

per  patulos  currit  plantis  pernicibus  agros, 

donee  harenoso,  sic  fama,  Numicius  illam  190 

suscepit  gremio  vitreisque  abscondidit  antris. 

orta  dies  totum  radiis  impleverat  orbem, 

cum  nullam  Aeneadae  thalamis  Sidonida  nacti 

et  Rutulum  magno  errantes  clamore  per  agrum, 

vicini  ad  ripas  fluvii  manifesta  secuntur  195 

signa  pedum  ;  dumque  inter  se  mirantur,  ab  alto 

amnis  aquas  cursumque  rapit ;  tum  sedibus  imis 

inter  caeruleas  visa  est  residere  sorores 

Sidonis  et  placido  Teucros  afFarier  ore. 

ex  illo  primis  anni  celebrata  diebus  200 

per  totam  Ausoniam  venerando  numine  culta  est. 

Hanc  postquam  in  tristes  Italum  Saturnia  pugnas 
hortata  est,  celeri  superum  petit  aethera  curru, 
optatum  Latii  tandem  potura  cruorem. 
diva  deae  parere  parat  magnumque  Libyssae         205 
ductorem  gentis  nuUi  conspecta  petebat. 
ille,  virum  coetu  tum  forte  remotus  ab  omni, 
incertos  rerum  eventus  bellique  volutans, 
anxia  ducebat  vigili  suspiria  corde.^ 
cui  dea  sic  dictis  curas  solatur  amicis  :  210 

"  quid  tantum  ulterius,  rex  o  fortissime  gentis 
Sidoniae,  ducis  cura  aegrescente  dolorem  ? 
omnis  iam  placata  tibi  manet  ira  deorum, 
omnis  Agenoridis  rediit  favor,     eia,  age,  segnes 
rumpe  moras,  rape  Marmaricas  in  proelia  vires.     215 

*  corde  Bentley :  voce  edd. 

"  They  were  now  on  the  way  to  become  Romans. 


PUNICA,  VIII.    187-215 

sweat.  Then,  just  as  she  was,  with  one  thin  garment 
to  cover  her,  she  sprang  from  her  bed  and,  climbing 
out  by  the  low  window,  ran  swiftly  over  the  open  fields, 
until  the  river  Numicius — so  the  legend  runs — re- 
ceived her  in  his  sandy  depths  and  hid  her  in  his 
crystal  grottoes.  Dawn  had  filled  the  whole  world 
with  radiance,  when  the  Aeneadae  found  that  the 
stranger  from  Carthage  had  vanished  from  her 
chamber.  With  loud  shouts  they  went  to  and  fro 
through  the  country,  and  followed  the  plain  foot- 
prints to  the  river-bank.  And  while  they  marvelled, 
one  to  another,  the  river  stopped  the  seaward  course 
of  its  waters  ;  and  then  the  stranger  was  seen  sitting 
among  her  sister  Naiads,  and  she  addressed  the 
Trojans  *  with  friendly  speech.  Ever  since,  Anna's 
feast  has  been  held  on  the  first  days  of  the  year, 
and  she  has  been  worshipped  as  divine  throughout 

When  Juno  had  appealed  to  Anna  to  stir  up  battle 
and  sorrow  for  Italy,  her  swift  car  carried  her  back  to 
heaven  ;  she  hoped  at  last  to  gain  her  wish  and  drink 
the  blood  of  Latium.  Anna,  obedient  to  the  goddess, 
made  her  way  in  invisible  shape  to  the  great  leader  of 
the  Libyan  people.  He,  as  it  chanced,  had  banished 
all  company  from  him  ;  he  was  pondering  the  un- 
certain issues  of  fortune  and  of  war,  and  sighed  in  his 
perplexity,  while  his  mind  kept  watch.  Thus  the 
goddess  soothed  his  troubles  with  friendly  speech  : 
"  Mightiest  ruler  of  the  Phoenicians,  why  do  you 
persist  in  nursing  this  great  grief  in  sick  anxiety  ? 
All  the  wrath  of  the  gods  against  you  has  now 
been  appeased,  all  their  goodwill  has  come  back 
to  the  children  of  Agenor.  Rise  up,  then,  witlunit 
loitering  or  delay  !     Speed  on  the  forces  of  Marmarica 



mutati  fasces  :  iam  bellum  atque  arma  senatus 
ex  inconsulto  posuit  Tirynthius  heros  ; 
cumque  alio  tibi  Flaminio  sunt  bella  gerenda. 
me  tibi,  ne  dubites,  summi  matrona  Tonantis 
misit  :  ego  Oenotris  aeternum  numen  in  oris         220 
concelebror,  vestri  generata  e  sanguine  Beli. 
baud  mora  sit ;  rapido  belli  rape  fulmina  cursu, 
celsus  lapygios  ubi  se  Garganus  in  agros 
explicat.     baud  longe  tellus  ;  hue  dirige  signa." 
dixit  et  in  nubes  humentia  sustulit  ora.  225 

Cui  dux,  promissae  revirescens  pignore  laudis  : 
**  nympha,  decus  generis,  quo  non  sacratius  uUum 
numen,"  ait,  "  nobis,  felix  oblata  secundes. 
ast  ego  te,  compos  pugnae,  Carthaginis  arce 
marmoreis  sistam  templis  iuxtaque  dicabo  230 

aequatam  gemino  simulacri  munere  Dido." 
haec  fatus  socios  stimulat  tumefactus  ovantes  : 
"  Pone  graves  curas  tormentaque  lenta  sedendi, 
fatal  is  Latio  miles  :  placavimus  iras 
caelicolum  ;  redeunt  divi.     finita  maligno  235 

hinc  Fabio  imperia  et  mutatos  consule  fasces 
nuntio.     nunc  dextras  mihi  quisque  atque  ilia  referto, 
quae  Marte  exclusus  promittere  magna  solebas. 
en,  numen  patrium  spondet  maiora  peractis. 
vellantur  signa,  ac  diva  ducente  petamus  240 

infaustum  Phrygibus  Diomedis  nomine  campum." 

"  Fabius,  the  Dictator. 

"  The  rash  general  defeated  at  Lake  Trasimene. 

"  See  note  to  iv.  561. 

**  She  had  now  become  a  river-nymph. 


PUNICA,  VIII.  216-241 

to  battle  !  The  consuls  are  changed.  By  the  un- 
wisdom of  the  Senate  the  heroic  scion  of  Hercules  <» 
has  laid  down  his  arms,  and  you  have  to  fight  against 
a  second  Flaminius.^  I  was  sent  to  you — doubt  it  not — 
by  the  consort  of  the  almighty  Thunderer.  Though 
I  am  honoured  in  the  land  of  Italy  as  an  immortal 
goddess,  I  was  born  of  the  seed  of  Belus,your  ancestor. 
Make  no  delay  ;  launch  the  thunderbolts  of  war  with 
utmost  speed,  where  Mount  Garganus  <=  sinks  down  to 
the  fields  of  lapygia  ;  the  land  is  not  far  distant ; 
straight  to  that  point  send  your  standards."  She 
ended,  and  her  watery  <*  image  rose  up  to  the  clouds. 
The  general,  revived  by  this  pledge  of  glory  to 
come,  addressed  her  thus  :  "  Nymph,  glory  of  our 
nation,  as  sacred  to  me  as  any  deity,  be  propitious 
and  give  a  favourable  issue  to  your  promises.  If  I 
may  fight  a  battle,  I  will  set  your  image  in  a  marble 
shrine  on  the  citadel  of  Carthage,  and  dedicate  beside 
it  an  image  of  Dido,  and  both  shall  be  honoured 
alike."  Thus  he  spoke,  and  then  swollen  with  pride 
encouraged  his  triumphant  comrades.  "  Soldiers  ! 
messengers  of  death  to  Italy  !  Here  is  an  end  to  heavy 
hearts  and  the  lingering  torture  of  inaction.  We 
have  appeased  the  anger  of  the  gods,  and  they  turn 
again  to  us.  I  announce  to  you  that  the  command  of 
Fabius,  that  pettifogger,  is  now  at  an  end,  and  that 
the  rods  are  borne  before  a  new  consul.  Now  let 
each  of  you  renew  his  pledges  to  me,  and  make  good 
the  deeds  of  valour  which  you  used  to  promise 
when  debarred  from  fighting.  See  !  a  goddess  of  our 
country  promises  a  future  greater  than  our  past. 
Pull  up  the  standards,  and  let  us  follow  the  goddess 
to  the  field  where  the  name  of  Diomede  is  of  ill  omen 
to  Trojans." 



Dumque  Arpos  tendunt  instinct!  pectora  Poeni, 
subnixus  rapto  plebei  muneris  ostro, 
saevit  iam  rostris  Varro,  ingentique  ruinae 
festinans  aperire  locum,  fata  admovet  urbi.  245 

atque  illi  sine  luce  genus  surdumque  parentum 
nomen,  at  immodice  vibrabat  in  ore  canoro 
lingua  procax.     hinc  auctus  opes  largusque  rapinae, 
infima  dum  vulgi  fovet  oblatratque  senatum, 
tantum  in  quassata  bellis  caput  extulit  urbe,  250 

momentum  ut  rerum  et  fati  foret  arbiter  unus, 
quo  conservari  Latium  victore  puderet. 
hunc  Fabios  inter  sacrataque  nomina  Marti 
Scipiadas  interque  lovi  spolia  alta  ferentem 
Marcellum  fastis  labem  sufFragia  caeca  255 

addiderant,  Cannasque  malum  exitiale  fovebat 
ambitus  et  Graio  funestior  aequore  Campus, 
idem,  ut  turbarum  sator  atque  accendere  sollers 
invidiam  pravusque  togae,  sic  debilis  arte 
belligera  Martemque  rudis  versare  nee  ullo  260 

spectatus  ferro,  lingua  sperabat  adire 
ad  dextrae  decus  atque  e  rostris  bella  ciebat. 
ergo  alacer  Fabiumque  morae  increpitare  professus, 
ad  vulgum  in  patres,  ut  ovans  iam,  verba  ferebat: 
"  vos,  quorum  imperium  est,  consul  praeceptamodum- 
que  265 

bellandi  posco.     sedeone  an  montibus  erro, 
dum  mecum  Garamas  et  adustus  corpora  Maurus 

"  The  city  founded  by  Diomede  in  Apulia  :  see  note  to 
iv.  554. 

"  The  purple-bordered  toga  of  the  consul. 

"  A  register  which  preserved  the  names  of  the  consuls  and 
other  high  magistrates. 

"  See  note  to  i.  133. 

*  By  bribing  the  electors  who  voted  in  the  Field  of  Mars, 



PUNICA,  VIII.  242-267 

Thus  encouraged,  the  Carthaginians  made  for 
Arpi."  Meanwhile  Varro,  relying  on  the  purple  ^  that 
he  had  seized  by  gift  of  the  people,  was  already 
ranting  on  the  Rostrum,  and,  by  his  haste  to  prepare 
the  way  for  a  mighty  downfall,  brought  Rome  near  to 
destruction.  His  birth  was  obscure  ;  the  name  of  his 
ancestors  was  never  heard  ;  but  his  impudent  tongue 
wagged  unceasingly,  and  his  voice  was  loud.  Thus  he 
got  wealth,  and  he  was  Hberal  with  his  plunder  ;  and 
so,  by  courting  the  dregs  of  the  people  and  railing  at 
the  Senate,  he  rose  so  high  in  the  war-stricken  city 
that  he  alone  could  turn  the  scale  of  events  and 
settle  the  course  of  destiny,  though  Italy  might 
blush  to  owe  even  victory  and  safety  to  such  a  man. 
Blind  voters  had  given  to  him,  that  blot  upon  the 
Calendar,"  a  place  among  such  men  as  Fabius,  and  the 
Scipios,  whose  names  are  sacred  to  Mars,  and  Mar- 
ceilus,  who  presented  his  glorious  spoils  to  Jupiter.** 
The  holocaust  of  Cannae  was  due  to  bribery,  and  to 
the  Field  of  Mars,  more  fatal  than  the  field  of  Dio- 
niede.^  Also,  though  a  bad  citizen,  skilful  to  stir  up 
trouble  and  kindle  hatred,  he  was  helpless  in  the  field, 
unpractised  in  the  conduct  of  war,  and  not  approved 
by  any  deed  of  valour  ;  but  he  hoped  to  gain  martial 
glory  by  his  tongue  and  sounded  the  war-cry  from  the 
Rostrum.  Therefore  he  bestirred  himself ;  and,  pro- 
fessing to  blame  Fabius  for  delay,  he  attacked  the 
Senate  in  a  speech  to  the  people,  as  if  he  were  already 
victorious  ;  *'  The  supreme  power  is  yours,"  he  said, 
"  and  from  you  I,  the  consul,  ask  directions  for  the 
conduct  of  the  war.  Am  I  to  do  nothing,  or  to  move 
from  height  to  height,  while  Garamantians  and  dark- 
Varro  had  been  elected  consul.  The  "  field  of  Diomede  "  is 
the  battle-field  of  Cannae. 



dividit  Italiam  ?     an  ferro,  quo  cingitis,  utor  ? 
exaudi,  bone  dictator,  quid  Martia  plebes 
imperitet :  pelli  Libyas  Romamque  levari  270 

hoste  iubent.     num  festinant,  quos  plurima  passos 
tertius  exurit  laerimosis  casibus  annus  ? 
ite  igitur,  capite  arma,  viri :  mora  sola  triumpho 
parvum  iter  est  :  quae  prima  dies  ostenderit  hostem, 
et  patrum  regna  et  Poenorum  bella  resolvet.  275 

ite  alacres  ;   Latia  devinctum  colla  catena 
Hannibalem  Fabio  ducam  spectante  per  urbem." 

Haec  postquam  increpuit,  portis  arma  incitus  efFert 
impellitque  moras,  veluti  cum  carcere  rupto 
auriga  indocilis  totas  efFudit  habenas  280 

et,  praeceps  trepida  pendens  in  verbera  planta, 
impar  fertur  equis  ;  fumat  male  concitus  axis, 
ac  frena  incerto  fluitant  discordia  curru. 
cernebat  Paulus  (namque  huic  communia  Campus 
iura  atque  arma  tulit)  labi,  mergente  sinistro         285 
consule,  res  pessumque  dari  ;  sed  mobilis  ira  est 
turbati  vulgi,  signataque  mente  cicatrix 
undantes  aegro  frenabat  corde  dolores. 
nam  cum  perdomita  est  armis  iuvenilibus  olim 
Illyris  ora  viri,  nigro  allatraverat  ore  '  290 

victorem  invidia  et  ventis  iactarat  iniquis. 
hinc  inerat  metus  et  durae  reverentia  plebis. 
sed  genus  admotum  superis  summumque  per  altos 

<»  Fabius. 

*  L.  Aemilius  Paulus,  Varro's  colleague,  had  been  consul  in 
219  B.C.  and  had  celebrated  a  triumph  for  victories  in  Illyri- 
cum  ;  but  he  was  afterwards  prosecuted  for  embezzlement 
and  narrowly  escaped  condemnation :  since  then  he  had 
Hved  in  retirement. 


PUNICA,  VIII.  268-293 

iskinned  Moors  share  Italy  with  me,  or  am  I  to  use 
the  sword  which  you  gird  about  me  ?  Listen,  O 
worthy  Dictator,'*  to  the  order  issued  by  the  people 
of  Mars  :  this  is  their  demand,  that  the  Libyans  be 
driven  out  and  Rome  relieved  of  her  enemy.  Are 
they  impatient  ?  No  !  They  have  endured  countless 
woes,  and  a  third  year  is  now  consuming  them  with  its 
suffering  and  sorrow.  Rise  then  and  arm,  citizens  ! 
A  short  march  is  all  that  divides  you  from  victory. 
The  first  day  that  reveals  the  enemy  to  your  view  will 
end  the  tyranny  of  the  Senate  and  the  war  with 
Carthage.  Go  forward  with  good  courage  ;  I  shall 
yet  lead  Hannibal  through  the  city  with  Roman  chains 
about  his  neck,  and  Fabius  shall  look  on." 

After  this  invective  he  led  the  army  in  haste  outside 
the  gates,  and  swept  away  all  obstacles.  So,  when 
the  starting-gate  is  broken  down,  the  unskilful 
charioteer  loses  all  control  of  the  reins  :  bending  for- 
ward with  unsteady  foothold  to  flog  his  team,  he  is 
borne  on  headlong  at  the  mercy  of  the  horses  ;  the 
axles  smoke  with  the  excessive  speed,  and  the  tangled 
reins  of  the  unsteady  car  swing  from  side  to  side. 
Paulus,^  to  whom  the  voters  had  given  equal  power 
and  authority  vdth  Varro,  saw  that  the  state  was 
rushing  on  to  ruin,  destroyed  by  the  ill-omened  consul. 
But  the  anger  of  a  turbulent  mob  is  easily  stirred  ; 
and  the  scar  of  an  ancient  wrong,  imprinted  on  his 
memory,  checked  the  wave  of  resentment  in  his 
troubled  breast.  For,  when  formerly  as  a  younger 
man  he  had  conquered  lUyricum,  the  foul  mouth  of 
envy  had  barked  at  the  conqueror  and  persecuted 
him  with  cruel  slander.  Hence  he  feared  the  people 
and  bowed  before  their  enmity.  Yet  his  race  was 
akin  to  the  gods,  and  he  was  related  to  the  lords  of 



attingebat  avos  caelum  :  numerare  parentem 
Assaracum  retro  praestabat  Amulius  auctor  295 

Assaracusque  lovem  ;  nee.  qui  spectasset  in  armis, 
abnueret  genus,     huic  Fabius  iam  castra  petenti  : 
"  si  tibi  cum  Tyrio  credis  fore  maxima  bella 
ductore  (invitus  vocem  hanc  e  pectore  rumpam) 
frustraris,  Paule.     Ausonidum  te  proelia  dira         300 
teque  hostis  castris  gravior  manet,  aut  ego  multo 
nequiquam  didici  casus  praenoscere  Marte. 
spondentem  audivi  (piget  heu  taedetque  senectae, 
si,  quas  prospicio,  restat  passura  ruinas  !) 
cum  duce  tarn  fausti  Martis,  qua  viderit  hora,        305 
sumpturum  pugnam.    quantum  nunc,  Paule,  supremo 
absumus  exitio,  vocem  hanc  si  consulis  ardens 
audierit  Poenus  !     iam  latis  obvia  credo 
stat  campis  acies,  expectaturque  sub  ictu 
alter  Flaminius.     quantos,  insane,  ciebis  310 

Varro  viros,  tu  (pro  superi  !)  tam  pronus  in  arma  ! 
tu  campum  noscas  ante  exploresque  trahendo, 
qui  ritus  hostis  ?     tu  non,  quae  copia  rerum, 
quae  natura  locis,  quod  sit,  rimabere  sollers, 
armorum  genus,  et  stantem  super  omnia  tela         315 
fortunam  aspicies.     fer,  Paule,  indevia  recti 
pectora  ;  cur,  uni  patriam  si  affligere  fas  est, 
uni  sit  servare  nefas  ?     eget  improbus  arto 
iam  victu  Libys,  et,  belli  fervore  retuso, 
laxa  fides  socium  est.     non  hie  domus  hospita  tecto 
invitat  patrio,  non  fidae  moenibus  urbes  321 

excipiunt  renovatque  pari  se  pube  inventus. 

«  See  note  to  1.  218. 

PUNICA,  VIII.  294-322 

heaven  through  his  ancestors.  For  through  Amuh'us, 
the  founder  of  his  hne,  he  could  trace  descent  from 
Assaracus,  and  through  Assaracus  to  Jupiter  ;  and 
none  who  saw  him  fight  would  dispute  his  pedigree. 
Now,  when  he  was  going  to  the  camp,  Fabius  ad- 
dressed him  thus  :  "  Paulus,  though  I  shrink  from 
saying  this  thing,  you  are  mistaken  if  you  regard 
Hannibal  as  your  chief  opponent.  Sore  strife  with 
Romans  lies  ahead  of  you,  and  a  more  grievous  foe 
in  your  own  camp  ;  or  else  long  experience  of  war 
has  not  taught  me  to  predict  disaster.  I  heard  Varro 
promise — irksome ,  alas !  and  burdensome  is  my  old  age , 
if  it  lasts  on  to  endure  the  destruction  I  foresee — yes, 
promise  that  he  would  fight  Hannibal,  that  favourite 
of  Fortune,  the  very  hour  he  saw  him.  How  near  we  are 
now,  Paulus,  to  utter  ruin,  if  this  boast  of  the  consul's 
comes  to  the  eager  ear  of  Hannibal !  Already,  I 
doubt  not,  his  army  is  arrayed  on  the  wide  plains  to 
meet  us,  and  waiting  with  uplifted  swords  for  a  second 
Flaminius."  What  mighty  opponents  will  you  rouse, 
Varro — you,  God  help  us  ! — in  your  mad  desire  for 
battle  !  Are  you  the  man  to  study  the  ground  before- 
hand and  examine  at  leisure  the  ways  of  the  enemy  ? 
You  have  no  skill  to  investigate  his  suppHes  or  the 
strength  of  his  position  or  his  method  of  warfare  ;  you 
will  not  keep  an  eye  on  Fortune  which  matters  more 
than  any  weapon.  But  you,  Paulus,  keep  to  the 
path  of  duty  unswervingly.  If  a  single  arm  may 
destroy  our  country,  why  should  not  a  single  arm 
preserve  it  ?  Bold  Hannibal  now  lacks  food  for  his 
army,  and  his  alhes  are  lukewarm  and  have  lost  their 
keenness  for  battle.  No  house  in  Italy  offers  him  the 
hospitality  due  from  kindred,  no  loyal  cities  welcome 
him,  and  his  army  is  not  renewed  with  recruits  of 



tertia  vix  superest,  crudo  quae  venit  Hibero, 
turba  virum.     persta  et  cauti  medicamina  belli 
lentus  ama.     si  qua  interea  irritaverit  aura  325 

annueritque  deus,  velox  accede  secundis." 

Cui  breviter  maesto  consul  sic  ore  vicissim  : 
"  mecum  erit  haec  prorsus  pietas,mentemque  feremus 
in  Poenos,  invicte,  tuam.     nee  me  unica  fallit 
cunctandi  ratio,  qua  te  grassante  senescens  330 

Hannibal  oppressum  vidit  considere  bellum. 
sed  quaenam  ira  deum  ?    consul  datus  alter,  opinor, 
Ausoniae  est,  alter  Poenis.    trahit  omnia  secum 
et  metuit  demens,  alio  ne  consule  Roma 
concidat.     e  Tyrio  consortem  accite  senatu,  335 

non  tam  saeva  volet,     nullus,  qui  portet  in  hostem, 
sufRcit  insano  sonipes  ;  incedere  noctis, 
quae  tardent  cursum,  tenebras  dolet ;  itque  superbus 
tantum  non  strictis  mucronibus,  ulla  retardet 
ne  pugnas  mora,  dum  vagina  ducitur  ensis.  340 

farpeiae  rupes  cognataque  sanguine  nobis 
tecta  lovis,  quaeque  arce  sua  nunc  stantia  linquo 
moenia  felicis  patriae,  quocumque  vocabit 
summa  salus,  testor,  spreto  discrimine  iturum. 
sed  si  surda  mihi  pugnabunt  castra  monenti,  345 

baud  ego  vos  ultra,  nati,  dulcemque  morabor 
Assaraci  de  gente  domum,  similemve  videbit 
Varroni  Paulum  redeuntem  saucia  Roma." 

"  Rome. 
"  He  means  that  in  case  of  defeat  he  will  not  return  alive. 



PUNICA,  VIII.  323-348 

equal  value.  Scarce  a  third  part  survives  of  the  army 
that  started  from  the  banks  of  the  cold  Ebro.  Per- 
severe, and  keep  to  the  cautious  methods  that  alone 
can  heal  the  wounds  of  war.  But  if  meanwhile  some 
favourable  turn  encourages  you  and  Heaven  approves, 
then  be  quick  to  follow  up  good  fortune." 

Brief  and  sad  was  the  reply  of  Paulus  :  "I  shall 
surely  follow  that  path  of  duty,  and  in  your  spirit 
I  shall  meet  the  Carthaginians,  O  undefeated 
Fabius.  And  I  realize  our  one  resource — the  resource 
of  delay,  which  you  used  till  an  enfeebled  Hannibal 
saw  the  war  arrested  and  crushed.  But  what  means 
this  anger  of  Heaven  ?  Of  the  two  consuls  one,  I 
believe,  is  their  gift  to  Rome  and  the  other  their  gift 
to  Carthage.  Varro  drags  all  things  in  his  train,  and 
the  madman  fears  that  some  other  consul  than  him- 
self may  witness  the  fall  of  Rome.  If  a  Carthaginian 
senator  were  summoned  as  my  colleague,  he  would 
be  less  ruthless  in  his  purpose.  No  war-horse  is  swift 
enough  to  carry  that  madman  against  the  enemy  ; 
when  the  darkness  of  night  comes  on,  he  resents  the 
hindrance  to  his  activity  ;  he  marches  proudly  on, 
with  swords  that  are  all  but  drawn,  that  the  drawing 
of  the  blade  from  the  sheath  may  not  delay  the  battle. 
I  swear  by  the  Tarpeian  rock,  by  the  temple  of 
Jupiter  with  whom  I  claim  kindred,  and  by  the  walls 
of  my  glorious  native  city,"  which  I  leave  still  stand- 
ing with  their  citadel — I  swear  that  whithersoever 
the  safety  of  the  state  summons  me,  thither  I  will  go 
and  despise  the  danger.  But  if  the  soldiers,  deaf  to 
my  warning,  engage  in  battle,  then  I  shall  think  no 
longer  of  my  sons,  the  dear  descendants  of  Assaracus  ; 
and  never  shall  a  stricken  Rome  see  me  Uke  Varro 
returning  home."  * 



Sic  turn  diversa  turbati  mente  petebant 
castra  duces,     at  praedictis  iam  sederat  arvis         350 
Aetolos  Poenus  servans  ad  proelia  campos. 
non  alias  maiore  virum,  maiore  sub  armis 
agmine  cornipedum  concussa  est  Itala  tellus. 
quippe  extrema  simul  gentique  urbique  timebant, 
nee  spes  certandi  plus  uno  Marte  dabatur.  355 

Faunigenae  socio  bella  invasere  Sicano 
sacra  manus  Rutuli,  servant  qui  Daunia  regna 
I.aurentique  domo  gaudent  et  fonte  Numici ; 
quos  Castrum  Phrygibusque  gravis  quondam  Ardea 

quos,  celso  devexa  iugo  lunonia  sedes,  360 

Lanuvium  atque  altrix  casti  CoUatia  Bruti ; 
quique  immite  nemus  Triviae,  quique  ostia  Tusci 
amnis  amant  tepidoque  fovent  Almone  Cybelen. 
hinc  Tibur,  Catille,  tuum  sacrisque  dicatum 
Fortunae  Praeneste  iugis  Antemnaque,  prisco        365 
Crustumio  prior,  atque  habiles  ad  aratra  Labici  ; 
necnon  sceptriferi  qui  potant  Thybridis  undam, 
quique  Anienis  habent  ripas  gelidoque  rigantur 
Simbruvio  rastrisque  domant  Aequicula  rura. 
his  Scaurus  monitor,  tenero  tunc  Scaurus  in  aevo,  370 
sed  iam  signa  dabat  nascens  in  saecula  virtus, 
non  illis  solitum  crispare  hastilia  campo, 
nee  mos  pennigeris  pharetram  implevisse  sagittis  ; 

**  If  defeated  at  Cannae,  the  Romans  could  not  hope  to 
put  another  army  in  the  field. 

*  Daunus,  an  ancient  king,  migrated  from  Apulia  to 
Latium,  and  there  founded  Ardea,  the  chief  city  of  the 
Rutulians.  An  old  tradition  said  that  Sicanians  (also  called 
Sicilians)  had  migrated  from  Latium  to  Sicily. 

*  The  avenger  of  chaste  Lucretia,  surnamed  Collatinus. 
<*  See  note  to  iv.  769.  «  The  Tiber. 

^  A  lake  formed  by  the  river  Anio. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   349-373 

So  then  the  two  commanders  set  off  for  the 
camp,  disquieted  by  discordant  purposes.  Hannibal 
had  already  encamped  where  Anna  had  foretold, 
keeping  to  the  plains  of  Diomede  for  a  battle-ground. 
Never  was  the  soil  of  Italy  trampled  by  a  greater  con- 
course of  men  or  by  a  larger  body  of  cavalry  in  arms. 
For  men  dreaded  the  destruction  of  nation  and  capital 
ahke  ;  and  there  was  no  prospect  of  ever  fighting  a 
second  battle." 

The  Rutulians,  descendants  of  Faunus,  aided  by 
Sicanians,  came  to  battle  ;  these  are  a  sacred  band, 
who  dwell  in  the  realm  of  Daunus,^  and  rejoice  in  the 
dwellings  of  Laurentum  and  the  stream  of  the 
Numicius  ;  they  were  sent  forth  by  Castrum  and  by 
Ardea  once  hostile  to  Trojans,  and  by  Lanuvium, 
the  home  of  Juno  that  lies  on  the  side  of  a  steep  hill  ; 
and  by  Collatia,  the  nurse  of  chaste  Brutus.''  They 
also  came  who  love  the  grove  of  pitiless  <*  Diana 
and  the  mouths  of  the  Tuscan  river,*  and  wash 
Cybele's  image  in  the  warm  stream  of  Almo.  Next 
came  Tibur,  the  city  of  Catillus  ;  and  Praeneste, 
whose  sacred  hill  is  dedicated  to  Fortune  ;  and 
Antemna,  more  ancient  than  even  Crustumium  ;  and 
the  men  of  Labicum,  handy  with  the  plough  ;  and 
also  those  who  drink  the  water  of  imperial  Tiber  ;  and 
those  who  dwell  on  the  banks  of  the  Anio,  and  draw 
water  from  chill  Simbruvius,^  and  harrow  the  fields  of 
Aequicola.  All  these  were  led  by  Scaurus  " ;  and  though 
Scaurus  was  but  youthful  then,  his  youth  already 
gave  promise  of  undying  fame  ;  his  men  were  not 
wont  to  hurl  the  spear-shaft  in  battle,  or  to  fill  quivers 

"  This  is  a  tribute  to  members  of  the  family  who  gained 
distinction  later,  especially  M.  Aemilius  Scaurus,  consul  in 
115  and  108  b.c,  and  censor. 



pila  volunt  brevibusque  habiles  mucronibus  enses  ; 
aere  caput  tecti  surgunt  super  agmina  cristis.         375 

At,  quos  ipsius  mensis  seposta  Lyaei 
Setia  et  e  celebri  ^  miserunt  valle  Velitrae, 
quos  Cora,  quos  spumans  immiti  Signia  musto, 
et  quos  pestifera  Pomptini  uligine  campi, 
qua  Saturae  nebulosa  palus  restagnat,  et  atro        380 
liventes  coeno  per  squalida  turbidus  arva 
cogit  aquas  Ufens  atque  inficit  aequora  limo, 
ducit  avis  pollens  nee  dextra  indignus  avorum 
Scaevola,  cui  dirae  caelatur  laudis  honora 
effigie  clipeus  :  flagrant  altaribus  ignes,  385 

Tyrrhenum  valli  medio  stat  Mucins  ira 
in  semet  versa,  saevitque  in  imagine  virtus  : 
tanta  ictus  specie  finire  hoc  bella  magistro 
cernitur  effugiens  ardentem  Porsena  dextram. 

Quis  Circaea  iuga  et  scopulosi  verticis  Anxur     390 
Hernicaque  impresso  raduntur  vomere  saxa, 
quis  putri  pinguis  sulcaris  Anagnia  gleba, 
Sulla  Ferentinis  Privernatumque  maniplis 
ducebat  simul  excitis  ;  Soraeque  inventus 
addita  fulgebat  telis.     hie  Scaptia  pubes,  395 

hie  Fabrateriae  vulgus  ;  nee  monte  nivoso 
descendens  Atina  aberat  detritaque  bellis 
Suessa  atque  a  duro  Frusino  hand  Imbellis  aratro. 
at,  qui  Fibreno  miscentem  flumina  Lirim 
sulphureum  tacitisque  vadis  ad  litora  lapsum  400 

^  e  celebri  Heinsius  :  incelebri  edd. 

<•  Bacchus. 

*'  Mucius  Scaevola,  having  failed  to  stab  Lars  Porsena, 
burnt  his  own  hand  in  the  fire  ;  and  his  action  made  the 
invader  retreat  from  Rome.  *  Formiae. 

**  Suessa  Pometia,  the  chief  town  of  the  Volscians,  was 
repeatedly  sacked  by  the  early  Romans. 

1^^    with  fea 

PUNICA,  VIII.  374-400 

with  feathered  arrows  ;  they  prefer  the  pilum  and 
handy  short-bladed  sword  ;  they  wear  helmets  of 
bronze,  and  their  phimes  wave  above  the  ranks. 

Setia,  whose  vintage  is  reserved  for  the  table  of 
Lyaeus  «  himself,  sent  her  men,  and  so  did  the  valley 
of  Velitrae  well  known  to  fame,  and  Cora,  and  Signia 
whose  foaming  wine  is  bitter  ;  and  the  Pomptine 
marshes  that  breed  disease,  where  the  misty  swamp 
of  Satura  covers  the  land,  and  the  dark  Ufens  drives 
his  black  and  muddy  current  through  unsightly 
fields  and  dyes  the  sea  with  slime.  These  were  led 
by  Scaevola,  nobly  born  and  in  courage  not  unworthy 
of  his  ancestors.  Carved  upon  his  shield  was  a 
picture  of  that  dreadful  deed  of  heroism  ^  :  the  fire 
blazed  on  the  altar,  and  Mucius  stood  in  the  centre 
of  the  Tuscan  camp  and  turned  his  rage  against  him- 
self ;  and  his  ruthless  courage  was  seen  in  the  carving. 
Cowed  by  such  a  sight,  and  taught  by  such  an  ex- 
ample, Porsena  was  shown,  abandoning  the  war  and 
flying  from  that  burning  hand. 

Sulla  led  to  war  the  men  who  till  the  heights  of  Circe*' 
and  the  steep  hill  of  Anxur,  and  the  Hernicans  who 
drive  the  ploughshare  deep  into  their  stony  ground,  and 
those  who  furrow  the  rich  crumbling  soil  of  Anagnia  ; 
and  he  summoned  also  the  men  of  Ferentinum 
and  Privernum  ;  and  the  fighting  men  of  Sora  were 
there  too  with  glittering  arms.  Here  were  the  men 
of  Scaptia  and  of  Fabrateria  ;  nor  did  Atina  fail 
to  come  down  from  its  snow-clad  height,  nor  Suessa, 
lessened  by  wars,^  nor  Frusino,  trained  to  battle  by 
the  labour  of  the  plough.  Then  the  hardy  men  of 
Arpinum,  dwellers  by  the  Liris,  which  mingles  its 
sulphurous  waters  with  the  Fibrenus  and  runs  with 
silent  course  to  the  sea,  rose  up  in  arms,  bringing 



accolit,  Arpinas,  accita  pube  Venafro 

ac  Larinatum  dextris,  socia  hispidus  arma 

commovet  atque  viris  ingens  exhaurit  Aquinum. 

Tullius  aeratas  raptabat  in  agmina  turmas, 

regia  progenies  et  Tullo  sanguis  ab  alto.  405 

indole  pro  quanta  iuvenis  quantumque  daturus 

Ausoniae  populis  ventura  in  saeeula  civem  ! 

ille,  super  Gangen,  super  exauditus  et  Indos, 

implebit  terras  voce  et  furialia  bella 

fulmine  compescet  linguae  nee  deinde  relinquet    410 

par  decus  eloquio  cuiquam  sperare  nepotum. 

Ecce  inter  primos  Therapnaeo  a  sanguine  Clausi 
exult  at  rapidis  Nero  non  imitabilis  ausis. 
hunc  Amiterna  cohors  et  Bactris  nomina  ducens 
Casperia,  hunc  Foruli  magnaeque  Reate  dicatum  415 
caelicolum  Matri  necnon  habitata  pruinis 
Nursia  et  a  Tetrica  comitantur  rupe  cohortes. 
cunctis  hasta  decus  clipeusque  retortus  in  orbem 
conique  implumes  et  laevo  tegmina  crure. 
ibant  et  laeti  pars  Sancum  voce  canebant,  420 

auctorem  gentis,  pars  laudes  ore  ferebat, 
Sabe,  tuas,  qui  de  proprio  cognomine  primus 
dixisti  populos  magna  dicione  Sabinos. 

Quid,  qui  Picenae  stimulat  telluris  alumnos, 
horridus  et  squamis  et  equina  Curio  crista,  425 

pars  belli  quam  magna  venit !     non  aequore  verso 
tam  creber  fractis  albescit  fluctus  in  undis, 
nee  coetu  leviore,  ubi  mille  per  agmina  virgo 

«  Tullus  Attius  was  an  ancient  king  of  the  Volscians. 

*  M.  Tullius  Cicero  was  a  native  of  Arpinum. 

*  A  reference  to  Cicero's  speeches  against  Catiline  and 
against  M.  Antonius. 

^  Attus  Clausus,  supposed  to  be  of  Spartan  descent,  mi- 
grated from  the  Sabine  country  to  Rome,  and  founded  the 
famous  Claudian  family :  see  xiii.  466 ;  xvii.  33. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   401-428 

with  them  fighters  from  Venafrum  and  Larinum,  and 
draining  mighty  Aquinum  of  its  men.  Their  mail- 
clad  squadrons  were  sped  to  battle  by  Tullius,  the 
son  of  kings  and  descended  from  Tullus<»  of  old. 
How  noble  was  his  youthful  promise  !  and  how 
great  the  immortal  descendant  ^  he  was  to  give 
to  Italy  !  That  voice  shall  fill  the  earth  and  be 
heard  beyond  the  Ganges  and  the  peoples  of  India ; 
with  the  thunders  of  his  tongue  Cicero  shall  quell 
the  frenzy  of  war,*'  and  shall  leave  behind  him 
a  renown  that  no  orator  of  after  times  can  hope  to 

But  lo  !  Nero  rides  proudly  among  the  foremost, 
with  the  Spartan  blood  of  Clausus^  in  his  veins,  and 
unrivalled  in  swift  deeds  of  valour.  With  him  come 
the  soldiers  of  Amiterna,  and  Casperia  that  takes 
its  name  from  Bactra,*  and  Foruli,  and  Reate  sacred 
to  the  great  Mother  of  the  Gods,  and  Nursia  the 
abode  of  snow,  and  warriors  from  rocky  Tetricus. 
All  these  carry  spears  and  rounded  shields  ;  their 
helmets  have  no  plume,  and  they  wear  greaves  on 
the  left  leg.  As  they  marched,  some  of  them  raised 
a  song  in  honour  of  Sancus,  the  founder  of  their  race, 
while  others  praised  Sabus,  who  first  gave  his  name 
to  the  wide  dominion  of  the  Sabines. 

And  what  of  Curio,  bristling  with  scale-armour  and 
plume  of  horse-hair — Curio,  a  host  in  himself,  who 
urged  on  the  men  of  Picenum  ?  Thick  and  fast  they 
come,  like  the  billows  on  a  stormy  sea  that  whiten 
amid  the  breaking  waves  ;  less  active  are  the  riders, 
when  the  Warrior  Maid^  with  the  crescent-shaped 

«  Bactra  stands  for  the  East :  there  was  a  town  and  district 
in  India,  whose  name  was  not  unUke, Casperia. 

f  Penthesilea,  the  queen  of  the  Amazons  :  see  note  to  it.  73. 



lunatis  acies  imitatur  Martia  peltis, 

perstrepit  et  tellus  et  Amazonius  Thermodon.        430 

hie  et,  quos  pascunt  scopulosae  rura  Numanae, 

et  quis  litoreae  fumant  altaria  Cuprae, 

quique  Truentinas  servant  cum  flumine  turres, 

cernere  erat ;  clipeata  procul  sub  sole  corusco 

agmina  sanguinea  vibrant  in  nubila  luce.  435 

Stat  fucare  colus  nee  Sidone  vilior  Ancon 

murice  nee  Libyco  ;  statque  humectata  Vomano 

Hadria  et  inclemens  hirsuti  signifer  Ascli. 

hoc  Picus  quondam,  nomen  memorabile  ab  alto 

Saturno,  statuit  genitor,  quem  carmine  Circe         440 

exutum  formae  volitare  per  aethera  iussit 

et  sparsit  croeeum  plumis  fugientis  honorem. 

ante,  ut  fama  docet,  tellus  possessa  Pelasgis, 

quis  Aesis  regnator  erat  fluvioque  reliquit 

nomen  et  a  sese  populos  tum  dixit  Asilos.  445 

Sed  non  ruricolae  firmarunt  robore  castra 
deteriore,  eavis  venientes  montibus,  Umbri. 
hos  Aesis  Sapisque  lavant  rapidasque  sonanti 
vertice  eontorquens  undas  per  saxa  Metaurus, 
et  lavat  ingentem  perfundens  flumine  sacro  450 

Clitumnus  taurum  Narque,  albescentibus  undis 
in  Thybrim  properans,  Tiniaeque  inglorius  humor 
et  Clanis  et  Rubico  et  Senonum  de  nomine  Sena, 
sed  pater  ingenti  medios  illabitur  amne 
Albula  et  admota  perstringit  moenia  ripa.  455 

Iiis  urbes  Arna  et  laetis  Mevania  pratis, 
Hispellum  et  duro  monti  per  saxa  recumbens 

"  A  river  of  Pontus  that  flows  into  the  Black  Sea. 

^  Picus  was  an  ancient  king  of  Italy  with  prophetic 
powers,  whom  Circe  turned  into  a  woodpecker,  because  he 
refused  her  love.  '^  See  note  to  iv.  545. 

**  The  ancient  name  of  the  Tiber. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   429-457 

shield  reviews  her  thousand  squadrons  in  mimic  war- 
fare, till  the  earth  resounds,  andThermodon  "  too,  the 
river  of  the  Amazons.  Here  might  be  seen  the  men 
whom  the  fields  of  rocky  Numana  feed,  and  those 
for  whom  the  altar  of  Cupra  smokes  by  the  shore,  and 
those  w  ho  guard  the  towers  and  rivers  of  Truentum  ; 
their  shielded  ranks  glitter  afar  in  the  sunlight  and 
throw  a  blood-red-  radiance  skyward.  Here  stood 
Ancona,  which  rivals  Sidon  and  the  purple  of  Libya  in 
the  dyeing  of  cloth  ;  and  here  stood  Hadria  washed 
by  the  Vomanus,  and  here  the  fierce  standard- 
bearers  of  wooded  Asculum.  Picus,^  the  famous  son 
of  ancient  Saturn,  was  the  father  and  founder  of 
Asculum  long  ago — Picus  whom  Circe  by  her  spells 
deprived  of  human  shape,  and  sentenced  to  fly  about 
in  the  sky  ;  and  she  speckled  his  feathers  with  bright 
saffron  colour  as  he  fled  from  her.  Legend  tells  that 
the  land  was  possessed  earlier  by  Pelasgians,  the 
subjects  of  Aesis  who  left  his  name  to  a  river  and 
called  his  people  after  himself  by  the  name  of  Asili. 

But  the  Umbrians,  dwellers  in  the  country,  brought 
no  less  strength  to  the  Roman  army,  when  they  came 
from  their  hills  and  valleys.  Their  rivers  are  the 
Aesis  and  the  Sapis,  and  the  Metaurus  which  drives 
its  rapid  stream  over  rocks  in  noisy  eddies  ;  and  there 
Clitumnus  bathes  in  its  sacred  waters  the  mighty 
bull  '^ ;  and  there  is  the  Nar  whose  pale  waves  hasten 
to  the  Tiber,  and  the  Tinia  unknown  to  fame,  and  the 
Clanis,  and  the  Rubicon,  and  the  Sena  named  after 
the  Senones.  But  Father  Albula**  flows  through 
their  midst  with  his  mighty  stream  and  grazes 
their  walls  and  brings  near  his  banks.  The 
Umbrian  towns  are  Arna,  Mevania  of  rich  pastures, 
Hispellum,  Narnia  that  lies  among  the  rocks  on  the 



Narnia  et  infestum  ncbulis  humentibus  olim 
Iguvium  patuloque  iacens  sine  moenibus  arvo 
Fulginia  ;  his  populi  fortes  :  Amerinus  et,  armis    460 
vel  rastris  laudande  Gamers,  his  Sassina,  dives 
lactis,  et  haud  parei  Martem  coluisse  Tudertes. 
ductor  Piso  viros  spernaces  mortis  agebat, 
ora  puer  pulcherque  habitum,  sed  corde  sagaci 
aequabat  senium  atque  astii  superaverat  annos.     465 
is  primam  ante  aciem  pictie  radiabat  in  armis, 
Arsacidum  ut  fulvo  micat  ignea  gemma  monili. 
lamque  per  Etruscos  legio  completa  maniplos 
rectorem  magno  spectabat  nomine  Galbam. 
huic  genus  orditur  Minos  illusaque  tauro  470 

Pasiphae,  clarique  dehinc  stant  ordine  patres. 
lectos  Caere  viros,  lectos  Cortona,  superbi 
Tarchonis  domus,  et  veteres  misere  Graviscae. 
necnon  Argolico  dilectum  Htus  Halaeso 
Alsium  et  obsessae  campo  squalente  Fregenae.     475 
afFuit  et,  sacris  interpres  fulminis  alis, 
Faesula  et,  antiquus  Romanis  moenibus  horror, 
Clusinum  vulgus  ;  cum,  Porsena  magne,  iubebas 
nequiquam  pulsos  Romae  imperitare  Superbos. 
tunc,  quos  a  niveis  exegit  Luna  metallis,  480 

insignis  portu,  quo  non  spatiosior  alter 
innumeras  cepisse  rates  et  claudere  pontum, 
Maeoniaeque  decus  quondam  Vetulonia  gentis. 
bissenos  haec  prima  dedit  praecedere  fasces 
et  iunxit  totidem  tacito  terrore  secures  ;  485 

"  The  name  of  Arsaces  was  borne  by  a  long  succession 
of  Parthian  kings ;  and  the  Parthian  people  are  often  called 

*  One  bearer  of  the  name  was  Roman  emperor  for  a  few 
weeks  a.d.  69. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   458-486 

rough  mountain-side,  Iguvium  that  damp  mists 
formerly  made  unhealthy,  and  Fulginia  that  stands 
unwalled  on  the  open  plain.  These  sent  good  soldiers 
— Amerians,  Camertes  famous  alike  with  sword  or 
plough,  men  of  Sassina  rich  in  flocks,  and  men  of 
Tuder,  no  laggards  in  war.  These  death-defying 
warriors  were  led  by  Piso,  with  the  face  of  a  boy  and 
fair  to  see  ;  but  he  had  all  the  wisdom  of  age  and  wit 
beyond  his  years.  In  the  front  rank  he  stood,  a 
splendid  figure  in  shining  armour,  even  as  a  fiery 
jewel  ghtters  on  the  golden  collar  of  a  Parthian  king.<* 
Another  army  manned  by  Etruscan  warriors  obeyed 
Galba  ^  of  glorious  name.  Minos,  and  Pasiphae 
whom  the  bull  deceived,  were  the  authors  of  his  line, 
and  his  ancestors  who  followed  in  order  were  famous 
too.  The  choicest  of  their  men  were  sent  by  Caere 
and  Cortona,  the  seat  of  proud  Tarchon,"  and  by 
ancient  Graviscae.  Alsium  too  sent  men,  the  city 
by  the  sea  that  Halaesus  the  Argive  loved  ;  and 
Fregenae,  girt  about  by  a  barren  plain.  Faesula  also 
was  present — Faesula  that  can  interpret  the  winged 
lightning  of  heaven  ;  and  the  people  of  Clusium, 
terrible  once  to  the  walls  of  Rome,  when  great  Porsena 
in  vain  required  of  the  Romans  to  obey  the  tyrants 
they  had  expelled.  Then  Luna  sent  out  fighters  from 
her  marble  quarries — Luna,  whose  famous  harbour,  as 
large  as  any,  shuts  out  the  sea  and  shelters  countless 
vessels ;  and  V^etulonia,  once  the  pride  of  the  Lydian  <* 
race.  From  that  city  came  the  twelve  bundles  of 
rods  that  are  borne  before  the  consul,  and  also  the 
twelve  axes  with  their  silent  menace  ;   she  adorned 

'  Tarchon  was  said  to  have  come  with  Telephus  from  Asia 
to  Italy,  where  he  founded  the  Twelve  Cities  of  Etruria. 
**  i.e.  Etruscan  :  see  note  to  iv.  721. 



haec  altas  eboris  decoravit  honore  curules 

et  princeps  Tyrio  vestem  praetexuit  ostro  ; 

haec  eadem  pugnas  accendere  protulit  aere. 

his  mixti  Nepesina  cohors  Aequique  Falisci, 

quique  tuos,  Flavina,  focos,  Sabatia  quique  490 

stagna  tenent  Ciminique  lacum,  qui  Sutria  tecta 

haud  procul  et  sacrum  Phoebo  Soracte  frequentant. 

spicula  bina  gerunt ;  capiti  cudone  ferino 

sat  cautum  ;   Lycios  damnant  hastiUbus  arcus. 

Hae  bellare  acies  norant ;  at  Marsica  pubes       495 
et  bellare  manu  et  chelydris  cantare  soporem 
vipereumque  herbis  hebetare  et  carmine  dentem. 
Aeetae  prolem,  Angitiam  mala  gramina  primam 
monstravisse  ferunt  tactuque  domare  venena 
et  lunam  excussisse  polo,  stridoribus  amnes  500 

frenantem,  ac  silvis  montes  nudasse  vocatis. 
sed  populis  nomen  posuit  metuentior  hospes, 
cum  fugeret  Phrygias  trans  aequora  Marsya  Crenas, 
Mygdoniam  Phoebi  superatus  pectine  loton. 
Marruvium,  veteris  celebratum  nomine  Marri,       505 
urbibus  est  illis  caput,  interiorque  per  udos 
Alba  sedet  campos  pomisque  rependit  aristas. 
cetera  in  obscuro  famae  et  sine  nomine  vulgi 
sed  numero  castella  valent.     coniungitur  acer 
Pelignus,  gelidoque  rapit  Sulmone  cohortes.  510 

Nee  cedit  studio  Sidicinus  sanguine  miles, 
quern  genuere  Cales  :  non  parvus  conditor  urbi, 

*  The  Lycians,  like  the  Cretans,  were  famous  archers. 

"  See  i.  412. 

"  A  sister  of  Circe's  and  possessing  like  powers. 

**  He  was  defeated  by  Apollo  in  a  musical  contest. 

*  Phrygian. 


PUNICA,  VIll.   486-512 

the  high  curule  chairs  with  the  beauty  of  ivory,  and 
first  bordered  the  robe  of  office  with  Tyrian  purple  ; 
and  the  brazen  trumpet  which  inflames  the  warrior 
was  her  invention  also.  Together  with  these  came 
the  men  of  Nepete,  and  the  Aequi  of  Falerium,  and 
the  inhabitants  of  Flavina,  and  men  who  dwell  by  the 
Sabatian  lakes  and  the  Ciminian  mere,  and  their 
neighbours  from  Sutrium,  and  those  who  haunt 
Soracte,  the  sacred  hill  of  Phoebus.  Each  carries 
two  spears  ;  a  wild  beast's  skin  is  protection  enough 
for  their  heads  ;  their  spears  despise  the  bow  of 

All  these  knew  how  to  make  war  ;  but  the  Marsi 
could  not  only  fight  but  could  also  send  snakes  to 
sleep  by  charms,^  and  rob  a  serpent's  tooth  of  its 
venom  by  simples  and  spells.  They  say  that  Angitia," 
daughter  of  Aeetes,  first  revealed  to  them  magic 
herbs,  and  taught  them  to  tame  vipers  by  handling 
them,  to  drive  the  moon  from  the  sky,  to  arrest  the 
course  of  rivers  by  their  muttering,  and  to  strip  the 
hills  by  calling  down  the  forests.  But  this  people  got 
their  name  from  Marsyas,<*  the  settler  who  fled  in 
fright  across  the  sea  from  Phrygian  Crenai,  when  the 
Mygdonian  *  pipe  was  defeated  by  Apollo's  lyre. 
Marruvium,  which  bears  the  famous  name  of  ancient 
Marrus,  is  the  chief  of  their  cities  ;  and  further  inland 
lies  Alba  in  water-meadows,  and  compensates  by  its 
orchards  for  the  lack  of  corn.  Their  other  strongholds, 
though  unknown  to  fame  and  with  no  name  among 
the  people,  are  formidable  by  their  number.  The 
Pelignians  were  forward  to  join  the  rest,  and  brought 
their  troops  in  haste  from  chilly  Sulmo. 

No  less  zealous  were  the  natives  of  Sidicinum, 
whose  mother-city  is  Cales.    Cales  had  no  mean 

VOL.  I  P  429 


ut  fama  est,  Calais,  Boreae  quern  rapta  per  auras 

Orithyia  vago  Geticis  nutrivit  in  antris. 

haud  ullo  levior  bellis  Vestina  iuventus  515 

agmina  densavit,  venatu  dura  ferarum  ; 

quae,  Fiscelle,  tuas  arces  Pinnamque  virentem 

pascuaque  haud  tarde  redeuntia  tondet  Aveiae  ; 

Marrucina  simul,  Frentanis  aemula  pubes, 

Corfini  populos  magnumque  Teate  trahebat.  520 

omnibus  in  pugnam  fertur  sparus,  omnibus  alto 

assuetae  volucrem  caelo  demittere  fundae. 

pectora  pellis  obit  caesi  venatibus  ursi. 

lam  vero,  quos  dives  opum,  quos  dives  avorum 
e  toto  dabat  ad  bellum  Campania  tractu,  525 

ductorum  adventum  vicinis  sedibus  Osci 
servabant ;  Sinuessa  tepens  fluctuque  sonorum 
Vulturnum,  quasque  evertere  silentia,  Amyclae 
Fundique  et  regnata  Lamo  Caieta  domusque 
Antiphatae,  compressa  freto,  stagnisque  palustre  530 
Liternum  et  quondam  fatorum  conscia  Cyme, 
illic  Nuceria  et  Gaurus,  navalibus  acta 
prole  Diearchea  ;  multo  cum  milite  Graia 
illic  Parthenope  ac  Poeno  non  pervia  Nola, 
Allifae  et  Clanio  contemptae  semper  Acerrae.        535 
Sarrastes  etiam  populos  totasque  videres 
Sarni  mitis  opes  ;  illic,  quos  sulphure  pingues 

<»  A  daughter  of  Erechtheus,  king  of  Athens,  she  was 
carried  off  by  Boreas  to  his  northern  kingdom. 

*  This  apphes  not  to  a  Campanian  city  but  to  the  mother- 
city,  Amyclae  in  Laconia.  After  many  false  alarms,  they 
passed  a  law  that  no  one  should  mention  the  subject  of  in- 
vasion. Hence,  when  the  Spartans  came,  no  one  dared 
announce  their  approach,  and  the  town  was  taken  (about  800 


"  The  Greek  name  of  Cumae,  where  the  Sibyl  had  her 

PUNICA,  VIII.  513-637 

founder — even  Calais,  who,  as  legend  tells,  was 
nurtured  in  Thracian  caves  by  Orithyia,**  when  she 
was  carried  off  by  the  blast  of  wanton  Boreas  through 
the  sky.  The  Vestini,  inferior  to  none  as  fighters,  and 
hardened  by  hunting  wild  animals,  came  in  serried 
ranks  ;  their  flocks  graze  on  the  heights  of  Fiscellus 
and  green  Pinna,  and  in  the  meadows  of  Aveia  that 
are  quick  to  grow  again.  The  Marrucini  likewise, 
in  rivalry  with  Frentani,  brought  with  them  the  in- 
habitants of  Corfinium,  and  great  Teate.  All  these 
carried  a  pike  to  battle,  and  all  carried  slings  that 
had  struck  down  many  a  bird  high  in  air.  For 
corslets  they  wore  the  skins  of  bears  slain  by  the 

Moreover  the  Oscans,  whom  Campania,  rich  in 
wealth  and  ancient  blood,  sent  to  battle  from  all  her 
wide  domain,  were  waiting  close  by  for  the  coming 
of  their  leaders  :  Sinuessa  of  warm  springs,  and  Vul- 
turnum  within  sound  of  the  sea,  and  Amyclae  which 
silence  once  destroyed^  ;  Fundi,  and  Caieta  where 
Lamus  once  was  king,  and  the  home  of  Antiphates 
shut  in  by  the  sea  ;  Liternum  with  its  marshy 
pools,  and  Cyme "  which  could  once  foretell  the 
future.  There  were  seen  Nuceria  and  Gaurus  ;  and 
the  sons  of  Dicaearchus  were  sent  forth  from  their 
arsenal  ^  ;  Greek  Parthenope  *  was  there,  with  many 
a  man-at-arms,  and  Nola,  barred  against  Hannibal'; 
AUifae  also,  and  Acerrae,  ever  mocked  at'  by  the 
Clanius.  One  might  have  seen  too  the  Sarrastian 
men  and  all  the  assembled  might  of  the  gentle  Samus. 
There  were  the  chosen  men  from  the  Phlegraean 

^  Puteoli.  •  Naples. 

f  He  was  beaten  off  from  Nola  in  215  b.c. 

y  The  river  threatened  always  to  submerge  the  town. 



Phlegraei  legere  sinus,  Misenus  et  ardens 

ore  giganteo  sedes  Ithacesia  Bai  ; 

non  Prochyte,  non  ardentem  sortita  Typhoea         640 

Inarime,  non  antiqui  saxosa  Telonis 

insula,  nee  parvis  aberat  Calatia  muris  ; 

Surrentum  et  pauper  sulci  eerealis  Abella  ; 

in  primis  Capua,  heu  rebus  servare  serenis 

inconsulta  modum  et  pravo  peritura  tumore  !         545 

Laetos  rectoris  formabat  Scipio  bello. 
ille  viris  pila  et  ferro  cireumdare  pectus 
addiderat ;  leviora  domo  de  more  parentum 
gestarant  tela,  ambustas  sine  cuspide  cornos  ; 
aclydis  usus  erat  factaeque  ad  rura  bipennis.  550 

ipse  inter  medios  venturae  ingentia  laudis 
signa  dabat,  vibrare  sudem,  tramittere  saltu 
murales  fossas,  undosum  frangere  nando 
indutus  thoraca  vadum  ;  spectacula  tanta 
ante  acies  virtutis  erant.     saepe  alite  planta  555 

ilia  perfossum  et  campi  per  aperta  volantem, 
ipse  pedes,  praevertit  equum  ;   saepe  arduus  idem 
castrorum  spatium  et  saxo  tramisit  et  hasta  ; 
Martia  frons  facilesque  comae  nee  pone  retroque 
caesaries  brevior  ;  flagrabant  lumina  miti  560 

aspectu,  gratusque  inerat  visentibus  horror. 

AfFuit  et  Samnis,  nondum  vergente  favore 
ad  Poenos,  sed  nee  veteri  purgatus  ab  ira  : 

*  The  volcanic  district  on  the  Campanian  coast. 

*  Baiae  on  that  coast,  famous  for  its  hot  springs,  was  sup- 
posed to  have  got  its  name  from  Baius,  one  of  the  crew  of 
Ulysses.  Prochyta  (now  Procida)  and  Inarime  (now  Ischia) 
are  islands  on  the  same  coast.  The  volcanic  eruptions  were 
attributed  to  the  giants  imprisoned  below  the  islands. 

"  Capri. 

^  The  capital  city  of  Campania. 


PUNICA,  VIII.  538-663 

bays  rich  in  sulphur,**  and  from  Misenus,  and  from 
the  seat  of  Baius  the  Ithacan  with  its  mighty  red-hot 
crater.  Prochyte  was  not  absent,  nor  Inarime,  the 
place  appointed  for  ever-burning  Typhoeus,^  nor  the 
rocky  isle  «  of  ancient  Telo,  nor  Calatia  of  the  httle 
walls.  Surrentum  was  there,  and  Abella  ill-provided 
with  corn-fields  ;  and  Capua  ^  above  all ;  but  she,  alas, 
knew  not  how  to  observe  moderation  in  prosperity, 
and  her  wicked  pride  went  before  a  fall.* 

Scipio  ^  trained  the  Campanians  for  war,  and  they 
were  proud  of  their  leader.  He  had  given  them 
javelins  and  iron  corslets  ;  at  home  they  had  carried 
lighter  weapons  after  the  fashion  of  their  fathers — 
made  of  wood  hardened  in  the  fire  and  with  no  iron 
point ;  they  used  the  club  and  the  axe,  the  country- 
man's tool.  In  their  midst  Scipio  gave  splendid 
promise  of  his  future  fame,  hurhng  stakes,  leaping 
trenches  under  city-walls,  and  stemming  the  billows 
of  the  sea  with  his  breastplate  on  ;  such  the  display  of 
vigour  he  gave  before  the  ranks.  Often  his  flying 
feet  outstripped  a  courser  as  it  flew,  cruelly  spurred, 
over  the  open  plain  ;  often,  rising  to  his  full  height,  he 
threw  stone  or  spear  beyond  the  limits  of  the  camp. 
He  had  a  martial  brow  and  flowing  hair  ;  nor  was  the 
hair  at  the  back  of  his  head  shorter.  His  eyes  burned 
bright,  but  their  regard  was  mild  ;  and  those  who 
looked  upon  him  were  at  once  awed  and  pleased. 

The  Samnites^  too  there  were  ;  their  allegiance 
was  not  yet  turning  towards  the  Carthaginians,  but 
they  still  cherished  their  ancient  grudge.     Here  were 

«  Capua,  having  revolted  to  Hannibal,  was  captured  by 
the  Romans  in  21 1  b.c.  '  Africanus. 

"  A  Sabine  people,  inveterate  enemies  of  Rome  in  her 
early  history  :  after  Cannae  they  joined  Hannibal. 

VOL.  I  p  2  4-33 


qui  Batulum  Nucrasque  metunt,  Boviania  quique 
exagitant  lustra,  aut  Caudinis  faucibus  haerent,    665 
et  quos  aut  Rufrae,  quos  aut  Aesernia,  quosve 
obscura  incultis  Herdonia  misit  ab  agris. 

Bruttius,  haud  dispar  animorum,  unaque  iuventus 
Lucanis  excita  iugis  Hirpinaque  pubes 
horrebat  telis  et  tergo  hirsuta  ferarum.  670 

hos  venatus  alit :  lustra  incoluere  sitimque 
avertunt  fluvio,  somnique  labore  parantur. 

Additur  his  Calaber  Sallentinaeque  cohortes 
necnon  Brundisium,  quo  desinit  Itala  tellus. 
parebat  legio  audaci  permissa  Cethego.  675 

qui  socias  vires  atque  indiscreta  maniplis 
arma  recensebat :  nunc  sese  ostendere  miles 
Leucosiae  e  scopulis,  nunc,  quern  Picentia  Paesto 
misit  et  exhaustae  mox  Poeno  Marte  Cerillae, 
nunc  Silarus  quos  nutrit  aquis,  quo  gurgite  tradunt 
duritiem  lapidum  mersis  inolescere  ramis.  581 

ille  et  pugnacis  laudavit  tela  Salerni, 
falcatos  enses,  et,  quae  Buxentia  pubes 
aptabat  dextris,  irrasae  robora  clavae. 
ipse,  humero  exsertus  gentili  more  parentum,        585 
difficili  gaudebat  equo  roburque  iuventae 
flexi  cornipedis  duro  exercebat  in  ore. 

Vos  etiam,  accisae  desolataeque  virorum 
Eridani  gentes,  nuUo  attendente  deorum 
votis  tunc  vestris,  casura  ruistis  in  arma.  590 

certavit  Mutinae  quassata  Placentia  bello  ; 

<*  The  Caudine  Forks  was  a  narrow  pass  in  which  a  Roman 
army  suiFered  an  ignominious  defeat  at  the  hands  of  the 
Samnites  in  321  b.c. 

*  It  was  a  custom  with  the  family  of  the  Cethegi  to  wear  no 
tunic  under  the  toga,  so  that  the  arms  were  bare. 

«  The  inhabitants  of  Cisalpine  Gaul,  on  both  sides  of  the 


PUNICA,  VIII.  564-591 

the  reapers  of  Batulum  and  Nucrae,  the  hunters  of 
Bovianum,  the  dwellers  in  the  gorge  of  Caudium,<» 
and  those  whom  Rufrae  or  Aesernia  or  unknown 
Herdonia  sent  from  her  untilled  fields. 

The  Bruttians,  inferior  to  none  in  spirit,  and  also 
the  men  called  forth  from  the  Lucanian  hills,  and  the 
Hirpini,  carried  pointed  weapons  and  were  shaggy 
with  the  hides  of  beasts.  They  get  their  living  by 
hunting  ;  they  live  in  the  forest,  and  slake  their 
thirst  in  the  rivers,  and  earn  their  sleep  by  toil. 

To  these  were  added  the  Calabrians,  and  the  troops 
of  Sallentia,  and  of  Brundisium  where  Italy  comes 
to  an  end.  These  troops  were  given  to  bold  Cethegus 
as  commander ;  and  he  reviewed  their  united 
strength,  not  broken  up  into  companies.  Here  men 
from  the  rocks  of  Leucosia  showed  themselves,  and 
those  whom  Picentia  sent  from  Paestum  ;  and  men 
of  Cerillae,  which  was  afterwards  depopulated  by  the 
enemy  ;  and  people  fed  by  the  water  of  the  Silarus, 
which  has  power,  men  say,  to  turn  into  stone  branches 
dipped  in  it.  Cethegus  praised  the  sickle-shaped 
swords  with  which  the  fighting  Salernians  are  armed, 
and  the  rough  oaken  clubs  which  the  men  of  Buxen- 
tum  suited  to  their  grasp.  He  himself,  with  his 
shoulder  bared  in  the  manner  of  his  fathers,^  took 
pleasure  in  his  unruly  steed,  and  exerted  his  youth- 
ful strength  in  forcing  the  hard-mouthed  horse  to 
turn  in  circles. 

Ye  too,  the  peoples  of  the  river  Po,  though  sore 
smitten  and  bereft  of  your  men,*'  rushed  forth  now 
to  battle  and  defeat,  and  no  god  hearkened  to  your 
prayers.     Placentia,  though  crippled  by  the  war,  vied 

Po,  had  suflfered  severely  from  Hannibal  on  his  first  arrival  in 



Mantua  mittenda  certavit  pube  Cremonae, 

Mantua,  Musarum  domus  atque  ad  sidera  cantu 

evecta  Aonio  et  Smyrnaeis  aemula  plectris. 

turn  Verona,  Athesi  circumflua,  et  undique  sellers  595 

arva  coronantem  nutrire  Faventia  pinum. 

Vercellae  fuscique  ferax  PoUentia  villi 

et,  quondam  Teucris  comes  in  Laurentia  bella, 

Ocni  prisca  domus  parvique  Bononia  Rheni. 

quique  gravi  remo,  limosis  segniter  undis,  600 

lenta  paludosae  proscindunt  stagna  Ravennae. 

turn  Troiana  manus,  tellure  antiquitus  orti 

Euganea  profugique  sacris  Antenoris  oris. 

necnon  cum  Venetis  Aquileia  superfluit  armis. 

tum  pernix  Ligus  et  sparsi  per  saxa  Vagenni  605 

in  decus  Hannibalis  duros  misere  nepotes. 

maxima  tot  populis  rector  fiducia  Brutus 

ibat  et  hortando  notum  accendebat  in  hostem. 

laeta  viro  gravitas  ac  mentis  amabile  pondus 

et  sine  tristitia  virtus  :  non  ille  rigoris  610 

ingratas  laudes  nee  nubem  frontis  amabat 

nee  famam  laevo  quaerebat  limite  vitae. 

Addiderat  ter  mille  viros,  in  Marte  sagittae 
expertos,  fidus  Sicula  regnator  ab  Aetna. 

<»  Mantua  was  the  birthplace  of  Virgil,  for  whom  Silius 
had  a  special  devotion.  wSmyrna  was  one  of  the  seven  cities 
which  claimed  to  be  the  birthplace  of  Homer. 

''  Aeneas  and  his  men. 

"  The  people  of  Patavium  (now  Padua)  are  meant  here : 
legend  said  that  Patavium  was  founded  after  the  Trojan  war 
by  Antenor,  who  expelled  the  original  inhabitants,  the 

"  Inhabitants  of  the  Riviera  are  meant, 



P  with   Ml 

PUNICA,  VIII.  692-614 

with  Mutina  ;  and  Cremona  sent  forth  her  sons  i  n 
rivalry  with  Mantua — Mantua,  the  home  of  the 
Muses,  raised  to  the  skies  by  immortal  verse,  and  a 
match  for  the  lyre  of  Homer.**  Men  came  from 
Verona  too,  round  which  flows  the  Athesis  ;  from 
Faventia,  skilful  to  nurture  the  pine-trees  that  grow 
everywhere  round  her  fields  ;  and  Vercellae,  with 
PoUentia  rich  in  dusky  fleeces  ;  and  Bononia  of  the 
little  Rhine  ;  the  ancient  seat  of  Ocnus,  which  went 
to  war  long  ago  with  the  Troj  ans  *  against  Laurentum. 
Then  came  the  men  of  Ravenna,  who  paddle  slowly 
with  heavy  oars  over  muddy  waters,  as  they  cleave 
the  stagnant  pools  of  their  marshes.  There  was  also 
a  band  of  Trojans,  coming  from  the  Euganean  country 
in  ancient  times  and  driven  forth  from  the  sacred  soil 
of  Antenor.*'  Aquileia  too  together  with  the  Veneti 
was  full  to  overflowing  with  troops.  The  active 
Ligurians,  and  the  Vagenni  <*  who  dwell  scattered 
among  rocks,  sent  their  hardy  sons  to  swell  the  triumph 
of  Hannibal.  All  these  peoples  had  Brutus  for  their 
leader  and  relied  entirely  upon  him  ;  and  his  appeals 
roused  their  spirit  against  a  foe  they  knew  already. 
Though  dignified,  Brutus  was  genial ;  his  powerful 
intellect  won  men's  hearts,  and  there  was  nothing 
forbidding  in  his  virtue.  To  wear  a  frowning  brow, 
or  win  a  thankless  reputation  for  severity,  was  not 
his  way  :  nor  did  he  court  notoriety  by  a  perverse 
course  of  life.* 

Three  thousand  men,  skilled  archers,  had  also  been 
sent  by  the  loyal  king  *  from  Etna  in  Sicily  ;    and 

•  It  is  a  plausible  suggestion  that  Stilus  here  describes  a 
later  Brutus,  the  friend  of  Cicero  and  conspirator  against 
Caesar  :   he  was  a  Stoic  without  the  asperities  of  Stoicism. 

'  Hiero  II.,  king  of  Syracuse. 



non  totidem  II va  viros,  sed  laetos  cingere  ferrum    615 
armarat  patrio,  quo  nutrit  bella,  metallo. 

Ignosset,  quamvis  avido  committere  pugnam, 
Varroni,  quicumque  simul  tot  tela  videret. 
tantis  agminibus  Rhoeteo  litore  quondam 
fervere,  cum  magnae  Troiam  invasere  Mycenae,    620 
mille  rates  vidit  Leandrius  Hellespontus. 

Ut  ventum  ad  Cannas,  urbis  vestigia  priscae, 
defigunt  diro  signa  infelicia  vallo. 
nee,  tanta  miseris  iamiam  impendente  ruina, 
cessarunt  superi  vicinas  prodere  clades.  625 

per  subitum  attonitis  pila  exarsere  maniplis, 
et  celsae  toto  ceciderunt  aggere  pinnae, 
nutantique  mens  prostravit  vertice  silvas 
Garganus,  fundoque  imo  mugivit  anhelans 
Aufidus,  et  magno  late  distantia  ponto  630 

terruerunt  pavidos  accensa  Ceraunia  nautas. 
quaesivit  Calaber,  subducta  luce  repente 
immensis  tenebris,  et  terram  et  litora  Sipus  ; 
obseditque  frequens  castrorum  limina  bubo, 
nee  densae  trepidis  apium  se  involvere  nubes         635 
cessarunt  aquilis  ;  non  unus  crine  corusco, 
regnorum  eversor,  rubuit  letale  cometes. 
castra  quoque  et  vallum  rabidae  sub  nocte  silent! 
irrupere  ferae  raptique  ante  ora  paventum 
adiunctos  vigilis  sparserunt  membra  per  agros.      640 
ludificante  etiam  terroris  imagine  somnos, 
Gallorum  visi  bustis  erumpere  manes  ; 

"  The  island  of  Elba,  to  which  Napoleon  was  banished. 

*  The  royal  city  of  Agamemnon. 

*  So  called  because  Leander  swam  across  it, 

«»  See  note  to  iv.  561.  *  See  note  to  v.  386. 

'  The    Greek  name  of  Sipontum,   a  harbour  south  of 
Mt.  Garganus. 

PUNICA,  VIII.   615-642 

Ilva  <*  had  armed  with  her  native  iron,  on  which  war 
thrives,  fewer  men,  but  all  of  them  eager  to  gird  on 
the  sword. 

Any  man  who  had  seen  so  great  an  army  mustered 
might  have  pardoned  Varro's  eagerness  to  fight  a 
battle.  In  ancient  times  when  great  Mycenae  * 
attacked  Troy,  Leander's "  Hellespont  saw  a  thousand 
ships  swarm  with  as  huge  a  host  on  the  shore  of 

When  the  Romans  reached  Cannae,  built  on  the 
site  of  a  former  city,  they  planted  their  doomed 
standards  on  a  rampart  of  evil  omen.  Nor,  when 
such  destruction  was  hanging  over  their  unhappy 
heads,  did  the  gods  fail  to  reveal  the  coming  disaster. 
Javehns  blazed  up  suddenly  in  the  hands  of  astounded 
soldiers  ;  high  battlements  fell  down  along  the  length 
of  the  ramparts  ;  Mount  Garganus,**  collapsing  with 
tottering  summit,  overset  its  forests ;  the  Aufidus 
rumbled  in  its  lowest  depths  and  roared ;  and 
far  away  across  the  sea  seamen  were  scared  by 
fire  burning  on  the  Ceraunian*  mountains.  Light 
was  suddenly  withdrawn,  and  the  Calabrian  mariners, 
plunged  in  darkness,  looked  in  vain  for  the  shore  and 
land  of  Sipus  ^ ;  and  many  a  screech-owl  beset  the 
gates  of  the  camp.  Thick  swarms  of  bees  constantly 
twined  themselves  about  the  terrified  standards,  and 
the  bright  hair  of  more  than  one  comet,  the  portent 
that  dethrones  monarchs,  showed  its  baleful  glare. 
Wild  beasts  also  in  the  silence  of  night  burst  through 
the  rampart  into  the  camp,  snatched  up  a  sentry 
before  the  eyes  of  his  frightened  comrades,  and 
scattered  his  limbs  over  the  adjacent  fields.  Sleep 
also  was  mocked  by  terrible  images  :  men  dreamt 
that  the  ghosts  of  the  Gauls  were  breaking  forth  from 



terque  quaterque  solo  penitus  tremuere  revulsae 
Tarpeiae  rupes,  atque  atro  sanguine  flumen 
manavit  lovis  in  templis,  lacrimaeque  vetusta        645 
effigie  patris  large  fluxere  Quirini. 
maior  et  horrificis  sese  extulit  Allia  ripis. 
non  Alpes  sedere  loco,  non  nocte  dieve 
ingentes  inter  stetit  Apenninus  hiatus, 
axe  super  medio,  Libyes  a  parte,  coruscae  650 

in  Latium  venere  faces,  ruptusque  fragore 
horrisono  polus,  et  vultus  patuere  Tonantis. 
Aetnaeos  quoque  contorquens  e  cautibus  ignes 
Vesvius  intonuit,  scopulisque  in  nubila  iactis 
Phlegraeus  tetigit  trepidantia  sidera  vertex.  655 

Ecce  inter  medios  belli  praesagus,  et  ore 
attonito  sensuque  simul,  clamoribus  implet 
miles  castra  feris  et  anhelat  clade  futura  : 
**  parcite,  crudeles  superi ;  iam  stragis  acervis 
deficiunt  campi ;  video  per  densa  volantem  660 

agmina  ductorem  Libyae  currusque  citatos 
arma  virum  super  atque  artus  et  signa  trahentem. 
turbinibus  furit  insanis  et  proelia  ventus 
inque  oculos  inque  ora  rotat.     cadit,  immemor  aevi, 
nequicquam,  Thrasymenne,  tuis  Servilius  oris         665 
subductus.     quo,  Varro,  fugis  ?     pro  lupiter  !  ictu 
procumbit  saxi,  fessis  spes  ultima,  Paulus. 
cesserit  huic  Trebia  exitio.     pons  ecce  cadentum 
corporibus  struitur,  ructatque  cadavera  fumans 
Aufidus,  ac  victrix  insultat  belua  campis.  670 

"  The  deified  Romulus. 

"  See  note  to  i.  547. 

*  For  Phlegra  see  note  to  iv.  275  :  Phlegraean  =  volcanic. 

^  The  dust  of  Cannae  is  historical :  blown  by  a  fierce  wind 
in  the  faces  of  the  Romans,  it  contributed  to  their  defeat: 
see  note  to  ix.  495. 

PUNICA,  VIII.  643-670 

their  graves.  Again  and  again  the  Tarpeian  rock 
was  shaken  and  wrenched  from  its  very  base  ;  a  dark 
stream  of  blood  flowed  in  the  temples  of  Jupiter  ;  and 
the  ancient  image  of  Father  Quirinus  <*  shed  floods  of 
tears.  The  Allia  *  rose  high  above  its  fatal  banks. 
The  Alps  did  not  keep  their  place,  and  the  Apennines 
were  never  still  day  or  night  among  their  vast  gorges. 
In  the  southern  sky,  bright  meteors  shot  against 
Italy  from  the  direction  of  Africa  ;  and  the  heavens 
burst  open  with  a  fearful  crash,  and  the  countenance 
of  the  Thunderer  was  revealed.  Vesuvius  also 
thundered,  hurling  flames  worthy  of  Etna  from  her 
cliffs  ;  and  the  fiery  ^  crest,  throwing  rocks  up  to  the 
clouds,  reached  to  the  trembling  stars. 

But  lo  !  in  the  midst  of  the  army  a  soldier  foretells 
the  battle.  With  distraction  in  his  aspect  and  his 
brain,  he  fills  the  camp  with  his  wild  shouting,  and 
gasps  as  he  reveals  coming  disaster  :  "  Spare  us,  ye 
cruel  gods  !  The  heaps  of  dead  are  more  than  the 
fields  can  contain  ;  I  see  Hannibal  speeding  through 
the  serried  ranks  and  driving  his  furious  chariot  over 
armour  and  human  hmbs  and  standards.  The  wind 
rages  in  wild  gusts,  and  drives  the  dust  ^  of  battle  in 
our  faces  and  eyes.  Servilius,*  careless  of  his  life, 
is  down  ;  his  absence  from  the  field  of  Trasimene  does 
not  help  him  now.  Whither  is  Varro  fleeing  ?  Ye 
gods  !  Paulus,  the  last  hope  of  despairing  men,  is 
struck  down  by  a  stone.  Trebia  cannot  rival  this 
destruction.  See  !  the  bodies  of  the  slain  form  a 
bridge,  and  reeking  Aufidus  belches  forth  corpses, 
and   the   huge  beast  ^  treads  the  plain   Wctorious. 

•  As  consul  in  the  previous  year  (217  b.c.)  he  had  imitated 
the  caution  of  Fabius. 
'  The  elephant. 



gestat  Agenoreus  nostro  de  more  secures 
consulis,  et  sparsos  lictor  fert  sanguine  fasces, 
in  Libyam  Ausonii  portatur  pompa  triumphi. 
o  dolor  !     hoc  etiam,  superi,  vidisse  iubetis  ? 
congesto,  laevae  quodcumque  avellitur,  auro  675 

metitur  Latias  victrix  Carthago  ruinas.'* 

"  To  prove  the  greatness  of  his  victory,  Hannibal  sent 
home  the  gold  rings  taken  from  the  corpses  of  the  Roman 


PUNICA,  VIII.   671-676 

The  Carthaginian  copies  us  and  carries  the  consul's 
axes,  and  his  lictors  bear  blood-stained  rods.  The 
triumphal  procession  of  the  Roman  passes  from  Rome 
to  Libya.  And,  O  grief! — do  the  gods  force  us  to 
witness  this  also  ?  —  victorious  Carthage  measures 
the  downfall  of  Rome  by  all  the  heap  of  gold  that  was 
torn  from  the  left  hands  of  the  slain."  <* 

nobles :  these  were  poured  out  in  the  Carthaginian  senate, 
and  filled  three  peck-measures,  according  to  some  authorities 
(Livy  xxiii.  12.  1).     See  xi.  532  foil. 



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Jackson.    4  Vols. 


Terence.    John  Sargeaunt.    2  Vols. 

Tertullian  :  Apologia  and  De  Spectaculis.    T.  R.  Glover ; 

MiNucius  Felix.    G.  H.  Rendall. 
Valerius  Flaccus.    J.  H.  Mozley. 
Varro  :   De  Lingua  Latina.    R.  G.  Kent.    2  Vols. 
Velleius    Paterculus    and    Res    Gestae    Divi    Augusti. 

F.  W.  Shipley. 
Virgil.    H.  R.  Fairclough.    2  Vols. 
ViTRUVius  :   De  Architectura.    F.  Granger.    2  Vols. 


Achilles  Tatius.    S.  Gaselee. 

Aelian  :  On  the  Nature  of  Animals.  A.  F.  Scholfield. 
3  Vols. 

Aeneas  Tacticus,  Asclepiodotus  and  Onasandeh.  The 
Illinois  Greek  Club. 

Aeschines.    C.  D.  Adams. 

Aeschylus.    H.  Weir  Smyth.    2  Vols. 

Alciphron,  Aelian  and  Philostratus  :  Letters.  A.  R, 
Benner  and  F.  H.  Fobes. 

Apollodorus.    Sir  James  G.  Frazer.    2  Vols. 

Apollonius  Rhodius.    R.  C.  Seaton. 

The  Apostolic  Fathers.    Kirsopp  Lake.    2  Vols. 

Appian's  Roman  History.    Horace  White.    4  Vols. 

Aratus.     Cf.  Callimachus. 

Aristophanes.  Benjamin  Bickley  Rogers.  3  Vols.  Verse 

Aristotle  :    Art  of  Rhetoric.    J.  H.  Freese. 

Aristotle  :  Athenian  Constitution,  Eudemian  Ethics, 
Virtues  and  Vices.    H.  Rackham. 

Aristotle  :    Generation  of  Animals.    A.  L.  Peck. 

Aristotle  :    Metaphysics.    H.  Tredennick.    2  Vols. 

Aristotle  :    Meteorologica.    H.  D.  P.  Lee. 

Aristotle  :  Minor  Works.  W.  S.  Hett.  "  On  Colours," 
"  On  Things  Heard,"  "  Physiognomies,"  "  On  Plants," 
"  On  Marvellous  Things  Heard,"  "  Mechanical  Problems," 
"  On  Indivisible  Lines,"  "  Situations  and  Names  of 
Winds,"  "  On  Melissus,  Xenophanes,  and  Gorgias." 

Aristotle  :   Nicomachean  Ethics.    H.  Rackham. 


Aristotle  :    Oeconomica   and   Magna   Mohalia.     G.  C. 

Armstrong.    (With  Metaphysics,  Vol.  II.) 
Aristotle  :   On  the  Heavens.    W.  K.  C.  Guthrie. 
Aristotle  :   On  the  Soul,  Pahva  Naturalia,  On  Breath. 

W.  S.  Hett. 
Aristotle:   The  Categories.    On  Interpretation.    H.  P. 

Cooke  ;   Prior  Analytics.    II.  Tredennick. 
Aristotle  :      Posterior     Analytics.       H.     Tredennick ; 

Topics.    E.  S.  Forster. 
Aristotle  :   Sophistical  Refutations.    Comino-to-be  and 

Passing-away.     E.  S.  Forster.     On  the  Cosmos.     D.  J. 

Aristotle  :  Parts  of  Animai^.    A.  L.  Peck  ;   Motion  and 

Progression  of  Animals.    E.  S.  Forster. 
Aristotle  :   Physics.    Rev.  P.  Wicksteed  and  F.  M.  Corn- 
ford.    2  Vols. 
Aristotle  :     Poetics  ;     Longinus   on   the  SuoLiarE.     W. 

Hamilton  Fyfe  ;  Demetrius  on  Style.    W.  Rhys  Roberts. 
Aristotle:    Politics.    H.  Rackham. 
Aristotle  :   Problems.    W.  S.  Hett.    2  Vols. 
Aristotle:    Rhetorica  ad  Alexandrum.     H.  Rackham. 

(With  Problems,  Vol.  II.) 
Arhian  :    History  of  Alexander  and  Indica.     Rev.  E. 

Iliffe  Robson.    2  Vols. 
Athenaeus  :   Deipnosopiiistae.    C.  B.  Gulick.    7  Vols. 
St.  Basil  :   Letters.    R.  J.  Deferrari.    4  Vols. 
Callimachus  :   Fragments.    C.  A.  Trypanis. 
Callimachus  :     Hymns    and    Epigrams,    and    Lycopiibon. 

A.  W.  Mair  ;   Aratus.    G.  R.  Mair. 
Clement  of  Alexandria.    Rev.  G.  W.  Butterworth. 

COLLUTHUS.       Cf.  OpPIAN. 

Daphnis  and  Chloe.     C/.  Longus. 

Demosthenes    I  :     Olynthiacs,    Philippics    and    Minor 

Orations  :   I-XVH  and  XX.    J.  H.  Vince. 
Demosthenes  II  :    De  Corona  and  De  Falsa  Leoationk. 

C.  A.  Vince  and  J.  H.  Vince. 
Demosthenes   III  :     Meidias,   Androtion,   Ahistochates, 

TiMocRATES,  Aristogeiton.    J.  H.  Vincc. 
Demosthenes  IV-VI  :   Private  Orations  and  In  Neaebasc 

A.  T.  Murray. 
Demosthenes    VII  :      Funeral    Speech,    Erotic    Essay, 

Exordia  and  Letters.    N.  W.  and  N.  J.  DeWitL 
Dio  Cassius  :   Roman  History.    E.  Gary.    9  Vola. 


Dio  Chrysostom.    5  Vols.    Vols.  I  and  II.    J.  W.  Cohoon. 

Vol.  III.    J.  W.  Cohoon  and  H.  Lamar  Crosby.    Vols.  IV 

and  V.    H.  Lamar  Crosby. 
DiODORUs  SicuLus.     12  Vols.    Vols.  I-VI.    C.  H.  Oldfather. 

Vol.  VII.    C.  L.  Sherman.    Vols.  IX  and  X.     Russel  M. 

Geer.    Vol.  XI.    F.  R.  Walton. 
Diogenes  Laertius.    R.  D.  Hicks.    2  Vols. 
DioNYSius  OF  Halicarnassus  :    Roman  Antiquities.     Spel- 

man's  translation  revised  by  E.  Cary.    7  Vols. 
Epictetus.    \V.  A.  Oldfather.    2  Vols. 
Euripides.    A.  S.  Way.    4  Vols.  Verse  trans. 
EusEBius  :     Ecclesiastical   History.      Kirsopp   Lake   and 

J.  E.  L.  Oulton.    2  Vols. 
Galen  :    On  the  Natural  Faculties.    A.  J.  Brock. 
The  Greek  Anthology.    W.  R.  Paton.    5  Vols. 
The  Greek  Bucolic  Poets  (Theocritus,  Bion,  Moschus). 

J.  M.  Edmonds. 
Greek  Elegy  and  Iambus  with  the  Anacreontea.     J.  M. 

Edmonds.    2  Vols. 
Greek  Mathematical  Works.    Ivor  Thomas.    2  Vols. 
Herodes.     Cf.  Theophrastus  :    Characters. 
Herodotus.    A.  D.  Godley.    4  Vols. 
Hesiod  and  the  Homeric  Hymns.    H.  G.  Evelyn  White. 
Hippocrates  and  the  Fragments  of  Heracleitus.  W.  H.  S. 

Jones  and  E.  T.  Withington.    4  Vols. 
Homer  :   Iliad.    A.  T.  Murray.    2  Vols. 
Homer  :   Odyssey.    A.  T.  Murray.    2  Vols. 
IsAEUS.    E.  S.  Forster. 

I  SOCRATES.    George  Norlin  and  LaRue  Van  Hook.    3  Vols. 
St.  John  Damascene  :    Barlaam  and  Ioasaph.    Rev.  G.  R. 

Woodward  and  Harold  Mattingly. 
JosEPHUS.    H.  St.  J.  Thackeray  and  Ralph  Marcus.    9  Vols. 

Vols.  I-VH. 
Julian.    Wilmer  Cave  Wright.    3  Vols. 
Longus  :     Daphnis    and    Chloe.      Thornley's    translation 

revised  by  J.  M.  Edmonds;  and  Pahthenius.    S.  Gaselee. 
LuciAN.     8  Vols.     Vols.  I-V.     A.  M.  Harmon;    Vol.  VI. 

K.  Kilburn;  Vol.  VIII.    M.  D.  Macleod. 
Lycophron.     Cf.  Callimachus. 
Lyra  Graeca.    J.  M.  Edmonds.    3  Vols. 
Lysias.    W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Manetho.    W.  G.  Waddell ;  Ptolemy  :  Tetrabiblos.  F.  E, 




Marcus  Aurelius.    C.  R.  Haines. 

Menander.    F.  G.  Allinson. 

Minor  Attic  Orators.     2   Vols.     K.  J.   Maidment  and 

J.  O.  Burtt. 
NoNNos  :   DioNYSiACA.    W.  H.  D.  Rouse.    3  Vols. 
Oppian,  Colluthus,  Tryphiodorus.    a.  W.  Main 
Papyri.    Non-Literary  Selections.    A.  S.  Hunt  and  C.  C. 

Edgar.    2  Vols.     Literary  Selections  (Poetry).     D.  L. 

Partiienius.    Cf.  Long  us. 
Pausanias  :    Description  of  Greece.     W.  H.  S.  Jones.    5 

Vols,  and  Companion  Vol.  arranged  by  R.  E.  Wycher- 

Philo.     10  Vols.    Vols.  I-V.    F.  H.  Colson  and  Rev.  G.  H. 

Whitaker  ;   Vols.  VI-IX.    F.  H.  Colson. 

Two   Supplementary   Vols.      Translation   only   from   an 
Armenian  Text.    Ralph  Marcus. 
Philostratus  :    Imagines  ;    Callistratus  :    Descriptions. 

A.  Fairbanks. 

Philostratus  :   The  Life  of  Apollonius  of  Tyana.    F.  C. 

Conybeare.    2  Vols. 
Philostratus    and    Eunapius  :     Lives    of   the   Sophists, 

Wilmer  Cave  Wright. 
Pindar.    Sir  J.  E.  Sandys. 
Plato  :   Charmides,  Alcibiades,  Hipparchus,  The  Lontirs, 

Theages,  Minos  and  Epinomis.  W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :   Cratylus,  Parmenides,  Greater  Hippias,  Lesser 

HippiAS.    H.  N.  Fowler. 
Plato  :   Euthyphro,  Apology,  Crito,  Phaedo,  Phaedrus. 

H.  N.  Fowler. 
Plato  :      Laches,      Protagoras,      Meno,      Eutiiydemus. 

W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :   Laws.    Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.    2  Vols. 
Plato  :    Lysis,  Symposium,  Gorgias.    W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :    Republic.    Paul  Shorey.    2  Vols. 
Plato  :     Statesman,    Phileous.       H.    N.    Fowler ;      Ion. 

W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :   Theaetetus  and  Sophist.    H.  N.  Fowler. 
Plato  :     Timaeus,    Critias,   Clitopho,    Menexenus,    Epi- 

STULAE.    Rev.  R.  G.  Burv. 
Plutarch  :   Moralia.    15  Vols.    Vols.  I-V.    F.  C.  Babbitt ; 

Vol.VL    W.  C.  Helmbold  ;  Vol.  VII.    P.  H.  De  Lacy  and 

B.  Einarson ;  Vol.  IX.    E.  L.  Minar,  Jr.,  F.  H.  Sandbach, 


W.  C.  Helmbold  ;  Vol.  X.  H.  N.  Fowler  ;  Vol.  XII.  H. 
Cherniss  and  W.  C.  Helmbold. 

Plutarch  :   The  Parallel  Lives.     B.  Perrin.     11  Vols. 

PoLYBius.    W.  R.  Paton.    6  Vols. 

Procopius  :   History  of  the  Wars.    H.  B.  Dewing.    7  Vols. 

Ptolemy  :   Tetrabiblos.     Cf.  Manetho. 

QuiNTus  Smyrnaeus.    a.  S.  Way.    Verse  trans. 

Sextus  Empiricus.    Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.    4  Vols. 

Sophocles.    F.  Storr.    2  Vols.    Verse  trans. 

Strabo  :   Geography.    Horace  L.  Jones.    8  Vols. 

Theophrastus  :  Characters.  J.  M.  Edmonds  ;  Herodes, 
etc.    A.  D.  Knox. 

Theophrastus  :  Enquiry  into  Plants.  Sir  Arthur  Hort. 
2  Vols. 

Thucydides.    C.  F.  Smith.    4  Vols. 

Tryphiodorus.     Cf.  Oppian. 

Xenophon  :   Cyropaedia.    Walter  Miller.    2  Vols. 

Xenophon  :  Hellenica,  Anabasis,  Apology,  and  Sympo- 
sium.   C.  L.  Brownson  and  O.  J.  Todd.    3  Vols. 

Xenophon  :  Memorabilia  and  Oeconomicus.  E.  C.  Mar- 

Xenophon  :   Scripta  Minora.    E.  C.  Marchant. 



Aristotle  :    History  of  Animals.    A.  L.  Peck, 
Plotinus.    a.  H.  Armstrong. 


Babrius  and  Phaedrus.    B.  E.  Perry. 





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